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OSI model

Index OSI model

The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing system without regard to its underlying internal structure and technology. [1]

235 relations: Abstract Syntax Notation One, Abstraction layer, Acknowledgement (data networks), Address Resolution Protocol, Address space, Apple Filing Protocol, AppleTalk, AppleTalk Remote Access, Application layer, Application programming interface, ARPANET, ASCII, Association Control Service Element, Asynchronous serial communication, Asynchronous transfer mode, Automatic repeat request, Availability, Berkeley sockets, Bit rate, Bit stuffing, Broadcast/Multicast Control, Bus network, Cambridge University Press, CAN bus, Character encoding, Characteristic impedance, Charles Bachman, Cisco Discovery Protocol, Cisco Inter-Switch Link, Common Management Information Protocol, Common Management Information Service, Communication protocol, Computer file, Concatenation, Conceptual model, Confidentiality, Connection-Oriented Network Service, Connectionless-mode Network Service, Considered harmful, CYCLADES, Cyclic redundancy check, Data, Data (computing), Data compression, Data Link Control, Data link layer, Data structure, Datagram, Datagram Congestion Control Protocol, Datagram Delivery Protocol, ..., Denial-of-service attack, Digital subscriber line, Directory Access Protocol, DOCSIS, Domain Name System, Duplex (telecommunications), Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, E-carrier, EBCDIC, EIA-530, Electrical cable, Electricity, Encryption, Error detection and correction, Ethernet, Ethernet frame, Ethernet hub, Ethernet over twisted pair, External Data Representation, Fast Ethernet, Fiber Distributed Data Interface, Fibre Channel, Flow control (data), Foundry Discovery Protocol, Frame (networking), Frame Relay, FTAM, G.703, G.hn, Generic Routing Encapsulation, Gigabit Ethernet, Health Level 7, Hierarchical internetworking model, High-Level Data Link Control, HTTP cookie, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, I.430, I.431, IBM, IBM Advanced Program-to-Program Communication, IBM Systems Network Architecture, IEEE 802, IEEE 802.11, IEEE 802.15.4, IEEE 802.1Q, IEEE 802.2, IEEE 802.3, INAP, Information security, Integrity, International Organization for Standardization, International Telecommunication Union, Internet Control Message Protocol, Internet Group Management Protocol, Internet layer, Internet Protocol, Internet protocol suite, Internetwork Packet Exchange, IPsec, IS-IS, ISDB-T International, ISDN User Part, ITU-T, LAPB, Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol, Layer 8, Lead (electronics), Link Access Procedures, D channel, Link layer, List of information technology initialisms, List of ITU-T V-series recommendations, LocalTalk, Logical link control, Management plane, Medium access control, Mesh networking, Message Transfer Part, Microsoft Windows, MIDI, MIME, Mobile Application Part, Modbus, Modular connector, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Moving Picture Experts Group, Multiplexing, Multiprotocol Label Switching, Named pipe, NetBIOS, NetBIOS Frames protocol, Network Driver Interface Specification, Network layer, Network management, Network packet, Network planning and design, Network socket, Network topology, Network traffic control, Node-to-node data transfer, Nortel Discovery Protocol, Novell, NWLink, Object (computer science), Open Data-Link Interface, Open Shortest Path First, Open Systems Interconnection, Optical fiber cable, Optical Transport Network, Packet Layer Protocol, Packet segmentation, PDCP, PDF, PhoneNet, Physical layer, Plain old telephone service, Point-to-Point Protocol, Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol, Presentation layer, Protocol data unit, Protocol stack, Q.931, Radio Resource Control, Real-time Transport Protocol, Recursive InterNetwork Architecture (RINA), Remote Operations Service Element protocol, Remote procedure call, Repeater, Ring network, Routing, Routing Information Protocol, RS-232, RS-422, RS-449, Security service (telecommunication), Selective Repeat ARQ, Sequenced Packet Exchange, Serial Line Internet Protocol, Serialization, Service Advertising Protocol, Service data unit, Service layer, Session (computer science), Session Announcement Protocol, Session layer, Signalling Connection Control Part, Signalling System No. 7, Simplex communication, Sliding window protocol, SOCKS, Specification (technical standard), Stream Control Transmission Protocol, Synchronous Data Link Control, Synchronous optical networking, T-carrier, Tab (GUI), Telecommunication, Telephone User Part, Token bus network, Token ring, Transaction Capabilities Application Part, Transmission Control Protocol, Transmission medium, Transport layer, Transport Layer Interface, Transport Layer Security, Tunneling protocol, Twinaxial cabling, UMTS, Unix, UNIX System V, User Datagram Protocol, Virtual circuit, Voltage, Wavelength-division multiplexing, Wi-Fi, Winsock, Wireless Application Protocol, X.21, X.25, X.400, X.500, X.690, XML, Zigbee, Zip (file format). Expand index (185 more) »

Abstract Syntax Notation One

Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) is an interface description language for defining data structures that can be serialized and deserialized in a standard, cross-platform way.

