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Index Numismatics

Numismatics is the study or collection of currency, including coins, tokens, paper money, and related objects. [1]

314 relations: Adam Eckfeldt, Adolf Soetbeer, American Numismatic Association, American Numismatic Society, Amsterdam, Ancient Greek coinage, Andrea Fulvio, Andreas Alföldi, Anselmo Banduri, Antonio Salinas, Argentina, Armenia, Ashmolean Museum, Asunción, Athens, Auction catalog, Augusto Carlos Teixeira de Aragão, Augustus, Austria, Awards for numismatics, Bahrain, Banco do Brasil, Bandar Seri Begawan, Bangkok, Bangladesh, Bank of Canada Museum, Bank of England Museum, Bank of Italy, Banknote, Barber Institute of Fine Arts, Barcelona, Bartolomeo Borghesi, Beijing, Belgium, Belgrade, Berlin, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Birmingham, Bode Museum, Bogotá, Bond (finance), Brasília, Brazil, Brigham Young University, British Academy, British Museum Department of Coins and Medals, Brunei, Brussels, Bucharest, Budapest, ..., Bulgaria, Cabinet des Médailles, Cambridge, Camillo Serafini, Canada, Carlo Ottavio, Count Castiglione, Casa de Moneda de Colombia, Casa de Moneda de la República Argentina, Celestino Cavedoni, Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago, Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles Seltman, Charles Surasky, Chennai, China, Churchill Babington, Cigarette, Citadel of Raymond de Saint-Gilles, Claude Gros de Boze, Coin, Coin catalog, Coin collecting, Coin grading, Colombia, Colorado Springs, Colorado, Commodity money, Copenhagen, Costa Rica, Cowry, Credit, Credit card, Cuba, Currency, David Hendin, Debt, Denmark, Desiré-Raoul Rochette, Dhaka, Dmitry Sontsov, Doha, Dresden, Economy, Eduard Rüppell, Elongated coin, Engraving, Eric P. Newman, Exchange rate, Exonumia, Farouk of Egypt, Federal Territories (Malaysia), Feodosia, Feodosia Money Museum, Fiat money, Fitzwilliam Museum, Florence, France, Francesco Carelli, Francesco Gnecchi, Frankfurt, Frédéric Soret, French language, G. Kenneth Jenkins, Gemstone, Gene Hessler, Georg Zoëga, Georges Bataille, Georgia (country), Germany, Giuseppe Fiorelli, Glasgow, Glossary of numismatics, Gold, Goods, Greece, Greek language, Guatemala, Guatemala City, Guido Bruck, Guillaume Budé, Gustave Schlumberger, Harold Mattingly, Havana, Helen Wang, Henry Cohen (numismatist), Henry IV of France, Hermitage Museum, History Museum of Armenia, Horse, Hungarian National Bank, Hungary, Hunterian Museum and Art Gallery, India, Indonesia, Israel, Israel Museum, Itaú Cultural, Italy, Jakarta, Japan, Jena, Jerusalem, Joachim II Hector, Elector of Brandenburg, Joan Clarke, Joaquín Rubio y Muñoz, Joe Cribb, Joel L. Malter, Johann Gustav Stickel, Johannesburg, Joseph Pellerin, Julius Friedländer (numismatist), Karachi, Kathmandu, Košice, Kraków, Kuala Lumpur, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Kyrgyz people, Late Latin, Latinisation of names, Lebanon, Legal tender, Leper colony money, Lima, Lisbon, List of most expensive coins, List of numismatic collections, List of numismatic journals, London, Louis Robert (historian), Louis XIV of France, Lucca, Madrid, Malaysia, Manama, Manchester, Manchester Museum, Manila, Manilla (money), Marion Archibald, Martin Folkes, Martin Price, Medal, Mexico, Mexico City, Mint-made errors, Money, Money creation, MoneyMuseum (Zurich), Monnaie de Paris, Montevideo, Mumbai, Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya, Museum Island, Naples, National Archaeological Museum (Florence), National Archaeological Museum, Naples, National Bank of Georgia, National Historical Museum (Brazil), National Museum of American History, National Museum of Denmark, National Museum of Nepal, National Museum, New Delhi, National Numismatic Collection, Nepal, Netherlands, New Delhi, Nicola Francesco Haym, Notaphily, Notgeld, Numismatic associations, Numismatic Museum of Athens, Numismatist (specialist), Odessa, Odessa Numismatics Museum, Oluf Gerhard Tychsen, Oriental Coin Cabinet Jena, Osmund Bopearachchi, Ottawa, Oxford, Pakistan, Paraguay, Paramaribo, Paris, Pavilion of Regalia, Royal Decorations and Coins, Payment, Peru, Petrarch, Philip Grierson, Philippines, Poland, Pope Boniface VIII, Port of Spain, Portugal, Precious metal, Purbalingga Regency, Qatar, Raffaele Garrucci, Rai stones, Renaissance, Republic of Macedonia, Retiro, Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro, Romania, Rome, Royal Coin Cabinet, Royal Numismatic Society, Russia, Saint Petersburg, San José, Costa Rica, Saturnalia, São Paulo, Scarcity, Scripophily, Serbia, Shanghai, Shanghai Museum, Sheepskin, Silk Road numismatics, Silver, Simone Assemani, Singapore, Skopje, Slovakia, Sofia, South Africa, Spain, Stefan Heidemann, Stephan Endlicher, Stock, Stockholm, Studien zu Fundmünzen der Antike, Suetonius, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Sylloge of Coins of the British Isles, Tbilisi, Thailand, Théophile Marion Dumersan, Theodor Mommsen, Token coin, Tokyo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tripoli, Lebanon, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, University of Birmingham, Uppsala, Uppsala University Coin Cabinet, Uruguay, Vatican City, Vienna, Volatility (finance), Walter H. Breen, Washington, D.C., Where's George?, Where's Willy?, Wooden nickel, World Money Fair, World War II, Yerevan, Zürich. Expand index (264 more) »

