96 relations: Acetic acid, Acetylation, Adduct, Amine, Anemia, Angiosarcoma, Aniline, Bladder cancer, Blood, Blood pressure, Blood sugar level, Boiling point, Bone marrow, Brain, Carcinogen, Chemical formula, Chromosome, Coma, Convulsion, Cyanosis, Cytotoxicity, Dermatitis, DNA, Dye, Endoplasmic reticulum, Environmental issue, Ester, Excretion, Fatigue, Ferric, Fibroadenoma, Fibroma, Fibrosarcoma, Fibrosis, Gastrointestinal tract, Glucuronic acid, Glucuronide, Haematopoiesis, Hair coloring, Heart, Heavy metals, Hematuria, Heme, Hemoglobin, Hemosiderosis, Hydroxylation, Hyperplasia, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Isomer, Isotopic labeling, ..., Kidney, Large intestine, Lead, Lethal dose, Liver, Lung, Melting point, Menstrual cycle, Mercury (element), Mesothelioma, Metabolism, Methemoglobin, Methemoglobinemia, Molybdate, Muscle, Mutagen, Nausea, Necrosis, Neoplasm, Nitroso, Northern Italy, Organic compound, Osteosarcoma, Pallor, Peroxidase, Petroleum, Redox, Royal Society of Chemistry, Sarcoma, Serum (blood), Spermatogenesis, Spleen, Subcutaneous tissue, Sulfate, Testicle, Tin, Toluene, Toluidine, United States, United States Congress, Upstate New York, Urinary bladder, Urine, Vomiting, Water, Western world. Expand index (46 more) » « Shrink index
Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).
Acetylation (or in IUPAC nomenclature ethanoylation) describes a reaction that introduces an acetyl functional group into a chemical compound.
An adduct (from the Latin adductus, "drawn toward" alternatively, a contraction of "addition product") is a product of a direct addition of two or more distinct molecules, resulting in a single reaction product containing all atoms of all components.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
Angiosarcoma is a cancer of the cells that line the walls of blood vessels or lymphatic vessels.
Aniline is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2.
Bladder cancer is any of several types of cancer arising from the tissues of the urinary bladder.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.
Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awaken; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.
A convulsion is a medical condition where body muscles contract and relax rapidly and repeatedly, resulting in an uncontrolled shaking of the body.
Cyanosis is defined as the bluish or purplish discolouration of the skin or mucous membranes due to the tissues near the skin surface having low oxygen saturation.
Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxic to cells.
Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a group of diseases that results in inflammation of the skin.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.
Environmental issues are harmful effects of human activity on the biophysical environment.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
Ferric refers to iron-containing materials or compounds.
Fibroadenomas, are benign breast tumours characterized by an admixture of stromal and epithelial tissue.
Fibromas (or fibroid tumors or fibroids) are benign tumors that are composed of fibrous or connective tissue.
Fibrosarcoma (fibroblastic sarcoma) is a malignant mesenchymal tumour derived from fibrous connective tissue and characterized by the presence of immature proliferating fibroblasts or undifferentiated anaplastic spindle cells in a storiform pattern.
Fibrosis is the formation of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue in a reparative or reactive process.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Glucuronic acid (from Greek γλυκύς "sweet" and οὖρον "urine") is a uronic acid that was first isolated from urine (hence the name).
A glucuronide, also known as glucuronoside, is any substance produced by linking glucuronic acid to another substance via a glycosidic bond.
Haematopoiesis (from Greek αἷμα, "blood" and ποιεῖν "to make"; also hematopoiesis in American English; sometimes also haemopoiesis or hemopoiesis) is the formation of blood cellular components.
Hair coloring, or hair dyeing, is the practice of changing the hair color.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.
Hematuria is the presence of red blood cells in the urine.
Heme or haem is a coordination complex "consisting of an iron ion coordinated to a porphyrin acting as a tetradentate ligand, and to one or two axial ligands." The definition is loose, and many depictions omit the axial ligands.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
Hemosiderosis (AmE) or haemosiderosis (BrE) is a form of iron overload disorder resulting in the accumulation of hemosiderin.
Hydroxylation is a chemical process that introduces a hydroxyl group (-OH) into an organic compound.
Hyperplasia (from ancient Greek ὑπέρ huper, "over" + πλάσις plasis, "formation"), or hypergenesis, is an increase in the amount of organic tissue that results from cell proliferation.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC; Centre International de Recherche sur le Cancer, CIRC) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organization of the United Nations.
An isomer (from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos.
Isotopic labeling (or isotopic labelling) is a technique used to track the passage of an isotope (an atom with a detectable variation) through a reaction, metabolic pathway, or cell.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
The large intestine, also known as the large bowel or colon, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
In toxicology, the lethal dose (LD) is an indication of the lethal toxicity of a given substance or type of radiation.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
The menstrual cycle is the regular natural change that occurs in the female reproductive system (specifically the uterus and ovaries) that makes pregnancy possible.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
Mesothelioma is a type of cancer that develops from the thin layer of tissue that covers many of the internal organs (known as the mesothelium).
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Methemoglobin (English: methaemoglobin) (pronounced "met-hemoglobin") is a form of the oxygen-carrying metalloprotein hemoglobin, in which the iron in the heme group is in the Fe3+ (ferric) state, not the Fe2+ (ferrous) of normal hemoglobin.
Methemoglobinemia is a condition caused by elevated levels of methemoglobin in the blood.
In chemistry a molybdate is a compound containing an oxoanion with molybdenum in its highest oxidation state of 6.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
In genetics, a mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
Nitroso refers to a functional group in organic chemistry which has the NO group attached to an organic moiety.
Northern Italy (Italia settentrionale or just Nord) is a geographical region in the northern part of Italy.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
An osteosarcoma (OS) or osteogenic sarcoma (OGS) is a cancerous tumor in a bone.
Pallor is a pale color of the skin that can be caused by illness, emotional shock or stress, stimulant use, or anemia, and is the result of a reduced amount of oxyhaemoglobin and is visible in skin conjuctivae or mucous membrane.
Peroxidases (EC number) are a large family of enzymes that typically catalyze a reaction of the form: For many of these enzymes the optimal substrate is hydrogen peroxide, but others are more active with organic hydroperoxides such as lipid peroxides.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".
A sarcoma is a cancer that arises from transformed cells of mesenchymal origin.
In blood, the serum is the component that is neither a blood cell (serum does not contain white or red blood cells) nor a clotting factor; it is the blood plasma not including the fibrinogens.
Spermatogenesis is the process by which haploid spermatozoa develop from germ cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testis.
The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.
The subcutaneous tissue, also called the hypodermis, hypoderm, subcutis, or superficial fascia, is the lowermost layer of the integumentary system in vertebrates.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Toluene, also known as toluol, is an aromatic hydrocarbon.
There are three isomers of toluidine, which are organic compounds.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
Upstate New York is the portion of the American state of New York lying north of the New York metropolitan area.
The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ in humans and some other animals that collects and stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.