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Abstraction layer

In computing, an abstraction layer or abstraction level is a way of hiding the implementation details of a particular set of functionality, allowing the separation of concerns to facilitate interoperability and platform independence.

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Acknowledgement (data networks)

In data networking, telecommunications, and computer buses, an acknowledgement (ACK) is a signal passed between communicating processes, computers, or devices to signify acknowledgement, or receipt of message, as part of a communications protocol.

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Address Resolution Protocol

The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a communication protocol used for discovering the link layer address, such as a MAC address, associated with a given network layer address, typically an IPv4 address.

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Address space

In computing, an address space defines a range of discrete addresses, each of which may correspond to a network host, peripheral device, disk sector, a memory cell or other logical or physical entity.

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Apple Filing Protocol

The Apple Filing Protocol (AFP), formerly AppleTalk Filing Protocol, is a proprietary network protocol, and part of the Apple File Service (AFS), that offers file services for macOS and the classic Mac OS.

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AppleTalk was a proprietary suite of networking protocols developed by Apple Inc. for their Macintosh computers.

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AppleTalk Remote Access

AppleTalk Remote Access, or ARA, was a protocol stack that allowed AppleTalk to be run over modems.

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Application layer

An application layer is an abstraction layer that specifies the shared communications protocols and interface methods used by hosts in a communications network.

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Application programming interface

In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building software.

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The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was an early packet switching network and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP.

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ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.

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Association Control Service Element

Association Control Service Element (ACSE) is the OSI method for establishing a call between two application programs.

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Asynchronous serial communication

Asynchronous serial communication is a form of serial communication in which the communicating endpoints' interfaces are not continuously synchronized by a common clock signal.

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Asynchronous transfer mode

Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is, according to the ATM Forum, "a telecommunications concept defined by ANSI and ITU (formerly CCITT) standards for carriage of a complete range of user traffic, including voice, data, and video signals".

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Automatic repeat request

Automatic repeat request (ARQ), also known as automatic repeat query, is an error-control method for data transmission that uses acknowledgements (messages sent by the receiver indicating that it has correctly received a data frame or packet) and timeouts (specified periods of time allowed to elapse before an acknowledgment is to be received) to achieve reliable data transmission over an unreliable service.

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In reliability theory and reliability engineering, the term availability has the following meanings.

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Berkeley sockets

Berkeley sockets is an application programming interface (API) for Internet sockets and Unix domain sockets, used for inter-process communication (IPC).

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Bit rate

In telecommunications and computing, bit rate (bitrate or as a variable R) is the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time.

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Bit stuffing

In data transmission and telecommunication, bit stuffing (also known—uncommonly—as positive justification) is the insertion of non information bits into data.

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Broadcast/Multicast Control

The Broadcast/Multicast control (BMC) is a sublayer of layer 2 protocol of Radio Interface Protocol Architecture as per BMC-STD.

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Bus network

A bus network is a network topology in which nodes are directly connected to a common linear (or branched) half-duplex link called a bus.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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CAN bus

A Controller Area Network (CAN bus) is a robust vehicle bus standard designed to allow microcontrollers and devices to communicate with each other in applications without a host computer.

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Character encoding

Character encoding is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind of encoding system.

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Characteristic impedance

The characteristic impedance or surge impedance (usually written Z0) of a uniform transmission line is the ratio of the amplitudes of voltage and current of a single wave propagating along the line; that is, a wave travelling in one direction in the absence of reflections in the other direction.

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Charles Bachman

Charles William Bachman III (Born on December 11, 1924 – July 13, 2017) was an American computer scientist, who spent his entire career as an industrial researcher, developer, and manager rather than in academia.

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Cisco Discovery Protocol

Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) is a proprietary Data Link Layer protocol developed by Cisco Systems.

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Cisco Inter-Switch Link

Cisco Inter-Switch Link (ISL) is a Cisco Systems proprietary protocol that maintains VLAN information in Ethernet frames as traffic flows between switches and routers, or switches and switches.