Adam Eckfeldt

John Adam Eckfeldt (June 15, 1769 – February 6, 1852; usually Adam Eckfeldt) was a worker and official in the early days of the United States Mint.

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Adolf Soetbeer

Adolf Soetbeer (23 November 1814 – 22 October 1892) was a German economist, born at Hamburg.

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American Numismatic Association

The American Numismatic Association (ANA) is a Colorado Springs, Colorado organization founded in 1891 by Dr.

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American Numismatic Society

The American Numismatic Society (ANS) is a New York City-based organization dedicated to the study of coins and medals.

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Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.

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Ancient Greek coinage

The history of ancient Greek coinage can be divided (along with most other Greek art forms) into four periods, the Archaic, the Classical, the Hellenistic and the Roman.

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Andrea Fulvio

Andrea Fulvio (in his Latin publications and correspondence Andreas Fulvius; c. 1470–1527) was an Italian Renaissance humanist, poet and antiquarian active in Rome, who advised Raphael in the reconstructions of ancient Rome as settings for his frescoes.

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Andreas Alföldi

András (Andreas) Ede Zsigmond Alföldi (27 August 1895 – 12 February 1981) was a Hungarian historian, art historian, epigraphist, numismatist and archaeologist, specializing in the Late Antique period.

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Anselmo Banduri

Anselmo Banduri (18 August 1671 or 1675 – 4 January 1743) was a Benedictine scholar, archaeologist and numismatologist from the Republic of Ragusa.

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Antonio Salinas

Antonio Salinas is a Mexican dancer, choreographer and stage actor.

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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.

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Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.

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Ashmolean Museum

The Ashmolean Museum (in full the Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology) on Beaumont Street, Oxford, England, is the world's first university museum.

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Asunción is the capital and largest city of Paraguay.

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Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.

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Auction catalog

An auction catalog (US spelling) or auction catalogue (British spelling) is a catalogue that lists items to be sold at an auction.

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Augusto Carlos Teixeira de Aragão

Augusto Carlos Teixeira de Aragão • • • (Lisbon, June 15, 1823 - Lisbon, April 29, 1903) was a Portuguese Army officer, doctor, numismatist, archaeologist and historian.

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Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.

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Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.

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Awards for numismatics

There are numerous awards and prizes for significant contributions to the field of numismatics.

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Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.

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Banco do Brasil

Banco do Brasil S.A. (Bank of Brazil) is the second largest bank by assets in Brazil and all of Latin America.

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Bandar Seri Begawan

Bandar Seri Begawan (Jawi: بندر سري بڬاوان) (formerly known as Brunei Town) is the capital city of the Sultanate of Brunei.

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Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of the Kingdom of Thailand.

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Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.

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Bank of Canada Museum

The Bank of Canada Museum (since July 2017), formerly known as Canada's Currency Museum, opened in 1980 on the ground floor of the Bank of Canada building in Ottawa.

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Bank of England Museum

The Bank of England Museum is located within the Bank of England in the City of London.

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Bank of Italy

Headquarters in Rome The Bank of Italy, known in Italian as Banca d'Italia, also known as Bankitalia, is the central bank of Italy and part of the European System of Central Banks.

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A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand.

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Barber Institute of Fine Arts

The Barber Institute of Fine Arts is an art gallery and concert hall in Birmingham, England.

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Barcelona is a city in Spain.

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Bartolomeo Borghesi

Bartolomeo (also Bartolommeo) Borghesi (11 July 178116 April 1860) was an Italian antiquarian who was a key figure in establishing the science of numismatics.

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Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.

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Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.

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Belgrade (Beograd / Београд, meaning "White city",; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.

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Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.

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Bibliothèque nationale de France

The (BnF, English: National Library of France) is the national library of France, located in Paris.

