443 relations: Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Actinobacteria, Adenosine triphosphate, Adolf Windaus, Aga Khan Foundation, Albert Szent-Györgyi, Albrecht von Haller, Alcmaeon of Croton, Alpha-Linolenic acid, American Cancer Society, American Society for Nutrition, Amino acid, Anaxagoras, Andreas Vesalius, Anemia, Antioxidant, Antoine Lavoisier, Arthritis, Assimilation (biology), Autoclave, Auxology, B vitamins, Babylon, Bacteroidetes, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Bioenergetics, Biosynthesis, Bipolar disorder, Black pepper, Bleeding, Blood pressure, Blood sugar level, Book of Daniel, Boron deficiency (medicine), Bread, Breastfeeding, British Dietetic Association, Butter, C-SPAN, Cabbage, Calcium, Calcium carbonate, Calorie, Canada's Food Guide, Cancer, Carbohydrate, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbonic anhydrase, Carboxypeptidase, ..., Cardiovascular disease, Carl von Voit, Carnivore, Casimir Funk, Catabolism, Catalysis, Cato the Elder, Celsus, Centrifugation, Chemical element, Chemistry, Childhood obesity, China, Chloride, Chlorine, Cholesterol, Christiaan Eijkman, Chromium, Chromium deficiency, Chronic condition, Cirrhosis, Citric acid cycle, Classical element, Claude Bernard, Cloning, Cobalt, Cofactor (biochemistry), Combustion, Complete protein, Confusion, Congenital iodine deficiency syndrome, Conjugated linoleic acid, Conservation of mass, Constipation, Copper, Correlation does not imply causation, Cytochrome c oxidase, Dehydration, Diabetes mellitus, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diarrhea, Diet (nutrition), Dietary fiber, Dietary Reference Intake, Dietary supplement, Dieting, Dietitian, Digestion, Disaccharide, Docosahexaenoic acid, Double bond, Drying, Eating, Eating disorder, Ebers Papyrus, Edward Mellanby, Edwin B. Hart, Eicosanoid, Eicosapentaenoic acid, Electrolyte, Elmer McCollum, Elsie Widdowson, Emaciation, Empty calorie, England and Wales, Enzyme, Erewhon, Erhard Fernholz, Essential amino acid, Essential fatty acid, Eugen Baumann, Eugene Floyd DuBois, European Food Safety Authority, Excretion, Exercise, Expeller pressing, Extract, Fast food, Fat, Fatigue, Fatty acid, Fatty acid desaturase, Feces, Ficus, Firmicutes, Fish oil, Folate, Food, Food and Agriculture Organization, Food Balance Wheel, Food choice of older adults, Food fortification, Food group, Food processing, Food pyramid (nutrition), Food studies, Foodborne illness, Four temperaments, François Magendie, Frederick Gowland Hopkins, Fructolysis, Fruit, Functional food, Galen, Gas, General fitness training, George Fordyce, Gerrit Grijns, Glucagon, Gluconeogenesis, Glucose, Glycemic index, Glycemic load, Glycerol, Glycogen, Goitre, Gout, Grain, Gristmill, Gut flora, Health, Health Canada, Health professional, Healthy diet, Healthy eating pyramid, Heart arrhythmia, Hemoglobin, Herbivore, Heresy, Herman Boerhaave, HFE hereditary haemochromatosis, Hippocrates, Hippocratic Corpus, History of USDA nutrition guides, Homeostasis, Hormone, Human body weight, Humorism, Hydrogen, Hydrogen ion, Hydrogenation, Hyperinsulinemia, Hyperkalemia, Hypernatremia, Hypertension, Hypervitaminosis A, Hypervitaminosis D, Hypokalemia, Hyponatremia, Hypotension, Hypothalamus, Hypothyroidism, Index of topics related to life extension, Indigestion, Industrial Revolution, Infant formula, Inflammation, Inorganic compound, Inositol, Insulin, Insulin resistance, International Agency for Research on Cancer, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Iodine, Iodine deficiency, Iodised salt, Ion, Ion exchange, Iron, Iron deficiency, James Lind, Jan Baptist van Helmont, Java, Jean-Baptiste Dumas, Jean-Pierre Thiollet, Jews, Joule, Junk food, Justus von Liebig, Keratin, Kidney stone disease, Kwashiorkor, Lafayette Mendel, Lard, Laryngospasm, Leaf, Legume, Leonardo da Vinci, Leptin, Lesion, Liebig's Extract of Meat Company, Liebig's law of the minimum, Life extension, Lime (fruit), Linoleic acid, Linseed oil, Lipid, Lipophilicity, Liquor, List of antioxidants in food, List of diets, List of food additives, List of phytochemicals in food, List of unrefined sweeteners, Louis Pasteur, Magnesium, Magnesium deficiency (medicine), Major depressive disorder, Mali, Malnutrition, Manganese, Marasmus, Marcus Aurelius, Marguerite Davis, Marion Nestle, Max Rubner, Meat, Mechanics, Megavitamin therapy, Metabolic syndrome, Metabolism, Metal, Michael Pollan, Micronutrient, Microtrauma, Mineral (nutrient), Mitosis, Moderation, Molybdenum, Monomer, Monosaccharide, Muscle, MyPlate, MyPyramid, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Nausea, Nerve, Niacin, Nitrogen, Nitrogen fixation, Nobel Prize, Noodle, Nootropic, Nutraceutical, Nutrient, Nutrition psychology, Nutrition scale, Nutritional rating systems, Nutritionism, Nutritionist, Nyctalopia, Obesity, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Olive oil, Omega-3 fatty acid, Omega-6 fatty acid, Onion, Order of Saint Benedict, Organic chemistry, Orthomolecular medicine, Osteoporosis, Outline of food preparation, Outline of human anatomy, Oxygen, Oyster, Palatability, Palpitations, Pancreatitis, Paracelsus, Pasteurization, Paul Glewwe, Paul Karrer, Pellagra, Pergamon, Peristalsis, Peroxidase, Personal and Social Education, Perspiration, Phlogiston theory, Phosphorus, Photosynthesis, Phylum, Physical fitness, Physiology, Phytochemical, Plum, Pneuma, Polyphenol, Polysaccharide, Polyuria, Potassium, Potato, Prebiotic (nutrition), Pregnancy, Preterm birth, Probiotic, Prostaglandin, Protein, Protein (nutrient), Protein combining, Protein poisoning, Proteobacteria, Proton pump, Prune, Psychology, Pump, Punicic acid, Qi, Quantitative research, Rationing in the United Kingdom, Redox, Regimen sanitatis Salernitanum, Riboflavin, Rice, Rickets, Robert Boyle, Rome, Root, Root hair, Salt, Salting (food), Santorio Santorio, Saturated fat, Schizophrenia, Schola Medica Salernitana, Science, Scurvy, Selenium, Single-grain experiment, Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior, Sodium, Sodium chloride, Soil, Starvation, Stephen Moulton Babcock, Stillbirth, Stoma, Stroke, Stunted growth, Substrate (chemistry), Sulfur, Table of food nutrients, Takaki Kanehiro, Teacher, Technology, Tetany, Thiamine, Thiamine deficiency, Thomas Burr Osborne (chemist), Thrombus, Thyroid hormones, Tissue hydration, Tocopherol, Trans fat, Triglyceride, Trousseau sign of latent tetany, Tryptophan, Ultraviolet, United States Department of Agriculture, United States Department of Health and Human Services, University of Oxford, Unsaturated fat, Urine, Veganism, Vegetable, Vegetarianism, Visual impairment, Vitamin, Vitamin A, Vitamin B12, Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia, Vitamin C, Vitamin C megadosage, Vitamin D, Vitamin D deficiency, Vitamin deficiency, Vitamin E, Vitamin K, Vomiting, Walter Gratzer, Wasting, Water, Water vapor, Whole-wheat flour, William Cumming Rose, William Prout, World Health Organization, Wu Xing, Xanthine oxidase, Xerophthalmia, Zinc, 5 A Day. Expand index (393 more) » « Shrink index
Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics is the United States' largest organization of food and nutrition professionals, and represents over 100,000 credentialed practitioners — registered dietitian nutritionists, dietetic technicians, registered, and other dietetics professionals holding undergraduate and advanced degrees in nutrition and dietetics.
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The Actinobacteria are a phylum of Gram-positive bacteria.
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Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
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Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus (25 December 1876 – 9 June 1959) was a German chemist who won a Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1928 for his work on sterols and their relation to vitamins.