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Common Management Information Protocol

The Common Management Information Protocol (CMIP) is the OSI specified network management protocol.

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Common Management Information Service

The Common Management Information Service (CMIS) is the service interface specified in that is employed by OSI network elements for network management.

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Communication protocol

In telecommunication, a communication protocol is a system of rules that allow two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity.

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Computer file

A computer file is a computer resource for recording data discretely in a computer storage device.

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In formal language theory and computer programming, string concatenation is the operation of joining character strings end-to-end.

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Conceptual model

A conceptual model is a representation of a system, made of the composition of concepts which are used to help people know, understand, or simulate a subject the model represents.

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Confidentiality involves a set of rules or a promise usually executed through confidentiality agreements that limits access or places restrictions on certain types of information.

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Connection-Oriented Network Service

Connection-Oriented Network Service (CONS) is one of the two OSI network layer protocols, the other being CLNS (Connectionless Network Service).

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Connectionless-mode Network Service

Connectionless-mode Network Service (CLNS) or simply Connectionless Network Service is an OSI Network Layer datagram service that does not require a circuit to be established before data is transmitted, and routes messages to their destinations independently of any other messages.

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Considered harmful

Considered harmful is a part of a phrasal template used in the titles of at least 65 critical essays in computer science and related disciplines.

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The CYCLADES computer network was a French research network created in the early 1970s.

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Cyclic redundancy check

A cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is an error-detecting code commonly used in digital networks and storage devices to detect accidental changes to raw data.

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Data is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables.

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Data (computing)

Data (treated as singular, plural, or as a mass noun) is any sequence of one or more symbols given meaning by specific act(s) of interpretation.

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Data compression

In signal processing, data compression, source coding, or bit-rate reduction involves encoding information using fewer bits than the original representation.

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Data Link Control

In the OSI networking model, Data Link Control (DLC) is the service provided by the data link layer.

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Data link layer

The data link layer, or layer 2, is the second layer of the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking.

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Data structure

In computer science, a data structure is a data organization and storage format that enables efficient access and modification.

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A datagram is a basic transfer unit associated with a packet-switched network.

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Datagram Congestion Control Protocol

In computer networking, the Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) is a message-oriented transport layer protocol.

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Datagram Delivery Protocol

Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP) is a member of the AppleTalk networking protocol suite.

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Denial-of-service attack

In computing, a denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) is a cyber-attack in which the perpetrator seeks to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users by temporarily or indefinitely disrupting services of a host connected to the Internet.

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Digital subscriber line

Digital subscriber line (DSL; originally digital subscriber loop) is a family of technologies that are used to transmit digital data over telephone lines.

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Directory Access Protocol

Directory Access Protocol (DAP) is a computer networking standard promulgated by ITU-T and ISO in 1988 for accessing an X.500 directory service.

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Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS) is an international telecommunications standard that permits the addition of high-bandwidth data transfer to an existing cable TV (CATV) system.

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Domain Name System

The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical decentralized naming system for computers, services, or other resources connected to the Internet or a private network.

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Duplex (telecommunications)

A duplex communication system is a point-to-point system composed of two or more connected parties or devices that can communicate with one another in both directions.

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Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a network management protocol used on UDP/IP networks whereby a DHCP server dynamically assigns an IP address and other network configuration parameters to each device on a network so they can communicate with other IP networks.

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The E-carrier is a member of the series of carrier systems developed for digital transmission of many simultaneous telephone calls by time-division multiplexing.

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Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC) is an eight-bit character encoding used mainly on IBM mainframe and IBM midrange computer operating systems.

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Currently known as TIA-530-A, but often called EIA-530, or RS-530, is a balanced serial interface standard that generally uses a 25-pin connector, originally created by the Telecommunications Industry Association.

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Electrical cable

An electrical cable is an assembly of one or more wires running side by side or bundled, which is used to carry electric current.

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Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.

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In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it and those who are not authorized cannot.

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Error detection and correction

In information theory and coding theory with applications in computer science and telecommunication, error detection and correction or error control are techniques that enable reliable delivery of digital data over unreliable communication channels.

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Ethernet is a family of computer networking technologies commonly used in local area networks (LAN), metropolitan area networks (MAN) and wide area networks (WAN).

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Ethernet frame

A data unit on an Ethernet link transports an Ethernet frame as its payload.

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Ethernet hub

An Ethernet hub, active hub, network hub, repeater hub, multiport repeater, or simply hub is a network hardware device for connecting multiple Ethernet devices together and making them act as a single network segment.