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Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England, with an estimated population of 1,101,360, making it the second most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Bode Museum

The Bode Museum is one of the group of museums on the Museum Island in Berlin, Germany.

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Bogotá, officially Bogotá, Distrito Capital, abbreviated Bogotá, D.C., and formerly known as Santafé de Bogotá between 1991 and 2000, is the capital and largest city of Colombia, administered as the Capital District, although often thought of as part of Cundinamarca.

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Bond (finance)

In finance, a bond is an instrument of indebtedness of the bond issuer to the holders.

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Brasília is the federal capital of Brazil and seat of government of the Federal District.

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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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Brigham Young University

Brigham Young University (BYU, sometimes referred to colloquially as The Y) is a private, non-profit research university in Provo, Utah, United States completely owned by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormon Church) and run under the auspices of its Church Educational System.

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British Academy

The British Academy is the United Kingdom's national academy for the humanities and the social sciences.

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British Museum Department of Coins and Medals

The British Museum Department of Coins and Medals is a department of the British Museum involving the collection, research and exhibition of numismatics, and comprising the largest library of numismatic artefacts in the United Kingdom, including almost one million coins, medals, tokens and other related objects.

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Brunei, officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace (Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi), is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia.

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Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.

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Bucharest (București) is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre.

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Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.

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Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.

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Cabinet des Médailles

The Cabinet des Médailles,The patriotic Cabinet de France, less redolent of Bourbons, was affected during republican phases of the 19th century and as late as World War I. more formally known as Département des Monnaies, Médailles et Antiques de la Bibliothèque nationale de France, is a department of the Bibliothèque nationale de France in Paris.

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Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.

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Camillo Serafini

Camillo Serafini was an Italian Marquis and the only Governor of Vatican City from 11 February 1929 – 31 March 1952.

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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Carlo Ottavio, Count Castiglione

Count Carlo Ottavio Castiglioni (1784-1849) was an Italian philologist and numismatist.

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Casa de Moneda de Colombia

The Casa de Moneda de Colombia (Spanish for Colombian mint) is a Colombian currency museum based in the city of Bogotá.

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Casa de Moneda de la República Argentina

The Casa de Moneda de la República Argentina is the Argentine mint, controlled by the Argentine government and administratively subordinated to the Ministry of Economy.

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Celestino Cavedoni

Celestino Cavedoni (18 May 1795 at Levizzano-Rangone, near Modena – 26 November 1865 in Modena) was an Italian ecclesiastic, archeologist, and numismatist.

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Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago

The Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago is the Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago.

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Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor

Charles IV (Karel IV., Karl IV., Carolus IV; 14 May 1316 – 29 November 1378Karl IV. In: (1960): Geschichte in Gestalten (History in figures), vol. 2: F-K. 38, Frankfurt 1963, p. 294), born Wenceslaus, was a King of Bohemia and the first King of Bohemia to also become Holy Roman Emperor.

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Charles Seltman

Charles Theodore Seltman PhD (4 August 1886 – 28 June 1957) was an English art historian and writer particularly in the area of numismatics.

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Charles Surasky

Charles Surasky is an expert numismatist with a special interest in postal notes.

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Chennai (formerly known as Madras or) is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Churchill Babington

Churchill Babington (11 March 182112 January 1889) was an English classical scholar, archaeologist and naturalist.

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A cigarette is a narrow cylinder containing tobacco that is rolled into thin paper for smoking.

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Citadel of Raymond de Saint-Gilles

The Citadel of Raymond de Saint-Gilles, also known as Qala'at Sanjil an Qala'at Tarablus in Arabic, is a citadel and fort on a hilltop in Tripoli, Lebanon.

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Claude Gros de Boze

Claude Gros de Boze (28 January 1680 – 10 September 1753) was a French scholar and numismatist.

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A coin is a small, flat, (usually) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender.

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Coin catalog

A coin catalog (or coin catalogue) is a listing of coin types.

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Coin collecting

Coin collecting is the collecting of coins or other forms of minted legal tender.

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Coin grading

Coin grading is the process of determining the grade or condition of a coin, one of the key factors in determining its value.

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Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.

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Colorado Springs, Colorado

Colorado Springs is a home rule municipality that is the largest city by area in Colorado as well as the county seat and the most populous municipality of El Paso County, Colorado, United States.

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Commodity money

Commodity money is money whose value comes from a commodity of which it is made.

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Copenhagen (København; Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.

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Costa Rica

Costa Rica ("Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.

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Cowry or cowrie, plural cowries, is the common name for a group of small to large sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Cypraeidae, the cowries.

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Credit (from Latin credit, "(he/she/it) believes") is the trust which allows one party to provide money or resources to another party where that second party does not reimburse the first party immediately (thereby generating a debt), but instead promises either to repay or return those resources (or other materials of equal value) at a later date.