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Aga Khan Foundation
The Aga Khan Foundation (AKF) is a private, not-for-profit international development agency, which was founded in 1967 by Prince Shah Al Hussaini, Aga Khan IV.
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Albert Szent-Györgyi von Nagyrápolt (nagyrápolti Szent-Györgyi Albert; September 16, 1893 – October 22, 1986) was a Hungarian biochemist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1937.
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Albrecht von Haller
Albrecht von Haller (also known as Albertus de Haller) (16 October 170812 December 1777) was a Swiss anatomist, physiologist, naturalist, encyclopedist, bibliographer and poet.
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Alcmaeon of Croton
Alcmaeon of Croton (in Magna Graecia) (Ἀλκμαίων ὁ Κροτωνιάτης, Alkmaiōn, gen.: Ἀλκμαίωνος; 5th century BC) has been described as one of the most eminent natural philosophers and medical theorists of antiquity.
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α-Linolenic acid (ALA) is an n−3 fatty acid.
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American Cancer Society
The American Cancer Society (ACS) is a nationwide voluntary health organization dedicated to eliminating cancer.
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American Society for Nutrition
The American Society for Nutrition (ASN) is an American society for professional researchers and practitioners in the field of nutrition.
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Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
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Anaxagoras (Ἀναξαγόρας, Anaxagoras, "lord of the assembly"; BC) was a Pre-Socratic Greek philosopher.
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Andreas Vesalius (31 December 1514 – 15 October 1564) was a 16th-century Flemish anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body).
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Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
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Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.
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Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution;; 26 August 17438 May 1794) CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) was a French nobleman and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.
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Arthritis is a term often used to mean any disorder that affects joints.
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Biological assimilation, or bio-assimilation, is the combination of two processes to supply cells with nutrients.
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An autoclave is a pressure chamber used to carry out industrial processes requiring elevated temperature and pressure different from ambient air pressure.
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Auxology, sometimes called auxanology (from Greek αὔξω, auxō, or αὐξάνω, auxanō, "grow"; and -λογία, -logia), is a meta-term covering the study of all aspects of human physical growth.
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B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism.
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Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
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The phylum Bacteroidetes is composed of three large classes of Gram-negative, nonsporeforming, anaerobic or aerobic, and rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in the environment, including in soil, sediments, and sea water, as well as in the guts and on the skin of animals.
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Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), also known as the Gates Foundation, is a private foundation founded by Bill and Melinda Gates.
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Bioenergetics is a field in biochemistry and cell biology that concerns energy flow through living systems.
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Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
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Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
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Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning, known as a peppercorn.
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Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.
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Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
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Blood sugar level
The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.
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Book of Daniel
The Book of Daniel is a biblical apocalypse, combining a prophecy of history with an eschatology (the study of last things) which is both cosmic in scope and political in its focus.
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Boron deficiency (medicine)
Boron deficiency is a pathology which may occur in animals due to a lack of boron.
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Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking.
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Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.
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British Dietetic Association
The British Dietetic Association (BDA) is a professional association and trade union for dietitians in the United Kingdom.
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Butter is a dairy product containing up to 80% butterfat (in commercial products) which is solid when chilled and at room temperature in some regions and liquid when warmed.
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C-SPAN, an acronym for Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network, is an American cable and satellite television network that was created in 1979 by the cable television industry as a public service.
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Cabbage or headed cabbage (comprising several cultivars of Brassica oleracea) is a leafy green, red (purple), or white (pale green) biennial plant grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads.
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Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
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Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.
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A calorie is a unit of energy.
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Canada's Food Guide
Canada's Food Guide is a nutrition guide produced by Health Canada.
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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
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A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
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Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
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Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
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The carbonic anhydrases (or carbonate dehydratases) form a family of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion between carbon dioxide and water and the dissociated ions of carbonic acid (i.e. bicarbonate and protons).
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A carboxypeptidase (EC number 3.4.16 - 3.4.18) is a protease enzyme that hydrolyzes (cleaves) a peptide bond at the carboxy-terminal (C-terminal) end of a protein or peptide.