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Ethernet over twisted pair

Ethernet over twisted pair technologies use twisted-pair cables for the physical layer of an Ethernet computer network.

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External Data Representation

External Data Representation (XDR) is a standard data serialization format, for uses such as computer network protocols.

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Fast Ethernet

In computer networking, Fast Ethernet is a collective term for a number of Ethernet standards that carry traffic at the nominal rate of 100 Mbit/s (the earlier Ethernet speed was 10 Mbit/s).

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Fiber Distributed Data Interface

Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) is a standard for data transmission in a local area network.

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Fibre Channel

Fibre Channel, or FC, is a high-speed network technology (commonly running at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 128 gigabit per second rates) providing in-order, lossless delivery of raw block data, primarily used to connect computer data storage to servers.

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Flow control (data)

In data communications, flow control is the process of managing the rate of data transmission between two nodes to prevent a fast sender from overwhelming a slow receiver.

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Foundry Discovery Protocol

The Foundry Discovery Protocol (FDP) is a proprietary data link layer protocol.

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Frame (networking)

A frame is a digital data transmission unit in computer networking and telecommunication.

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Frame Relay

Frame Relay is a standardized wide area network technology that specifies the physical and data link layers of digital telecommunications channels using a packet switching methodology.

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FTAM, ISO standard 8571, is the OSI application layer protocol for file transfer, access and management.

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G.703 is a 2016 ITU-T standard for transmitting voice or data over digital carriers such as T1 and E1.

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G.hn is a specification for home networking with data rates up to 2 Gbit/s and operation over four types of legacy wires: telephone wiring, coaxial cables, power lines and plastic optical fiber.

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Generic Routing Encapsulation

Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) is a tunneling protocol developed by Cisco Systems that can encapsulate a wide variety of network layer protocols inside virtual point-to-point links over an Internet Protocol network.

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Gigabit Ethernet

In computer networking, Gigabit Ethernet (GbE or 1 GigE) is a term describing various technologies for transmitting Ethernet frames at a rate of a gigabit per second (1,000,000,000 bits per second), as defined by the IEEE 802.3-2008 standard.

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Health Level 7

Health Level-7 or HL7 refers to a set of international standards for transfer of clinical and administrative data between software applications used by various healthcare providers.

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Hierarchical internetworking model

The Hierarchical internetworking model is a three-layer model for network design first proposed by Cisco.

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High-Level Data Link Control

High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) is a bit-oriented code-transparent synchronous data link layer protocol developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).

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HTTP cookie

An HTTP cookie (also called web cookie, Internet cookie, browser cookie, or simply cookie) is a small piece of data sent from a website and stored on the user's computer by the user's web browser while the user is browsing.

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Hypertext Transfer Protocol

The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, and hypermedia information systems.

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The I.431/430 Networking standards are recommendations produced by the ITU.

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The I.431/430 Networking standards are recommendations produced by the ITU.

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The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.

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IBM Advanced Program-to-Program Communication

In computing, Advanced Program to Program Communication or APPC is a protocol which computer programs can use to communicate over a network.

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IBM Systems Network Architecture

Systems Network Architecture (SNA) is IBM's proprietary networking architecture, created in 1974.

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IEEE 802

IEEE 802 is a family of IEEE standards dealing with local area networks and metropolitan area networks.

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IEEE 802.11

IEEE 802.11 is a set of media access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) specifications for implementing wireless local area network (WLAN) computer communication in the 900 MHz and 2.4, 3.6, 5, and 60 GHz frequency bands.

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IEEE 802.15.4

IEEE 802.15.4 is a technical standard which defines the operation of low-rate wireless personal area networks (LR-WPANs).

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IEEE 802.1Q

802.1Q, often referred to as Dot1q, is the networking standard that supports virtual LANs (VLANs) on an IEEE 802.3 Ethernet network.

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IEEE 802.2

IEEE 802.2 is the original name of the ISO/IEC 8802-2 standard which defines logical link control (LLC) as the upper portion of the data link layer of the OSI Model.

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IEEE 802.3

IEEE 802.3 is a working group and a collection of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standards produced by the working group defining the physical layer and data link layer's media access control (MAC) of wired Ethernet.

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INAP stands for Intelligent Network Application Protocol or Intelligent Network Application Part.

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Information security

Information security, sometimes shortened to InfoSec, is the practice of preventing unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, inspection, recording or destruction of information.