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Credit card

A credit card is a payment card issued to users (cardholders) to enable the cardholder to pay a merchant for goods and services based on the cardholder's promise to the card issuer to pay them for the amounts so paid plus the other agreed charges.

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Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.

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A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.

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David Hendin

David Bruce Hendin (born December 16, 1945) is an expert American numismatist specializing in ancient Jewish and Biblical coins and their archaeology.

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Debt is when something, usually money, is owed by one party, the borrower or debtor, to a second party, the lender or creditor.

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Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.

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Desiré-Raoul Rochette

Desiré-Raoul Rochette (March 6, 1790 – July 3, 1854), was a French archaeologist.

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Dhaka (or; ঢাকা); formerly known as Dacca is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh.

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Dmitry Sontsov

Dmitri Petrovich Sontsov (Дмитрий Петрович Сонцов; 1803 – 1875) was one of the first Russian numismatists.

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Doha (الدوحة, or ad-Dōḥa) is the capital and most populous city of the State of Qatar.

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Dresden (Upper and Lower Sorbian: Drježdźany, Drážďany, Drezno) is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany.

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An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents.

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Eduard Rüppell

Wilhelm Peter Eduard Simon Rüppell (20 November 1794 – 10 December 1884) was a German naturalist and explorer.

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Elongated coin

An elongated coin (or pressed penny) is one that has been flattened or stretched, and embossed with a new design.

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Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, usually flat surface by cutting grooves into it.

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Eric P. Newman

Eric Pfeiffer Newman (May 25, 1911 – November 15, 2017) was an American numismatist.

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Exchange rate

In finance, an exchange rate is the rate at which one currency will be exchanged for another.

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Exonumia are numismatic items (such as tokens, medals, or scrip) other than coins and paper money.

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Farouk of Egypt

Farouk I (فاروق الأول Fārūq al-Awwal; 11 February 1920 – 18 March 1965) was the tenth ruler of Egypt from the Muhammad Ali dynasty and the penultimate King of Egypt and the Sudan, succeeding his father, Fuad I, in 1936.

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Federal Territories (Malaysia)

The Federal Territories (Wilayah Persekutuan) in Malaysia comprise three territories: Kuala Lumpur, Putrajaya and Labuan, governed directly by the federal government of Malaysia.

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Feodosia (Феодо́сия, Feodosiya; Феодо́сія, Feodosiia; Crimean Tatar and Turkish: Kefe), also called Theodosia (from), is a port and resort, a town of regional significance in Crimea on the Black Sea coast.

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Feodosia Money Museum

The Feodosia Museum of Money (Феодосийский музей денег is a currency museum in Feodosia, Crimea. It was established on July 15, 2003. The opening ceremony took place on August 22, 2003. The activities of the Feodosia Museum of Money are aimed at the study and popularization of the knowledge relating to coin-striking in Feodosia.

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Fiat money

Fiat money is a currency without intrinsic value that has been established as money, often by government regulation.

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Fitzwilliam Museum

The Fitzwilliam Museum is the art and antiquities museum of the University of Cambridge, located on Trumpington Street opposite Fitzwilliam Street in central Cambridge, England.

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Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Francesco Carelli

Francesco Carelli (8 October 1758 in Conversano – 17 September 1832 in Naples) was an administrative officer of the Kingdom of Naples and an important numismatist, coin collector and antiquarian.

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Francesco Gnecchi

Francesco Gnecchi (8 September 1847, Milan – 15 June 1919, Rome) was an Italian painter and numismatist.

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Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.

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Frédéric Soret

Frédéric Soret (12 May 1795 in Saint Petersburg – 18 December 1865 at Plainpalais in Geneva), Swiss private scholar in physics and Oriental numismatics.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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G. Kenneth Jenkins

Gilbert Kenneth Jenkins (2 July 1918 – 22 May 2005) was a leading figure in 20th-century numismatics.

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A gemstone (also called a gem, fine gem, jewel, precious stone, or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral crystal which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments.

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Gene Hessler

Gene Hessler (born July 13, 1928) is an American musician and numismatist, specialising in paper money.

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Georg Zoëga

Jørgen Zoëga (20 December 1755 – 10 February 1809) was a Danish archaeologist and numismatist; born at Daler near Tønder, near the west coast of northern Schleswig.

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Georges Bataille

Georges Albert Maurice Victor Bataille (10 September 1897 – 9 July 1962) was a French intellectual and literary figure working in literature, philosophy, anthropology, economics, sociology and history of art.

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Georgia (country)

Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Giuseppe Fiorelli

Giuseppe Fiorelli (8 June 1823 – 28 January 1896) was an Italian archaeologist.

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Glasgow (Glesga; Glaschu) is the largest city in Scotland, and third most populous in the United Kingdom.

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Glossary of numismatics

This article is a collection of Numismatic and coin collecting terms with concise explanation for the beginner or professional.

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Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.