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
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Carl von Voit
Carl von Voit (31 October 1831 – 31 January 1908) was a German physiologist and dietitian.
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A carnivore, meaning "meat eater" (Latin, caro, genitive carnis, meaning "meat" or "flesh" and vorare meaning "to devour"), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.
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Kazimierz Funk (February 23, 1884 – November 19, 1967 Casimir Funk A Biographical Sketch (1884–1967). Journal of Nutrition 1972 Sep;102(9):1105–13.. Available from: http://jn.nutrition.org/content/102/9/1105.full.pdf), commonly anglicized as Casimir Funk, was a Polish biochemist, generally credited with being among the first to formulate (in 1912) the concept of vitamins, which he called "vital amines" or "vitamines".
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Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.
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Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
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Cato the Elder
Cato the Elder (Cato Major; 234–149 BC), born and also known as (Cato Censorius), (Cato Sapiens), and (Cato Priscus), was a Roman senator and historian known for his conservatism and opposition to Hellenization.
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Celsus (Κέλσος. Kélsos) was a 2nd-century Greek philosopher and opponent of early Christianity.
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Centrifugation is a technique which involves the application of centrifugal force to separate particles from a solution according to their size, shape, density, viscosity of the medium and rotor speed.
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A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
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Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
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Childhood obesity is a condition where excess body fat negatively affects a child's health or well-being.
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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
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The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
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Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
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Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
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Christiaan Eijkman (11 August 1858 – 5 November 1930) was a Dutch physician and professor of physiology whose demonstration that beriberi is caused by poor diet led to the discovery of antineuritic vitamins (thiamine).
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Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
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Chromium deficiency is described as the consequence of an insufficient dietary intake of the mineral chromium.
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A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.
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Cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage.
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Citric acid cycle
The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
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Classical elements typically refer to the concepts in ancient Greece of earth, water, air, fire, and aether, which were proposed to explain the nature and complexity of all matter in terms of simpler substances.
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Claude Bernard (12 July 1813 – 10 February 1878) was a French physiologist.
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Cloning is the process of producing genetically identical individuals of an organism either naturally or artificially.
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Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
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A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.
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Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
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A complete protein (or whole protein) is a source of protein that contains an adequate proportion of all nine of the essential amino acids necessary for the dietary needs of an organism.
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Confusion (from Latin confusĭo, -ōnis, from confundere: "to pour together;" "to mingle together;" "to confuse") is the state of being bewildered or unclear in one’s mind about something.
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Congenital iodine deficiency syndrome
Congenital iodine deficiency syndrome, previously known as Cretinism, is a condition of severely stunted physical and mental growth owing to untreated congenital deficiency of thyroid hormone (congenital hypothyroidism) usually owing to maternal hypothyroidism.
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Conjugated linoleic acid
Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are a family of at least 28 isomers of linoleic acid found mostly in the meat and dairy products derived from ruminants.
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Conservation of mass
The law of conservation of mass or principle of mass conservation states that for any system closed to all transfers of matter and energy, the mass of the system must remain constant over time, as system's mass cannot change, so quantity cannot be added nor removed.
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Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.
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Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
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Correlation does not imply causation
In statistics, many statistical tests calculate correlations between variables and when two variables are found to be correlated, it is tempting to assume that this shows that one variable causes the other.
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Cytochrome c oxidase
The enzyme cytochrome c oxidase or Complex IV, is a large transmembrane protein complex found in bacteria, archaea, and in eukaryotes in their mitochondria.
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In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.
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Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
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Diabetes mellitus type 2
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.
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Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
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In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.
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Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants.
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Dietary Reference Intake
The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies (United States).
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A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.
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Dieting is the practice of eating food in a regulated and supervised fashion to decrease, maintain, or increase body weight, or to prevent and treat diseases, such as diabetes.
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A dietitian (or dietician) is an expert in dietetics; that is, human nutrition and the regulation of diet.
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Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
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A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or bivose) is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides (simple sugars) are joined by glycosidic linkage.
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Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 fatty acid that is a primary structural component of the human brain, cerebral cortex, skin, and retina.
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A double bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two.
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Drying is a mass transfer process consisting of the removal of water or another solvent by evaporation from a solid, semi-solid or liquid.
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Eating (also known as consuming) is the ingestion of food, typically to provide a heterotrophic organism with energy and to allow for growth.
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An eating disorder is a mental disorder defined by abnormal eating habits that negatively affect a person's physical or mental health.
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The Ebers Papyrus, also known as Papyrus Ebers, is an Egyptian medical papyrus of herbal knowledge dating to circa 1550 BC.
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Sir Edward Mellanby (8 April 1884 – 30 January 1955) discovered vitamin D and its role in preventing rickets in 1919.
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Edwin B. Hart
Edwin Bret Hart (December 25, 1874 – March 12, 1953) was an American biochemist long associated with the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
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Eicosanoids are signaling molecules made by the enzymatic or non-enzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid or other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that are, similar to arachidonic acid, 20 carbon units in length.
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Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; also icosapentaenoic acid) is an omega-3 fatty acid.
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An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
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Elmer Verner McCollum (March 3, 1879 – November 15, 1967) was an American biochemist known for his work on the influence of diet on health.
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Elsie Widdowson (21 October 1906 – 14 June 2000), was a British dietitian and nutritionist She and Dr Robert McCance were responsible for overseeing the government-mandated addition of vitamins to food and wartime rationing in Britain during World War II.
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Emaciation is defined as extreme weight loss and unnatural thinness due to a loss of subcutaneous fat (the fatty, or adipose tissue beneath the skin) and muscle throughout the body.
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In human nutrition, the term empty calories applies to foods and beverages composed primarily or solely of sugar, fats or oils, or alcohol-containing beverages.
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England and Wales
England and Wales is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom.
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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
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Erewhon: or, Over the Range is a novel by Samuel Butler which was first published anonymously in 1872.
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Erhard Fernholz (born Friedrich August Erhard Fernholz on June 9, 1909 in Hiddenhausen, Westphalia (Germany) died December 14, 1940 in Princeton, New Jersey (USA)) was a German chemist and investigator of sterols and bile acids.
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Essential amino acid
An essential amino acid, or indispensable amino acid, is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized ''de novo'' (from scratch) by the organism, and thus must be supplied in its diet.