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Integrity is the quality of being honest and having strong moral principles, or moral uprightness.

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International Organization for Standardization

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.

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International Telecommunication Union

The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; Union Internationale des Télécommunications (UIT)), originally the International Telegraph Union (Union Télégraphique Internationale), is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies.

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Internet Control Message Protocol

The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is a supporting protocol in the Internet protocol suite.

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Internet Group Management Protocol

The Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) is a communications protocol used by hosts and adjacent routers on IPv4 networks to establish multicast group memberships.

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Internet layer

The internet layer is a group of internetworking methods, protocols, and specifications in the Internet protocol suite that are used to transport datagrams (packets) from the originating host across network boundaries, if necessary, to the destination host specified by an IP address.

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Internet Protocol

The Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries.

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Internet protocol suite

The Internet protocol suite is the conceptual model and set of communications protocols used on the Internet and similar computer networks.

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Internetwork Packet Exchange

Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) is the network layer protocol in the IPX/SPX protocol suite.

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In computing, Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) is a secure network protocol suite of IPv4 that authenticates and encrypts the packets of data sent over an IPv4 network.

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Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS) is a routing protocol designed to move information efficiently within a computer network, a group of physically connected computers or similar devices.

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ISDB-T International

ISDB-T International, ISDB-Tb or SBTVD, short for Sistema Brasileiro de Televisão Digital (Brazilian Digital Television System), is a technical standard for digital television broadcast used in Brazil, Botswana, Peru, Argentina, Chile, Honduras, Venezuela, Ecuador, Costa Rica, Paraguay, Philippines, Bolivia, Nicaragua, El Salvador and Uruguay, based on the Japanese ISDB-T standard.

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ISDN User Part

The ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) User Part or ISUP is part of Signaling System No. 7 (SS7), which is used to set up telephone calls in the public switched telephone network (PSTN).

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The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) is one of the three sectors (divisions or units) of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU); it coordinates standards for telecommunications.

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Link Access Procedure, Balanced (LAPB) implements the data link layer as defined in the X.25 protocol suite.

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Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol

In computer networking, Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is a tunneling protocol used to support virtual private networks (VPNs) or as part of the delivery of services by ISPs.

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Layer 8

Layer 8 is used to refer to "user" or "political" layer on top of the OSI model of computer networking.

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Lead (electronics)

In electronics, a lead is an electrical connection consisting of a length of wire or a metal pad (SMD) that is designed to connect two locations electrically.

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Link Access Procedures, D channel

In Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) telecommunications, Link Access Procedures, D channel is part of the network's communications protocol which ensures that messages are error free and executed in the right sequence.

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Link layer

In computer networking, the link layer is the lowest layer in the Internet Protocol Suite, the networking architecture of the Internet.

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List of information technology initialisms

The table below lists information technology initialisms and acronyms in common and current usage.

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List of ITU-T V-series recommendations

The ITU-T V-Series Recommendations on Data communication over the telephone network specify the protocols that govern approved modem communication standards and interfaces.

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LocalTalk is a particular implementation of the physical layer of the AppleTalk networking system from Apple Computer.

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Logical link control

In the IEEE 802 reference model of computer networking, the logical link control (LLC) data communication protocol layer is the upper sublayer of the data link layer (layer 2) of the seven-layer OSI model.

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Management plane

In computer networking, the management plane of a networking device is the element of a system that configures, monitors, and provides management, monitoring and configuration services to, all layers of the network stack and other parts of the system.

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Medium access control

In IEEE 802 LAN/MAN standards, the medium access control (MAC) sublayer (also known as the media access control sublayer) and the logical link control (LLC) sublayer together make up the data link layer.

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Mesh networking

A mesh network is a local network topology in which the infrastructure nodes (i.e. bridges, switches and other infrastructure devices) connect directly, dynamically and non-hierarchically to as many other nodes as possible and cooperate with one another to efficiently route data from/to clients.

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Message Transfer Part

The Message Transfer Part (MTP) is part of the Signaling System 7 (SS7) used for communication in Public Switched Telephone Networks.

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Microsoft Windows

Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.

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MIDI (short for Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is a technical standard that describes a communications protocol, digital interface, and electrical connectors that connect a wide variety of electronic musical instruments, computers, and related music and audio devices.

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Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) is an Internet standard that extends the format of email to support.

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Mobile Application Part

The Mobile Application Part (MAP) is an SS7 protocol that provides an application layer for the various nodes in GSM and UMTS mobile core networks and GPRS core networks to communicate with each other in order to provide services to users.