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In economics, goods are materials that satisfy human wants and provide utility, for example, to a consumer making a purchase of a satisfying product.

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No description.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.

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Guatemala City

Guatemala City (Ciudad de Guatemala), locally known as Guatemala or Guate, officially Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción (New Guatemala of the Assumption), is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Guatemala, and the most populous in Central America.

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Guido Bruck

Guido Bruck (11 November 1920, Vienna – 13 March 1966, Melk) was an Austrian Numismatist In 1948, he obtained his Doctorate in Philosophy.

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Guillaume Budé

Guillaume Budé (Guilielmus Budaeus; 26 January 146723 August 1540) was a French scholar.

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Gustave Schlumberger

Léon Gustave Schlumberger (17 October 1844 – 9 May 1929) was a French historian and numismatist who specialised in the era of the crusades and the Byzantine Empire.

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Harold Mattingly

Harold Mattingly (1884 - 26 January 1964) was a British art historian and numismatist, who specialised in the history of Ancient Rome, especially Etruscan and Roman currency.

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Havana (Spanish: La Habana) is the capital city, largest city, province, major port, and leading commercial center of Cuba.

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Helen Wang

Helen Kay Wang (born 1965) is an English sinologist and translator.

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Henry Cohen (numismatist)

Henry Cohen (Amsterdam, 21 April 1806 – Paris, 17 May 1880), was a French numismatist, bibliographer and composer.

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Henry IV of France

Henry IV (Henri IV, read as Henri-Quatre; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithet Good King Henry, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610.

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Hermitage Museum

The State Hermitage Museum (p) is a museum of art and culture in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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History Museum of Armenia

The History Museum of Armenia is a museum in Armenia with departments of Archaeology, Numismatics, Ethnography, Modern History and Restoration.

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The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.

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Hungarian National Bank

The Hungarian National Bank (Magyar Nemzeti Bank (MNB)) is the central bank of Hungary and as such part of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB).

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Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.

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Hunterian Museum and Art Gallery

The University of Glasgow's Hunterian is the oldest museum in Scotland.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.

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Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Israel Museum

The Israel Museum (מוזיאון ישראל, Muze'on Yisrael) was established in 1965 as Israel's national museum.

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Itaú Cultural

Instituto Itaú Cultural is a Brazilian not-for-profit cultural institute owned by Itaú Unibanco.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Jakarta, officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta (Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia.

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Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Jena is a German university city and the second largest city in Thuringia.

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Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.

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Joachim II Hector, Elector of Brandenburg

Joachim II (Joachim II Hector or Hektor; 13 January 1505 – 3 January 1571) was a Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg (1535–1571), the sixth member of the House of Hohenzollern.

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Joan Clarke

Joan Elisabeth Lowther Murray, MBE (née Clarke; 24 June 1917 – 4 September 1996) was an English cryptanalyst and numismatist best known for her work as a code-breaker at Bletchley Park during the Second World War.

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Joaquín Rubio y Muñoz

Joaquín Rubio y Muñoz (27 July 1788 – 30 November 1874) was a Spanish lawyer who was a noted antiquarian and numismatist in the city of Cádiz, Spain.

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Joe Cribb

Joe Cribb is a numismatist, specialising in Asian coinages, and in particular on coins of the Kushan Empire.

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Joel L. Malter

Joel Lawrence Malter (May 9, 1931-June 5, 2006), an internationally known dealer in ancient coins and antiquities, became a recognized expert, scholar and pioneer in these fields.

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Johann Gustav Stickel

Johann Gustav Stickel (7 July 1805 – 21 January 1896) was a German theologian, orientalist and numismatist.

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Johannesburg (also known as Jozi, Joburg and Egoli) is the largest city in South Africa and is one of the 50 largest urban areas in the world.

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Joseph Pellerin

Joseph Pellerin (1684–1783) was a French Intendant-General of the Navy, first Commissioner of the Navy as well as a celebrated numismatic pioneer.

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Julius Friedländer (numismatist)

Eduard Julius Theodor Julius Friedländer (June 25, 1813 – April 4, 1884) was a German numismatist.

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Karachi (کراچی; ALA-LC:,; ڪراچي) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Sindh.

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Kathmandu (काठमाडौं, ये:. Yei, Nepali pronunciation) is the capital city of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal.

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Košice is the largest city in eastern Slovakia and in 2013 was the European Capital of Culture (together with Marseille, France).

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Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.

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Kuala Lumpur

Kuala Lumpur, officially the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur (Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur), or commonly known as KL, is the national capital of Malaysia as well as its largest city in the country.

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Kunsthistorisches Museum

The Kunsthistorisches Museum ("Museum of Art History", also often referred to as the "Museum of Fine Arts") is an art museum in Vienna, Austria.

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Kyrgyz people

The Kyrgyz people (also spelled Kyrghyz and Kirghiz) are a Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily Kyrgyzstan.

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Late Latin

Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of Late Antiquity.