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Essential fatty acid
Essential fatty acids, or EFAs, are fatty acids that humans and other animals must ingest because the body requires them for good health but cannot synthesize them.
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Eugen Baumann (12 December 1846 – 3 November 1896) was a German chemist.
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Eugene Floyd DuBois
Eugene Floyd DuBois (June 4, 1882 – February 12, 1959) was an American physician and teacher, remembered for his work on the physiology of fever and heat production.
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European Food Safety Authority
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is the agency of the European Union (EU) that provides independent scientific advice and communicates on existing and emerging risks associated with the food chain.
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Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.
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Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.
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Expeller pressing (also called oil pressing) is a mechanical method for extracting oil from raw materials trademarked by Anderson International Corp.
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An extract is a substance made by extracting a part of a raw material, often by using a solvent such as ethanol or water.
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Fast food is a mass-produced food that is typically prepared and served quicker than traditional foods.
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Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
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Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
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In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
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Fatty acid desaturase
A fatty acid desaturase is an enzyme that removes two hydrogen atoms from a fatty acid, creating a carbon/carbon double bond.
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Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
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Ficus is a genus of about 850 species of woody trees, shrubs, vines, epiphytes and hemiepiphytes in the family Moraceae.
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The Firmicutes (Latin: firmus, strong, and cutis, skin, referring to the cell wall) are a phylum of bacteria, most of which have Gram-positive cell wall structure.
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Fish oil is oil derived from the tissues of oily fish.
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Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.
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Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.
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Food and Agriculture Organization
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
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Food Balance Wheel
The Food Balance Wheel suggests an alternate interpretation of the USDA Food Guide Pyramid recommendations for balanced eating.
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Food choice of older adults
Food preferences in older adults and seniors takes into consideration how people's experiences change with aging; that is, including conditions like taste, diet (nutrition) and food choice.
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Food fortification or enrichment is the process of adding micronutrients (essential trace elements and vitamins) to food.
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A food group is a collection of foods that share similar nutritional properties or biological classifications.
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Food processing is the transformation of cooked ingredients, by physical or chemical means into food, or of food into other forms.
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Food pyramid (nutrition)
A food pyramid or diet pyramid is a triangular diagram representing the optimal number of servings to be eaten each day from each of the basic food groups.
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Food studies is the critical examination of food and its contexts within science, art, history, society, and other fields.
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Foodborne illness (also foodborne disease and colloquially referred to as food poisoning) is any illness resulting from the food spoilage of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites that contaminate food, as well as toxins such as poisonous mushrooms and various species of beans that have not been boiled for at least 10 minutes.
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The Four temperament theory is a proto-psychological theory that suggests that there are four fundamental personality types: sanguine, choleric, melancholic, and phlegmatic.
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François Magendie (6 October 1783 – 7 October 1855) was a French physiologist, considered a pioneer of experimental physiology.
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Frederick Gowland Hopkins
Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins (20 June 1861 – 16 May 1947) was an English biochemist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1929, with Christiaan Eijkman, for the discovery of vitamins, even though Casimir Funk, a Polish biochemist, is widely credited with discovering vitamins.
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Fructolysis refers to the metabolism of fructose from dietary sources.
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In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
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A functional food is a food given an additional function (often one related to health-promotion or disease prevention) by adding new ingredients or more of existing ingredients.
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Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
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Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
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General fitness training
General fitness training works towards broad goals of overall health and well-being, rather than narrow goals of sport competition, larger muscles or concerns over appearance.
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George Fordyce (18 November 1736 – 25 May 1802) was a distinguished Scottish physician, lecturer on medicine, and chemist, who was a Fellow of the Royal Society and a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians.
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Gerrit Grijns (May 28, 1865 – November 11, 1944), was a Dutch researcher and co-discoverer of vitamin B1 (thiamine) as the successor to the later Nobel Prize winner Christiaan Eijkman.
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Glucagon is a peptide hormone, produced by alpha cells of the pancreas.
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Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates.
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Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
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The glycemic index or glycaemic index (GI) is a number associated with the carbohydrates in a particular type of food that indicates the effect of these carbohydrates on a person's blood glucose (also called blood sugar) level.
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The glycemic load (GL) of food is a number that estimates how much the food will raise a person's blood glucose level after eating it.
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Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
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Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.
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A goitre or goiter is a swelling in the neck resulting from an enlarged thyroid gland.
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Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint.
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A grain is a small, hard, dry seed, with or without an attached hull or fruit layer, harvested for human or animal consumption.
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A gristmill (also: grist mill, corn mill or flour mill) grinds cereal grain into flour and middlings.
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Gut flora, or gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota, is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals, including insects.
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Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.
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Health Canada (Santé Canada) is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for national public health.
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A health professional, health practitioner or healthcare provider (sometimes simply "provider") is an individual who provides preventive, curative, promotional or rehabilitative health care services in a systematic way to people, families or communities.
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A healthy diet is a diet that helps to maintain or improve overall health.
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Healthy eating pyramid
The Healthy Eating Pyramid (alternately, Healthy Eating Plate) is a nutrition guide developed by the Harvard School of Public Health, suggesting quantities of each food category that a human should eat each day.
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Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
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Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
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A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.
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Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization.
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Herman Boerhaave (31 December 1668 – 23 September 1738)Underwood, E. Ashworth.
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HFE hereditary haemochromatosis
Haemochromatosis (or hemochromatosis) type 1 autosomal recessive is a hereditary disease characterized by excessive intestinal absorption of dietary iron resulting in a pathological increase in total body iron stores.
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Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
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The Hippocratic Corpus (Latin: Corpus Hippocraticum), or Hippocratic Collection, is a collection of around 60 early Ancient Greek medical works strongly associated with the physician Hippocrates and his teachings.
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History of USDA nutrition guides
The history of USDA nutrition guides includes over 100 years of American nutrition advice.
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Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
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A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
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Human body weight
Human body weight refers to a person's mass or weight.
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Humorism, or humoralism, was a system of medicine detailing the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers, positing that an excess or deficiency of any of four distinct bodily fluids in a person—known as humors or humours—directly influences their temperament and health.
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Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
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A hydrogen ion is created when a hydrogen atom loses or gains an electron.
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Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.
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Hyperinsulinemia, or hyperinsulinaemia is a condition in which there are excess levels of insulin circulating in the blood relative to the level of glucose.