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Modbus is a serial communications protocol originally published by Modicon (now Schneider Electric) in 1979 for use with its programmable logic controllers (PLCs).

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Modular connector

A modular connector is an electrical connector that was originally designed for use in telephone wiring, but has since been used for many other purposes.

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Morgan Kaufmann Publishers

Morgan Kaufmann Publishers is a Burlington, Massachusetts (San Francisco, California until 2008) based publisher specializing in computer science and engineering content.

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Moving Picture Experts Group

The Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) is a working group of authorities that was formed by ISO and IEC to set standards for audio and video compression and transmission.

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In telecommunications and computer networks, multiplexing (sometimes contracted to muxing) is a method by which multiple analog or digital signals are combined into one signal over a shared medium.

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Multiprotocol Label Switching

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a type of data-carrying technique for high-performance telecommunications networks. MPLS directs data from one network node to the next based on short path labels rather than long network addresses, avoiding complex lookups in a routing table.

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Named pipe

In computing, a named pipe (also known as a FIFO for its behavior) is an extension to the traditional pipe concept on Unix and Unix-like systems, and is one of the methods of inter-process communication (IPC).

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NetBIOS is an acronym for Network Basic Input/Output System.

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NetBIOS Frames protocol

NetBIOS Frames or NBF protocol is a non-routable network- and transport-level data protocol most commonly used as one of the layers of Microsoft Windows networking in the 1990s.

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Network Driver Interface Specification

The Network Driver Interface Specification (NDIS) is an application programming interface (API) for network interface cards (NICs).

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Network layer

In the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking, the network layer is layer 3.

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Network management

Network management is the process of administering and managing computer networks.

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Network packet

A network packet is a formatted unit of data carried by a packet-switched network.

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Network planning and design

Network planning and design is an iterative process, encompassing topological design, network-synthesis, and network-realization, and is aimed at ensuring that a new telecommunications network or service meets the needs of the subscriber and operator.

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Network socket

A network socket is an internal endpoint for sending or receiving data within a node on a computer network.

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Network topology

Network topology is the arrangement of the elements (links, nodes, etc.) of a communication network.

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Network traffic control

In computer networking, network traffic control is the process of managing, controlling or reducing the network traffic, particularly Internet bandwidth, e.g. by the network scheduler.

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Node-to-node data transfer

In telecommunications, node-to-node data transfer is the movement of data from one node of a network to the next.

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Nortel Discovery Protocol

The Nortel Discovery Protocol (NDP) is a Data Link Layer (OSI Layer 2) network protocol for discovery of Nortel networking devices and certain products from Avaya and Ciena.

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Novell, Inc. was a software and services company headquartered in Provo, Utah.

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NWLink is Microsoft's implementation of Novell's IPX/SPX protocols.

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Object (computer science)

In computer science, an object can be a variable, a data structure, a function, or a method, and as such, is a value in memory referenced by an identifier.

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Open Data-Link Interface

The Open Data-Link Interface (ODI), developed by Apple and Novell, serves the same function as Microsoft and 3COM's Network Driver Interface Specification (NDIS).

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Open Shortest Path First

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a routing protocol for Internet Protocol (IP) networks.

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Open Systems Interconnection

The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing system without regard to its underlying internal structure and technology.

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Optical fiber cable

An optical fiber cable, also known as a fiber optic cable, is an assembly similar to an electrical cable, but containing one or more optical fibers that are used to carry light.

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Optical Transport Network

ITU-T defines an Optical Transport Network (OTN) as a set of Optical Network Elements (ONE) connected by optical fiber links, able to provide functionality of transport, multiplexing, switching, management, supervision and survivability of optical channels carrying client signals.

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Packet Layer Protocol

Packet Layer Protocol or PLP is the Network Layer protocol for the X.25 protocol suite.

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Packet segmentation

In data communications networks, packet segmentation is the process of dividing a data packet into smaller units for transmission over the network.

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PDCP is an abbreviation for Packet Data Convergence Protocol.

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The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.

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PhoneNet was an implementation of the AppleTalk networking physical layer created by Farallon Computing (now Netopia).

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Physical layer

In the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking, the physical layer or layer 1 is the first and lowest layer.

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Plain old telephone service

Plain old telephone service or plain ordinary telephone service (POTS) is a retronym for voice-grade telephone service employing analog signal transmission over copper loops.

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Point-to-Point Protocol

In computer networking, Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) is a data link layer (layer 2) communications protocol used to establish a direct connection between two nodes.