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Latinisation of names

Latinisation or Latinization is the practice of rendering a non-Latin name (or word) in a Latin style.

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Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.

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Legal tender

Legal tender is a medium of payment recognized by a legal system to be valid for meeting a financial obligation.

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Leper colony money

Leper colony money was special money (scrip or vouchers) which circulated only in leper colonies (sanatoriums for people with leprosy) due to the fear that money could carry leprosy and infect other people.

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Lima (Quechua:, Aymara) is the capital and the largest city of Peru.

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Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.

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List of most expensive coins

The following list is a chart of the most expensive coins.

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List of numismatic collections

Many history and cultural museums have large numismatic collections (coins, money, and tokens).

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List of numismatic journals

This is a list of magazines and academic journals that focus on numismatics.

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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Louis Robert (historian)

Louis Robert (Laurière, 15 February 1904 - Paris, 31 May 1985) was a professor of Greek history and Epigraphy at the Collège de France, and author of many volumes and articles on Greek epigraphy (of all periods, from the archaic period to Late Antiquity), numismatics, and the historical geography of Greek lands.

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Louis XIV of France

Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.

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Lucca is a city and comune in Tuscany, Central Italy, on the Serchio, in a fertile plain near the Tyrrhenian Sea.

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Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.

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Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.

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Manama (المنامة Bahrani pronunciation) is the capital and largest city of Bahrain, with an approximate population of 157,000 people.

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Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.

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Manchester Museum

Manchester Museum is a museum displaying works of archaeology, anthropology and natural history and is owned by the University of Manchester, in England.

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Manila (Maynilà, or), officially the City of Manila (Lungsod ng Maynilà), is the capital of the Philippines and the most densely populated city proper in the world.

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Manilla (money)

Manillas are a form of money, usually made of bronze or copper, which were used in West Africa.

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Marion Archibald

Marion MacCallum Archibald (1935-23 April 2016) was a British numismatist, author and for 33-years a curator at the British Museum.

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Martin Folkes

Martin Folkes PRS FRS (29 October 1690 – 28 June 1754), was an English antiquary, numismatist, mathematician, and astronomer.

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Martin Price

Martin Jessop Price (27 March 1939 – 28 April 1995) was a British numismatist who was made a Merit Deputy Keeper of the British Museum in 1978, a corresponding member of the German Archaeological Institute and was a visiting fellow at the Institute of Advanced Studies at Princeton University, 1986-87.

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A medal or medallion is a small portable artistic object, a thin disc, normally of metal, carrying a design, usually on both sides.

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Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.

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Mexico City

Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.

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Mint-made errors

Mint-made errors are errors in a coin made by the mint during the minting process.

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Money is any item or verifiable record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a particular country or socio-economic context.

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Money creation

Money creation is the process by which the money supply of a country, or of an economic or monetary region,Such as the Eurozone or ECCAS is increased.

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MoneyMuseum (Zurich)

The Zurich-based MoneyMuseum is a private museum that focuses critically on monetary history and the future of money.

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Monnaie de Paris

The Monnaie de Paris (Paris Mint) is a government-owned institution responsible for producing France's euro coins.

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Montevideo is the capital and largest city of Uruguay.

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Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.

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Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya

The Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya (English: "National Art Museum of Catalonia"), abbreviated as MNAC, is the national museum of Catalan visual art located in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

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Museum Island

Museum Island (Museumsinsel) is the name of the northern half of an island in the Spree river in the central Mitte district of Berlin, Germany, the site of the old city of Cölln.

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Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.

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National Archaeological Museum (Florence)

The National Archaeological Museum of Florence (Italian – Museo archeologico nazionale di Firenze) is an archaeological museum in Florence, Italy.

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National Archaeological Museum, Naples

The National Archaeological Museum of Naples (italic, sometimes abbreviated to MANN) is an important Italian archaeological museum, particularly for ancient Roman remains.

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National Bank of Georgia

National Bank of Georgia (საქართველოს ეროვნული ბანკი, Sakartvelos Erovnuli Bank’i) is the central bank of Georgia.

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National Historical Museum (Brazil)

The National Historical Museum of Brazil (Museu Histórico Nacional), was created in 1922, and possesses over 287,000 items, including the largest numismatic collection of Latin America.

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National Museum of American History

The National Museum of American History: Kenneth E. Behring Center collects, preserves, and displays the heritage of the United States in the areas of social, political, cultural, scientific, and military history.

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National Museum of Denmark

The National Museum of Denmark (Nationalmuseet) in Copenhagen is Denmark’s largest museum of cultural history, comprising the histories of Danish and foreign cultures, alike.

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National Museum of Nepal

The National Museum of Nepal (Rashtriya Sangrahalaya) is a popular attraction of the capital city of Kathmandu.

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National Museum, New Delhi

The National Museum in New Delhi, also known as the National Museum of India, is one of the largest museums in India.