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Hyperkalemia, also spelled hyperkalaemia, is an elevated level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.
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Hypernatremia, also spelled hypernatraemia, is a high concentration of sodium in the blood.
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Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
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Hypervitaminosis A refers to the toxic effects of ingesting too much preformed vitamin A. Symptoms arise as a result of altered bone metabolism and altered metabolism of other fat-soluble vitamins.
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Hypervitaminosis D is a state of vitamin D toxicity.
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Hypokalemia, also spelled hypokalaemia, is a low level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.
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Hyponatremia is a low sodium level in the blood.
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Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
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The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
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Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid, is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.
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Index of topics related to life extension
Following is a list of topics related to life extension.
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Indigestion, also known as dyspepsia, is a condition of impaired digestion.
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The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
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Infant formula, or baby formula, is a manufactured food designed and marketed for feeding to babies and infants under 12 months of age, usually prepared for bottle-feeding or cup-feeding from powder (mixed with water) or liquid (with or without additional water).
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Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
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An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.
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Myo-inositol, or simply inositol, is a carbocyclic sugar that is abundant in brain and other mammalian tissues, mediates cell signal transduction in response to a variety of hormones, neurotransmitters and growth factors and participates in osmoregulation It is a sugar alcohol with half the sweetness of sucrose (table sugar).
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Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
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Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin.
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International Agency for Research on Cancer
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC; Centre International de Recherche sur le Cancer, CIRC) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organization of the United Nations.
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International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics
The International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) is an International organization which conducts agricultural research for rural development, headquartered in Patancheru (Hyderabad, Telangana, India) with several regional centers (Bamako (Mali), Nairobi (Kenya)) and research stations (Niamey (Niger), Kano (Nigeria), Lilongwe (Malawi), Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), Bulawayo (Zimbabwe)).
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Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
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Iodine deficiency is a lack of the trace element iodine, an essential nutrient in the diet.
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Iodised salt (also spelled iodized salt) is table salt mixed with a minute amount of various salts of the element iodine.
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An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
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Ion exchange is an exchange of ions between two electrolytes or between an electrolyte solution and a complex.
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Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
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Iron deficiency, or sideropaenia, is the state in which a body has not enough (or not qualitatively enough) iron to supply its eventual needs.
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James Lind (4 October 1716 – 13 July 1794) was a Scottish physician.
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Jan Baptist van Helmont
Jan Baptist van Helmont (12 January 1580 – 30 December 1644) was a Flemish chemist, physiologist, and physician.
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Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese) is an island of Indonesia.
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Jean Baptiste André Dumas (14 July 180010 April 1884) was a French chemist, best known for his works on organic analysis and synthesis, as well as the determination of atomic weights (relative atomic masses) and molecular weights by measuring vapor densities.
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Jean-Pierre Thiollet (born December 9, 1956 in Poitiers) is a French writer and journalist.
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Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
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The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
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Junk food is a pejorative term for food containing a large number of calories from sugar or fat with little fibre, protein, vitamins or minerals.
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Justus von Liebig
Justus Freiherr von Liebig (12 May 1803 – 18 April 1873) was a German chemist who made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry, and was considered the founder of organic chemistry.
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Keratin is one of a family of fibrous structural proteins.
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Kidney stone disease
Kidney stone disease, also known as urolithiasis, is when a solid piece of material (kidney stone) occurs in the urinary tract.
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Kwashiorkor is a form of severe protein malnutrition characterized by edema, and an enlarged liver with fatty infiltrates.
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Lafayette Benedict Mendel (February 5, 1872 – December 9, 1935) was an American biochemist known for his work in nutrition, with longtime collaborator Thomas B. Osborne, including the study of Vitamin A, Vitamin B, lysine and tryptophan.
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Lard is pig fat in both its rendered and unrendered forms.
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In medicine, laryngospasm is an uncontrolled/involuntary muscular contraction (spasm) of the vocal folds.
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A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.
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A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).
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Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance, whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.
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Leptin (from Greek λεπτός leptos, "thin"), "the hormone of energy expenditure", is a hormone predominantly made by adipose cells that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger.
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A lesion is any abnormal damage or change in the tissue of an organism, usually caused by disease or trauma.
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Liebig's Extract of Meat Company
Liebig's Extract of Meat Company was the producer of LEMCO brand Liebig's Extract of Meat and the originator of Oxo meat extracts and Oxo beef stock cubes.
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Liebig's law of the minimum
Liebig's law of the minimum, often simply called Liebig's law or the law of the minimum, is a principle developed in agricultural science by Carl Sprengel (1828) and later popularized by Justus von Liebig.
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Life extension science, also known as anti-aging medicine, indefinite life extension, experimental gerontology, and biomedical gerontology, is the study of slowing down or reversing the processes of aging to extend both the maximum and average lifespan.
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A lime (from French lime, from Arabic līma, from Persian līmū, "lemon") is a hybrid citrus fruit, which is typically round, lime green, in diameter, and contains acidic juice vesicles.
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Linoleic acid (LA), a carboxylic acid, is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid, an 18-carbon chain with two double bonds in cis configuration.
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Linseed oil, also known as flaxseed oil or flax oil, is a colourless to yellowish oil obtained from the dried, ripened seeds of the flax plant (Linum usitatissimum).
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In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
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Lipophilicity (from Greek λίπος "fat" and φίλος "friendly"), refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and non-polar solvents such as hexane or toluene.
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Liquor (also hard liquor, hard alcohol, or spirits) is an alcoholic drink produced by distillation of grains, fruit, or vegetables that have already gone through alcoholic fermentation.
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List of antioxidants in food
This is a list of antioxidants naturally occurring in food.
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List of diets
An individual's diet is the sum of food and drink that he or she habitually consumes.
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List of food additives
;Acids: Food acids are added to make flavors "sharper", and also act as preservatives and antioxidants.
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List of phytochemicals in food
While there is ample evidence to indicate the health benefits of diets rich in fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains and nuts, no specific food has been acknowledged by scientists and government regulatory authorities as providing a health benefit.
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List of unrefined sweeteners
This list of unrefined sweeteners includes all natural, unrefined, or low-processed sweeteners.
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Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization.
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Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
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Magnesium deficiency (medicine)
Magnesium deficiency or hypomagnesia (not to be confused with hypomagnesemia) refers to inadequate intake of dietary magnesium or impaired absorption of magnesium, which can result in numerous symptoms and diseases.