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Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol

The Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) is an obsolete method for implementing virtual private networks, with many known security issues.

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Presentation layer

In the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking, the presentation layer is layer 6 and serves as the data translator for the network.

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Protocol data unit

In telecommunications, a protocol data unit (PDU) is information that is transmitted as a single unit among peer entities of a computer network.

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Protocol stack

The protocol stack or network stack is an implementation of a computer networking protocol suite or protocol family.

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ITU-T Recommendation Q.931 is the ITU standard ISDN connection control signalling protocol, forming part of Digital Subscriber Signalling System No.

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Radio Resource Control

The Radio Resource Control (RRC) protocol is used in UMTS and LTE on the Air interface.

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Real-time Transport Protocol

The Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) is a network protocol for delivering audio and video over IP networks.

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Recursive InterNetwork Architecture (RINA)

The Recursive InterNetwork Architecture (RINA) is a new computer network architecture proposed as an alternative to the currently mainstream TCP/IP model.

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Remote Operations Service Element protocol

The Remote Operations Service Element (ROSE) is the OSI service interface, specified in, that (a) provides remote operation capabilities, (b) allows interaction between entities in a distributed application, and (c) upon receiving a remote operations service request, allows the receiving entity to attempt the operation and report the results of the attempt to the requesting entity.

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Remote procedure call

In distributed computing, a remote procedure call (RPC) is when a computer program causes a procedure (subroutine) to execute in a different address space (commonly on another computer on a shared network), which is coded as if it were a normal (local) procedure call, without the programmer explicitly coding the details for the remote interaction.

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In telecommunications, a repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal and retransmits it.

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Ring network

A ring network is a network topology in which each node connects to exactly two other nodes, forming a single continuous pathway for signals through each node - a ring.

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Routing is the process of selecting a path for traffic in a network, or between or across multiple networks.

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Routing Information Protocol

The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is one of the oldest distance-vector routing protocols which employ the hop count as a routing metric.

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In telecommunications, RS-232, Recommended Standard 232 is a standard introduced in 1960 for serial communication transmission of data.

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RS-422, also known as TIA/EIA-422, is a technical standard originated by the Electronic Industries Alliance that specifies electrical characteristics of a digital signaling circuit.

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The RS-449 specification, also known as EIA-449 or TIA-449, defines the functional and mechanical characteristics of the interface between data terminal equipment and data communications equipment.

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Security service (telecommunication)

Security service is a service, provided by a layer of communicating open systems, which ensures adequate security of the systems or of data transfers as defined by ITU-T X.800 Recommendation.

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Selective Repeat ARQ

Selective Repeat ARQ / Selective Reject ARQ is a specific instance of the Automatic Repeat-Request (ARQ) protocol used to solve sequence number dilemma in communications.

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Sequenced Packet Exchange

Sequenced Packet Exchange (SPX) is the OSI-model Transport layer protocol in the IPX/SPX protocol stack.

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Serial Line Internet Protocol

The Serial Line Internet Protocol (also SLIP) is an encapsulation of the Internet Protocol designed to work over serial ports and router connections.

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In computer science, in the context of data storage, serialization is the process of translating data structures or object state into a format that can be stored (for example, in a file or memory buffer) or transmitted (for example, across a network connection link) and reconstructed later (possibly in a different computer environment).

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Service Advertising Protocol

The Service Advertising Protocol (SAP) is included in the Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) protocol.

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Service data unit

In Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) terminology, a service data unit (SDU) is a unit of data that has been passed down from an OSI layer or sublayer to a lower layer.

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Service layer

In intelligent networks (IN) and cellular networks, service layer is a conceptual layer within a network service provider architecture.

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Session (computer science)

In computer science, in particular networking, a session is a semi-permanent interactive information interchange between two or more communicating devices, or between a computer and user (see login session).

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Session Announcement Protocol

Session Announcement Protocol (SAP) is an experimental protocol for broadcasting multicast session information.

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Session layer

In the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking, the session layer is layer 5.

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Signalling Connection Control Part

The Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP) is a network layer protocol that provides extended routing, flow control, segmentation, connection-orientation, and error correction facilities in Signaling System 7 telecommunications networks.

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Signalling System No. 7

Signaling System No.

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Simplex communication

Simplex communication is a communication channel that sends information in one direction only.

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Sliding window protocol

A sliding window protocol is a feature of packet-based data transmission protocols.

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SOCKS is an Internet protocol that exchanges network packets between a client and server through a proxy server.