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National Numismatic Collection

The National Numismatic Collection is the national coin cabinet of the United States.

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Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.

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The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.

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New Delhi

New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of Government of India.

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Nicola Francesco Haym

Nicola Francesco Haym (6 July 1678 – 31 July 1729) was an Italian opera librettist, composer, theatre manager and performer, and numismatist.

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Notaphily is the study and collection of paper currency, and banknotes.

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Notgeld (German for "emergency money" or "necessity money") refers to money issued by an institution in a time of economic or political crisis.

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Numismatic associations

Numismatic associations bring together groups of numismatists.

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Numismatic Museum of Athens

The Numismatic Museum in Athens (Νομισματικό Μουσείο) is one of the most important museums of Greece and houses one of the greatest collections of coins, ancient and modern, in the world.

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Numismatist (specialist)

A numismatist is a specialist in numismatics ("of coins"; from Late Latin numismatis, genitive of numisma).

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Odessa (Оде́са; Оде́сса; אַדעס) is the third most populous city of Ukraine and a major tourism center, seaport and transportation hub located on the northwestern shore of the Black Sea.

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Odessa Numismatics Museum

The Odessa Numismatics Museum (Одеський музей нумізматики, translit., Одесский музей нумизматики, translit.) is a currency museum in Ukraine.

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Oluf Gerhard Tychsen

Oluf (Olaus) Gerhard Tychsen (December 14, 1734, Tønder, then Schleswig, now Denmark – December 30, 1815, Rostock, then Mecklenburg-Schwerin, now Germany) was a German Orientalist and Hebrew scholar.

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Oriental Coin Cabinet Jena

Oriental Coin Cabinet Jena (Orientalisches Münzkabinett Jena) is a collection of oriental coins at Jena University, in Jena, Germany, founded in 1840.

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Osmund Bopearachchi

Osmund Bopearachchi (born 1949) is a Sri Lankan historian and numismatist who has been specializing in the coinage of the Indo-Greek and Greco-Bactrian kingdoms.

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Ottawa is the capital city of Canada.

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Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.

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Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.

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Paramaribo (nickname: Par′bo) is the capital and largest city of Suriname, located on the banks of the Suriname River in the Paramaribo District.

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Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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Pavilion of Regalia, Royal Decorations and Coins

The Pavilion of Regalia, Royal Decorations and Coins is a museum showcasing Regalia, Royal Thai Decorations of the early period, Ancient Thai money and Ornaments used in the royal courts, etc.

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A payment is the trade of value from one party (such as a person or company) to another for goods, or services, or to fulfill a legal obligation.

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Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.

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Francesco Petrarca (July 20, 1304 – July 18/19, 1374), commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was a scholar and poet of Renaissance Italy who was one of the earliest humanists.

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Philip Grierson

Philip Grierson, FBA (15 November 1910 – 15 January 2006) was a British historian and numismatist, emeritus professor of numismatics at Cambridge University and a fellow of Gonville and Caius College for over seventy years.

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The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

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Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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Pope Boniface VIII

Pope Boniface VIII (Bonifatius VIII; born Benedetto Caetani (c. 1230 – 11 October 1303), was Pope from 24 December 1294 to his death in 1303. He organized the first Catholic "jubilee" year to take place in Rome and declared that both spiritual and temporal power were under the pope's jurisdiction, and that kings were subordinate to the power of the Roman pontiff. Today, he is probably best remembered for his feuds with King Philip IV of France, who caused the Pope's death, and Dante Alighieri, who placed the pope in the Eighth Circle of Hell in his Divine Comedy, among the simoniacs.

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Port of Spain

Port of Spain (also spelled Port-of-Spain) is the capital city of Trinidad and Tobago and the country's third-largest city, after Chaguanas and San Fernando.

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Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.

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Precious metal

A precious metal is a rare, naturally occurring metallic chemical element of high economic value.

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Purbalingga Regency

Purbalingga Regency is a regency (kabupaten) in the southwestern part of Central Java province in Indonesia.

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Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Raffaele Garrucci

Raffaele Garrucci (b. Naples, 22 January 1812; d. Rome, 5 May 1885) was a historian of Christian art.

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Rai stones

Rai, or stone money (raay), are more than 6,000 large, circular stone disks carved out of limestone formed from aragonite and calcite crystals.

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The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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Republic of Macedonia

Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Retiro, Buenos Aires

Retiro is a barrio (district) in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

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Rio de Janeiro

Rio de Janeiro (River of January), or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas.

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Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

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Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).

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Royal Coin Cabinet

The Royal Coin Cabinet (Kungliga Myntkabinettet) is a museum located on Slottsbacken, Gamla stan, in central Stockholm, Sweden, dedicated to the history of money and economic history in general.

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Royal Numismatic Society

The Royal Numismatic Society (RNS) is a learned society and charity based in London, United Kingdom which promotes research into all branches of numismatics.

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Saint Petersburg

Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).