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Major depressive disorder
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
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Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton.
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Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
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Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
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Marasmus is a form of severe malnutrition characterized by energy deficiency.
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Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180 AD) was Roman emperor from, ruling jointly with his adoptive brother, Lucius Verus, until Verus' death in 169, and jointly with his son, Commodus, from 177.
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Marguerite Davis (September 16, 1887 – September 19, 1967) was an American biochemist, co-discoverer of vitamins A and B with Elmer Verner McCollum in 1913.
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Marion Nestle (born 1936) is an American academic.
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He studied at the University of Munich and worked as an assistant under Adolf von Baeyer and Carl von Voit (doctorate 1878).
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Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food.
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Mechanics (Greek μηχανική) is that area of science concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment.
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Megavitamin therapy is the use of large doses of vitamins, often many times greater than the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) in the attempt to prevent or treat diseases.
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Metabolic syndrome, sometimes known by other names, is a clustering of at least three of the five following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high serum triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels.
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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
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A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
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Michael Pollan is an American author, journalist, activist, and professor of journalism at the UC Berkeley Graduate School of Journalism.
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Micronutrients are essential elements required by organisms in small quantities throughout life to orchestrate a range of physiological functions to maintain health.
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Microtrauma is the general term given to small injuries to the body.
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In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.
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In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.
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Moderation is the process of eliminating or lessening extremes.
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Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
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A monomer (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that "can undergo polymerization thereby contributing constitutional units to the essential structure of a macromolecule".
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Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugars, are the most basic units of carbohydrates.
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Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
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MyPlate is the current nutrition guide published by the USDA Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion, a food circle depicting a place setting with a plate and glass divided into five food groups.
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MyPyramid, released by the USDA Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion on April 19, 2005, was an update on the earlier American food guide pyramid.
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National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (also known as "NASEM" or "the National Academies") is the collective scientific national academy of the United States.
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National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a survey research program conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in the United States, and to track changes over time.
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Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
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A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.
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Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient.
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Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
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Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen in the Earth's atmosphere is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other molecules available to living organisms.
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The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
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Noodles are a staple food in many cultures.
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Nootropics, also known as smart drugs and cognitive enhancers, are drugs, supplements, and other substances that purport to improve cognitive function, particularly executive functions, memory, creativity, or motivation, in healthy individuals.
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A Nutraceutical is a pharmaceutical-grade and standardized nutrient.
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A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
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Nutrition psychology (NP) is the psychological study of how cognitive choices, such as meal decisions, influence nutrition, psychological health, and overall health.
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A nutrition scale is a weighing instrument that outputs precise nutritional information for foods or liquids.
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Nutritional rating systems
Nutritional rating systems are methods of ranking or rating food products or food categories to communicate the nutritional value of food in a simplified manner to a target audience.
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Nutritionism is a paradigm that assumes that it is the scientifically identified nutrients in foods that determine the value of individual food stuffs in the diet.
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A nutritionist is a person who advises on matters of food and nutrition and their impacts on human health.
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Nyctalopia, also called night-blindness, is a condition making it difficult or impossible to see in relatively low light.
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Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
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Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, perform certain routines repeatedly (called "rituals"), or have certain thoughts repeatedly (called "obsessions").
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Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.
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Omega-3 fatty acid
Omega−3 fatty acids, also called ω−3 fatty acids or n−3 fatty acids, are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).
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Omega-6 fatty acid
Omega-6 fatty acids (also referred to as ω-6 fatty acids or n-6 fatty acids) are a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids that have in common a final carbon-carbon double bond in the ''n''-6 position, that is, the sixth bond, counting from the methyl end.
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The onion (Allium cepa L., from Latin cepa "onion"), also known as the bulb onion or common onion, is a vegetable that is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium.
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Order of Saint Benedict
The Order of Saint Benedict (OSB; Latin: Ordo Sancti Benedicti), also known as the Black Monksin reference to the colour of its members' habitsis a Catholic religious order of independent monastic communities that observe the Rule of Saint Benedict.
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Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
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Orthomolecular medicine, a form of alternative medicine, aims to maintain human health through nutritional supplementation.
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Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.
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Outline of food preparation
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to food preparation: Food preparation – art form and applied science that includes but is not limited to cooking.
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Outline of human anatomy
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to human anatomy: Human anatomy – scientific study of the morphology of the adult human.
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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
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Oyster is the common name for a number of different families of salt-water bivalve molluscs that live in marine or brackish habitats.
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Palatability is the hedonic reward (i.e., pleasure) provided by foods or fluids that are agreeable to the "palate", which often varies relative to the homeostatic satisfaction of nutritional, water, or energy needs.
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Palpitations are the perceived abnormality of the heartbeat characterized by awareness of cardiac muscle contractions in the chest: hard, fast and/or irregular beats.
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Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas.
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Paracelsus (1493/4 – 24 September 1541), born Theophrastus von Hohenheim (full name Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim), was a Swiss physician, alchemist, and astrologer of the German Renaissance.
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Pasteurization or pasteurisation is a process in which packaged and non-packaged foods (such as milk and fruit juice) are treated with mild heat (Today, pasteurization is used widely in the dairy industry and other food processing industries to achieve food preservation and food safety. This process was named after the French scientist Louis Pasteur, whose research in the 1880s demonstrated that thermal processing would inactivate unwanted microorganisms in wine. Spoilage enzymes are also inactivated during pasteurization. Most liquid products are heat treated in a continuous system where heat can be applied using plate heat exchanger and/or direct or indirect use of steam and hot water. Due to the mild heat there are minor changes to the nutritional quality of foods as well as the sensory characteristics. Pascalization or high pressure processing (HPP) and Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) are non-thermal processes that are also used to pasteurize foods.
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Paul William Glewwe (born April 4, 1958) is an economist and Professor of Applied Economics at the University of Minnesota.
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Prof Paul Karrer FRS FRSE FCS (21 April 1889 – 18 June 1971) was a Swiss organic chemist best known for his research on vitamins.
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Pellagra is a disease caused by a lack of the vitamin niacin (vitamin B3).
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Pergamon, or Pergamum (τὸ Πέργαμον or ἡ Πέργαμος), was a rich and powerful ancient Greek city in Aeolis.