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Specification (technical standard)

A specification often refers to a set of documented requirements to be satisfied by a material, design, product, or service.

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Stream Control Transmission Protocol

The Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a computer networking communications protocol which operates at the transport layer and serves a role similar to the popular protocols TCP and UDP.

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Synchronous Data Link Control

Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC) is a computer communications protocol.

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Synchronous optical networking

Synchronous optical networking (SONET) and synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) are standardized protocols that transfer multiple digital bit streams synchronously over optical fiber using lasers or highly coherent light from light-emitting diodes (LEDs).

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The T-carrier is a member of the series of carrier systems developed by AT&T Bell Laboratories for digital transmission of multiplexed telephone calls.

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Tab (GUI)

In interface design, a tabbed document interface (TDI) or Tab is a graphical control element that allows multiple documents or panels to be contained within a single window, using tabs as a navigational widget for switching between sets of documents.

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Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.

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Telephone User Part

Telephone User Part (TUP) provides conventional PSTN telephony services across the Signalling System No. 7 (SS7) network.

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Token bus network

Token bus is a network implementing the token ring protocol over a virtual ring on a coaxial cable.

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Token ring

MAU b) Using several MAUs connected to each other Token ring network IBM hermaphroditic connector with locking clip Token Ring local area network (LAN) technology is a communications protocol for local area networks.

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Transaction Capabilities Application Part

Transaction Capabilities Application Part, from ITU-T recommendations Q.771-Q.775 or ANSI T1.114 is a protocol for Signalling System 7 networks.

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Transmission Control Protocol

The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the main protocols of the Internet protocol suite.

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Transmission medium

A transmission medium is a material substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) that can propagate energy waves.

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Transport layer

In computer networking, the transport layer is a conceptual division of methods in the layered architecture of protocols in the network stack in the Internet Protocol Suite and the OSI model.

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Transport Layer Interface

In computer networking, the Transport Layer Interface (TLI) was the networking API provided by AT&T UNIX System V Release 3 (SVR3) in 1987 and continued into Release 4 (SVR4).

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Transport Layer Security

Transport Layer Security (TLS) – and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), which is now deprecated by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) – are cryptographic protocols that provide communications security over a computer network.

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Tunneling protocol

In computer networks, a tunneling protocol is a communications protocol that allows for the secure movement of data from one network to another.

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Twinaxial cabling

Twinaxial cabling, or "Twinax", is a type of cable similar to coaxial cable, but with two inner conductors instead of one.

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The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is a third generation mobile cellular system for networks based on the GSM standard.

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Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.

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UNIX System V

UNIX System V (pronounced: "System Five") is one of the first commercial versions of the Unix operating system.

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User Datagram Protocol

In computer networking, the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core members of the Internet protocol suite.

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Virtual circuit

A virtual circuit (VC) is a means of transporting data over a packet switched computer network in such a way that it appears as though there is a dedicated physical layer link between the source and destination end systems of this data.

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Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.

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Wavelength-division multiplexing

In fiber-optic communications, wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) is a technology which multiplexes a number of optical carrier signals onto a single optical fiber by using different wavelengths (i.e., colors) of laser light.

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Wi-Fi or WiFi is technology for radio wireless local area networking of devices based on the IEEE 802.11 standards.

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In computing, the Windows Sockets API (WSA), later shortened to Winsock, is a technical specification that defines how Windows network software should access network services, especially TCP/IP.

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Wireless Application Protocol

Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is a technical standard for accessing information over a mobile wireless network.

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X.21 (sometimes referred to as X21) is an interface specification for differential communications introduced in the mid-1970s by the ITU-T. X.21 was first introduced as a means to provide a digital signaling interface for telecommunications between carriers and customers' equipment.

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X.25 is an ITU-T standard protocol suite for packet switched wide area network (WAN) communication.

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X.400 is a suite of ITU-T Recommendations that define standards for Data Communication Networks for Message Handling Systems (MHS) — more commonly known as email.

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X.500 is a series of computer networking standards covering electronic directory services.

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X.690 is an ITU-T standard specifying several ASN.1 encoding formats.

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In computing, Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable.

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Zigbee is an IEEE 802.15.4-based specification for a suite of high-level communication protocols used to create personal area networks with small, low-power digital radios, such as for home automation, medical device data collection, and other low-power low-bandwidth needs, designed for small scale projects which need wireless connection.

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Zip (file format)

ZIP is an archive file format that supports lossless data compression.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OSI_model

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