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San José, Costa Rica

San José (literally meaning "Saint Joseph") is the capital and largest city of Costa Rica.

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Saturnalia was an ancient Roman festival in honour of the god Saturn, held on 17 December of the Julian calendar and later expanded with festivities through to 23 December.

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São Paulo

São Paulo is a municipality in the southeast region of Brazil.

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Scarcity refers to the limited availability of a commodity, which may be in demand in the market.

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Scripophily is the study and collection of stock and bond certificates.

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Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.

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Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.

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Shanghai Museum

The Shanghai Museum is a museum of ancient Chinese art, situated on the People's Square in the Huangpu District of Shanghai, China.

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Sheepskin is the hide of a sheep, sometimes also called lambskin.

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Silk Road numismatics

Silk Road Numismatics is a special field within Silk Road studies and within numismatics.

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Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.

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Simone Assemani

Simone Assemani (1752–1820), grand-nephew of Giuseppe Simone Assemani, was born in Rome.

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Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.

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Skopje (Скопје) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Macedonia.

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Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.

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Sofia (Со́фия, tr.) is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria.

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South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.

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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Stefan Heidemann

Stefan Heidemann (born 1961 in Versmold in Westphalia) is a German orientalist at Hamburg University, Hamburg.

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Stephan Endlicher

Stephan Ladislaus Endlicher also known as Endlicher István László (24 June 1804, Pressburg (Bratislava) – 28 March 1849, Vienna) was an Austrian botanist, numismatist and Sinologist.

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The stock (also capital stock) of a corporation is constituted of the equity stock of its owners.

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Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.

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Studien zu Fundmünzen der Antike

Studien zu Fundmünzen der Antike is a monograph series covering the analysis of ancient coin finds in an archaeological context.

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Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, commonly known as Suetonius (c. 69 – after 122 AD), was a Roman historian belonging to the equestrian order who wrote during the early Imperial era of the Roman Empire.

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Suriname (also spelled Surinam), officially known as the Republic of Suriname (Republiek Suriname), is a sovereign state on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America.

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Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum

Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum (SNG) is a project to publish ancient Greek coinage, founded in Great Britain by the British Academy in 1930.

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Sylloge of Coins of the British Isles

The Sylloge of the Coins of the British Isles (SCBI) is an ongoing project to publish all major museum collections and certain important private collections of British coins.

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Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.

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Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.

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Théophile Marion Dumersan

Théophile Marion Dumersan (4 January 1780, Plou, Cher – 13 April 1849, Paris) was a French writer of plays, vaudevilles, poetry, novels, chanson collections, librettos, and novels, as well as a numismatist and curator attached to the Cabinet des médailles et antiques of the Bibliothèque royale.

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Theodor Mommsen

Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen (30 November 1817 – 1 November 1903) was a German classical scholar, historian, jurist, journalist, politician and archaeologist.

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Token coin

In the study of numismatics, token coins or trade tokens are coin-like objects used instead of coins.

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, officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and has been the capital since 1869.

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Trinidad and Tobago

Trinidad and Tobago, officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island sovereign state that is the southernmost nation of the West Indies in the Caribbean.

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Tripoli, Lebanon

Tripoli (طرابلس / ALA-LC: Ṭarābulus; Lebanese Arabic: Ṭrāblos; Trablusşam) is the largest city in northern Lebanon and the second-largest city in the country.

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Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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University of Birmingham

The University of Birmingham (informally Birmingham University) is a public research university located in Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

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Uppsala (older spelling Upsala) is the capital of Uppsala County and the fourth largest city of Sweden, after Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö.

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Uppsala University Coin Cabinet

The Uppsala University Coin Cabinet is one of Sweden's most important public coin and medal collections, and housed in the Gustavianum, the former main building of Uppsala University.

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Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a sovereign state in the southeastern region of South America.

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Vatican City

Vatican City (Città del Vaticano; Civitas Vaticana), officially the Vatican City State or the State of Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano; Status Civitatis Vaticanae), is an independent state located within the city of Rome.

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Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.

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Volatility (finance)

In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns.

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Walter H. Breen

Walter H. Breen Jr. (September 5, 1928 – April 27, 1993) was an American numismatist, writer and convicted child sex offender, and the husband of author Marion Zimmer Bradley.

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Washington, D.C.

Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.

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Where's George?

Where's George? is a website that tracks the natural geographic circulation of American paper money.

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Where's Willy?

Where's Willy? is a website that tracks Canadian paper money — most commonly $5 bills, but also higher denominations.

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Wooden nickel

In the United States, a wooden nickel is a wooden token coin, usually issued by a merchant or bank as a promotion, sometimes redeemable for a specific item such as a drink.

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World Money Fair

The World Money Fair is an international bourse of coins.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Yerevan (Երևան, sometimes spelled Erevan) is the capital and largest city of Armenia as well as one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.

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Zürich or Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Numismatics

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