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Peristalsis is a radially symmetrical contraction and relaxation of muscles that propagates in a wave down a tube, in an anterograde direction.
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Peroxidases (EC number) are a large family of enzymes that typically catalyze a reaction of the form: For many of these enzymes the optimal substrate is hydrogen peroxide, but others are more active with organic hydroperoxides such as lipid peroxides.
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Personal and Social Education
Personal and Social Education (PSE) is a component of the state school curriculum in Wales.
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Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.
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The phlogiston theory is a superseded scientific theory that postulated that a fire-like element called phlogiston is contained within combustible bodies and released during combustion.
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Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
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Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
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In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.
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Physical fitness is a state of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports, occupations and daily activities.
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Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
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Phytochemicals are chemical compounds produced by plants, generally to help them thrive or thwart competitors, predators, or pathogens.
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A plum is a fruit of the subgenus Prunus of the genus Prunus. The subgenus is distinguished from other subgenera (peaches, cherries, bird cherries, etc.) in the shoots having terminal bud and solitary side buds (not clustered), the flowers in groups of one to five together on short stems, and the fruit having a groove running down one side and a smooth stone (or pit).
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Pneuma (πνεῦμα) is an ancient Greek word for "breath", and in a religious context for "spirit" or "soul".
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Polyphenols (also known as polyhydroxyphenols) are a structural class of mainly natural, but also synthetic or semisynthetic, organic chemicals characterized by the presence of large multiples of phenol structural units.
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Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
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Polyuria is excessive or an abnormally large production or passage of urine (greater than 2.5 or 3 L over 24 hours in adults).
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Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
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The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.
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Prebiotics are food ingredients that induce the growth or activity of beneficial microorganisms (e.g., bacteria and fungi).
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Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
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Preterm birth, also known as premature birth, is the birth of a baby at fewer than 37 weeks gestational age.
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Probiotics are microorganisms that are claimed to provide health benefits when consumed.
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The prostaglandins (PG) are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds having diverse hormone-like effects in animals.
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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
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Proteins are essential nutrients for the human body.
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Protein combining (or protein complementing) is a dietary theory for protein nutrition that purports to optimize the biological value of protein intake.
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Protein poisoning (also referred to colloquially as rabbit starvation, mal de caribou, or fat starvation) is a rare form of acute malnutrition thought to be caused by a near complete absence of fat in the diet.
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Proteobacteria is a major phylum of gram-negative bacteria. They include a wide variety of pathogens, such as Escherichia, Salmonella, Vibrio, Helicobacter, Yersinia, Legionellales, and many other notable genera. Others are free-living (non-parasitic), and include many of the bacteria responsible for nitrogen fixation. Carl Woese established this grouping in 1987, calling it informally the "purple bacteria and their relatives". Because of the great diversity of forms found in this group, it was named after Proteus, a Greek god of the sea capable of assuming many different shapes and is not named after the genus Proteus. Some Alphaproteobacteria can grow at very low levels of nutrients and have unusual morphology such as stalks and buds. Others include agriculturally important bacteria capable of inducing nitrogen fixation in symbiosis with plants. The type order is the Caulobacterales, comprising stalk-forming bacteria such as Caulobacter. The Betaproteobacteria are highly metabolically diverse and contain chemolithoautotrophs, photoautotrophs, and generalist heterotrophs. The type order is the Burkholderiales, comprising an enormous range of metabolic diversity, including opportunistic pathogens. The Hydrogenophilalia are obligate thermophiles and include heterotrophs and autotrophs. The type order is the Hydrogenophilales. The Gammaproteobacteria are the largest class in terms of species with validly published names. The type order is the Pseudomonadales, which include the genera Pseudomonas and the nitrogen-fixing Azotobacter. The Acidithiobacillia contain only sulfur, iron and uranium-oxidising autotrophs. The type order is the Acidithiobacillales, which includes economically important organisms used in the mining industry such as Acidithiobacillus spp. The Deltaproteobacteria include bacteria that are predators on other bacteria and are important contributors to the anaerobic side of the sulfur cycle. The type order is the Myxococcales, which includes organisms with self-organising abilities such as Myxococcus spp. The Epsilonproteobacteria are often slender, Gram-negative rods that are helical or curved. The type order is the Campylobacterales, which includes important food pathogens such as Campylobacter spp. The Oligoflexia are filamentous aerobes. The type order is the Oligoflexales, which contains the genus Oligoflexus.
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A proton pump is an integral membrane protein that builds up a proton gradient across a biological membrane.
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A prune is a dried plum of any cultivar, mostly Prunus domestica or European Plum.
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Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
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A pump is a device that moves fluids (liquids or gases), or sometimes slurries, by mechanical action.
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Punicic acid (also called trichosanic acid) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid, 18:3 cis-9, trans-11, cis-13.
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In traditional Chinese culture, qi or ch'i is believed to be a vital force forming part of any living entity.
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In natural sciences and social sciences, quantitative research is the systematic empirical investigation of observable phenomena via statistical, mathematical or computational techniques.
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Rationing in the United Kingdom
Rationing was introduced temporarily by the British government several times during the 20th century, during and immediately after a war.
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Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
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Regimen sanitatis Salernitanum
Regimen sanitatis Salernitanum, Latin: The Salernitan Rule of Health (commonly known as Flos medicinae or Lilium medicinae - The Flower of Medicine, The Lily of Medicine) is a medieval didactic poem in hexameter verse.
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Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
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Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
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Rickets is a condition that results in weak or soft bones in children.
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Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor.
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Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
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In vascular plants, the root is the organ of a plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil.
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A root hair, or absorbent hair, the rhizoid of a vascular plant, is a tubular outgrowth of a trichoblast, a hair-forming cell on the epidermis of a plant root.
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Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
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Salting is the preservation of food with dry edible salt.
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Santorio Santorio (29 March 1561 – 22 February 1636), also called Sanctorio Sanctorio, Santorio Santorii, Sanctorius of Padua, Sanctorio Sanctorius and various combinations of these names, was a Venetian physiologist, physician, and professor, who introduced the quantitative approach into medicine.
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A saturated fat is a type of fat in which the fatty acid chains have all or predominantly single bonds.
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Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
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Schola Medica Salernitana
The Schola Medica Salernitana (Scuola Medica Salernitana) was a late Medieval medical school, the first and most important of its kind.
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R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
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Scurvy is a disease resulting from a lack of vitamin C (ascorbic acid).
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Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.
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The single-grain experiment was an experiment carried out at the University of Wisconsin–Madison from May 1907 to 1911.
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Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior
The Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior (SNEB) is an American non-profit organization that represents the professional interests of nutrition educators in the United States and worldwide.
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Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
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Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
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Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
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Starvation is a severe deficiency in caloric energy intake, below the level needed to maintain an organism's life.
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Stephen Moulton Babcock
Stephen Moulton Babcock (22 October 1843 – 2 July 1931) was an American agricultural chemist.
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Stillbirth is typically defined as fetal death at or after 20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy.
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In botany, a stoma (plural "stomata"), also called a stomata (plural "stomates") (from Greek στόμα, "mouth"), is a pore, found in the epidermis of leaves, stems, and other organs, that facilitates gas exchange.
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A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
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Stunted growth, also known as stunting and nutritional stunting, is a reduced growth rate in human development.
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In chemistry, a substrate is typically the chemical species being observed in a chemical reaction, which reacts with a reagent to generate a product.
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Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
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Table of food nutrients
The tables below include tabular lists for selected basic foods, compiled from United States Dept.
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Baron was a Japanese naval physician.
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A teacher (also called a school teacher or, in some contexts, an educator) is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competences or values.
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Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".
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Tetany or tetany seizure is a medical sign consisting of the involuntary contraction of muscles, which may be caused by disease or other conditions that increase the action potential frequency of muscle cells or the nerves that innervate them.
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Thiamine, also known as thiamin or vitamin B1, is a vitamin found in food, and manufactured as a dietary supplement and medication.
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Thiamine deficiency is a medical condition of low levels of thiamine (vitamin B1).
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Thomas Burr Osborne (chemist)
Thomas Burr Osborne (August 5, 1859 – January 29, 1929) was a biochemist and early discoverer of Vitamin A. He is known for his work isolating and characterizing seed proteins, and for determining protein nutritional requirements.
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A thrombus, colloquially called a blood clot, is the final product of the blood coagulation step in hemostasis.
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Thyroid hormones are two hormones produced and released by the thyroid gland, namely triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).
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Tissue hydration is the process of absorbing and retaining water in biological tissues.
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Tocopherols (TCP) are a class of organic chemical compounds (more precisely, various methylated phenols), many of which have vitamin E activity.
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Trans fat, also called trans-unsaturated fatty acids or trans fatty acids, are a type of unsaturated fat that occur in small amounts in nature but became widely produced industrially from vegetable fats starting in the 1950s for use in margarine, snack food, and packaged baked goods and for frying fast food.
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A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).
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Trousseau sign of latent tetany
Trousseau sign of latent tetany is a medical sign observed in patients with low calcium.
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Tryptophan (symbol Trp or W) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
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Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
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United States Department of Agriculture
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.
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United States Department of Health and Human Services
The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.
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University of Oxford
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
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An unsaturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in which there is at least one double bond within the fatty acid chain.
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Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
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Veganism is the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products, particularly in diet, and an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals.
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Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans as food as part of a meal.
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Vegetarianism is the practice of abstaining from the consumption of meat (red meat, poultry, seafood, and the flesh of any other animal), and may also include abstention from by-products of animal slaughter.
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Visual impairment, also known as vision impairment or vision loss, is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses.
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A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient - that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism - but cannot synthesize it (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and therefore it must be obtained through the diet.
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Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds that includes retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and several provitamin A carotenoids (most notably beta-carotene).
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Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body: it is a cofactor in DNA synthesis, and in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism.
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Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia
Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia, of which pernicious anemia is a type, is a disease in which not enough red blood cells are produced due to a deficiency of vitamin B12.
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Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
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Vitamin C megadosage
Vitamin C megadosage is a term describing the consumption or injection of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in doses comparable to the amounts produced by the livers of most other mammals.
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Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.
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Vitamin D deficiency
Vitamin D deficiency, or hypovitaminosis D, most commonly results from inadequate sunlight exposure (in particular sunlight with adequate ultraviolet B rays).
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A vitamin deficiency can cause a disease or syndrome known as an avitaminosis or hypovitaminosis.
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Vitamin E is a group of eight compounds that include four tocopherols and four tocotrienols.
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Vitamin K is a group of structurally similar, fat-soluble vitamins that the human body requires for complete synthesis of certain proteins that are prerequisites for blood coagulation (K from Koagulation, Danish for "coagulation") and which the body also needs for controlling binding of calcium in bones and other tissues.
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Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
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Walter B. Gratzer is a British biophysical chemist.
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In medicine, wasting, also known as wasting syndrome, refers to the process by which a debilitating disease causes muscle and fat tissue to "waste" away.
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Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
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Whole-wheat flour (in the US) or wholemeal flour (in the UK) is a powdery substance, a basic food ingredient, derived by grinding or mashing the whole grain of wheat, also known as the wheatberry.
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William Cumming Rose
William Cumming Rose (April 4, 1887 – September 25, 1985) was an American biochemist and nutritionist.
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William Prout FRS (15 January 1785 – 9 April 1850) was an English chemist, physician, and natural theologian.
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World Health Organization
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
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The Wu Xing, also known as the Five Elements, Five Phases, the Five Agents, the Five Movements, Five Processes, the Five Steps/Stages and the Five Planets of significant gravity: Jupiter-木, Saturn-土, Mercury-水, Venus-金, Mars-火Dr Zai, J..
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Xanthine oxidase (XO, sometimes XAO) is a form of xanthine oxidoreductase, a type of enzyme that generates reactive oxygen species.
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Xerophthalmia (from Ancient Greek xērós (ξηρός) meaning dry and ophthalmos (οφθαλμός) meaning eye) is a medical condition in which the eye fails to produce tears.
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Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
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5 A Day
5 A Day is any of various national campaigns in countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, France, and Germany, to encourage the consumption of at least five portions of fruit and vegetables each day, following a recommendation by the World Health Organization that individuals consume "a minimum of 400g of fruit and vegetables per day (excluding potatoes and other starchy tubers)." A meta-analysis of the many studies of this issue was published in 2017 and found that consumption of double the minimum recommendation – 800g or 10 a day – provided an increased protection against all forms of mortality.
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