273 relations: Acorn, Acute oak decline, Addlestone, Algeria, Andricus foecundatrix, Andricus kollari, Andricus quercuscalicis, Anemophily, Angel Oak, Anorexia (symptom), Artois, Asia, Badnjak (Serbian), Baltic mythology, Barrel, Basque Country (autonomous community), Beech, Beetle, Bible, Birch, Biscay, Blekinge, Bourbon whiskey, Bourne, Lincolnshire, Bowthorpe Oak, Brady Haran, Brandy, Bulgaria, Bung, Butterfly, Calybium and cupule, Carl Linnaeus, Castanopsis, Casuarinaceae, Catkin, Cattle, Celtic polytheism, Central America, Chandra Prakash Kala, Charleston, South Carolina, Charter Oak, Chatti, Cheese, Christmas, Civic Crown, Clade, Commander, Connecticut, Conservative Party (UK), County Kildare, ..., County Londonderry, Cyprus, Deciduous, Dehesa, Democrats of the Left, Derry, Deutsche Mark, Dodona, Domestic pig, Donar's Oak, Dry rot, Dutch elm disease, East Bay (San Francisco Bay Area), East Bay Regional Park District, Eigersund, Emancipation Oak, Endurance, England, Epirus, Ericaceae, Erysiphe alphitoides, Estonia, Euro, Europe, European pied flycatcher, Evergreen, Evolution, Fagaceae, Flowering plant, Foamy bark canker, Folklore, France, Friendship Oak (Long Beach, Mississippi), Furniture, Gale, Gall, Gall wasp, Gastroenteritis, Gene flow, Genus, Georgia (U.S. state), German Army (German Empire), Germany, Goat, Gommecourt, Pas-de-Calais, Greek mythology, Grevillea robusta, Hayes, Bromley, Hematuria, Horse, Horse colic, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, Hybrid (biology), Illinois, Introgression, Iowa, Irish language, Irish whiskey, Iron gall ink, Italy, John Everett Millais, Johns Island, South Carolina, Jordan, Jurupa Oak, Kermes (insect), Keystone species, Kildare, Larva, Latin, Latvia, Latvian mythology, Lauraceae, Laurel forest, Leaching (chemistry), Leaf, Leather, Lepidoptera, Lieutenant colonel (United States), Lieutenant commander, List of individual trees, List of national trees, List of Quercus species, List of U.S. state and territory trees, Lithocarpus, Lithuania, Lithuanian mythology, Live oak, London, Long Beach, Mississippi, Longship, Lymantria dispar dispar, Major (United States), Major Oak, Man-of-war, Mandeville, Louisiana, Maple, Marcescence, Marek Żukow-Karczewski, Maryland, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Mediterranean Sea, Mexico, Middle Ages, Moldova, Morocco, Moth, National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, Neuroterus quercusbaccarum, New Jersey, Norse mythology, North America, Northern Ireland, Norway, Nut (fruit), Oak (wine), Oak apple, Oak leaf cluster, Oak processionary, Oak wilt, Oak-heath forest, Oakland, California, Oakville, Ontario, Oliver Cromwell, Oomycete, Oracle, Pannage, Perkūnas, Perun, Phytophthora ramorum, Poland, Portugal, Powdery mildew, Prince Edward Island, Progressive Democrats, Prussian mythology, Quarter sawing, Quercus alba, Quercus alnifolia, Quercus coccifera, Quercus coccinea, Quercus ilex, Quercus montana, Quercus muehlenbergii, Quercus nigra, Quercus pagoda, Quercus petraea, Quercus phellos, Quercus robur, Quercus rubra, Quercus shumardii, Quercus stellata, Quercus suber, Quercus virginiana, Raleigh, North Carolina, Republic of Ireland, Robin Hood, Romania, Roof shingle, Royal Oak, Royal Oak Foundation, San Francisco Bay Area, Scale insect, Scotch whisky, Section (botany), Serbia, Serbian Orthodox Church, Seven Sisters Oak, Shechem, Sheep, Sherry, Sherwood Forest, Ship, Shrub, Single barrel whiskey, Slavic paganism, Smoking (cooking), South America, Southgate, London, Spain, Species, Species problem, Spiral, Stigma (botany), Subgenus, Sweden, Symbol, Tanbark, Tannic acid, Tannin, Tanning (leather), Taranis, Temperate climate, The Proscribed Royalist, 1651, Thor, Timber framing, Tory, Traditional Korean roof construction, Tree, Trees in mythology, Tropics, Truffle, United Kingdom, United States, United States Armed Forces, United States Congress, United States Navy, United States Navy staff corps, University of Nottingham, Vanillin, Vest-Agder, Vikings, Virtue, Wales, Wicca, Wilhelm II, German Emperor, Wine, Wood, Woodboring beetle, Woodland Trust, World War I, Wye Oak, Yamaha Drums, Zeus. Expand index (223 more) » « Shrink index
The acorn, or oak nut, is the nut of the oaks and their close relatives (genera Quercus and Lithocarpus, in the family Fagaceae).
Acute oak decline is a disease that infects oak trees in the UK.
Addlestone is a town in Surrey, England, just within the M25 southwest of London.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Andricus foecundatrix (formerly Andricus fecundator) is a parthenogenetic gall wasp which lays a single egg within a leaf bud, using its ovipositor, to produce a gall known as an oak artichoke gall, oak hop gall, larch-cone gall or hop strobile The gall develops as a chemically induced distortion of leaf axillary or terminal buds on pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) or sessile oak (Quercus petraea) trees.
Andricus kollari is species of wasp which causes the formation of marble galls on oak trees.
Andricus quercuscalicis is a gall wasp species inducing knopper galls.
Anemophily or wind pollination is a form of pollination whereby pollen is distributed by wind.
Angel Oak is a Southern live oak (Quercus virginiana) located in Angel Oak Park on Johns Island near Charleston, South Carolina.
Anorexia (from Ancient Greek ανορεξία: 'ἀν-' "without" + 'όρεξις', spelled 'órexis' meaning "appetite") is the decreased sensation of appetite.
Artois (adjective Artesian; Artesië) is a region of northern France.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
The badnjak (Cyrillic: бадњак), also called veseljak (весељак,, literally "jovial one" in Serbian), is a tree branch or young tree brought into the house and placed on the fire on the evening of Christmas Eve, a central tradition in Serbian Christmas celebrations.
Baltic mythology is the body of mythology of the Baltic people stemming from Baltic paganism and continuing after Christianization and into Baltic folklore.
A barrel, cask, or tun is a hollow cylindrical container, traditionally made of wooden staves bound by wooden or metal hoops.
The Basque Country (Euskadi; País Vasco; Pays Basque), officially the Basque Autonomous Community (Euskal Autonomia Erkidegoa, EAE; Comunidad Autónoma Vasca, CAV) is an autonomous community in northern Spain.
Beech (Fagus) is a genus of deciduous trees in the family Fagaceae, native to temperate Europe, Asia, and North America.
Beetles are a group of insects that form the order Coleoptera, in the superorder Endopterygota.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
A birch is a thin-leaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams.
Biscay (Bizkaia; Vizcaya) is a province of Spain located just south of the Bay of Biscay.
Blekinge is one of the traditional provinces of Sweden (landskap), situated in the south of the country.
Bourbon whiskey is a type of American whiskey, a barrel-aged distilled spirit made primarily from corn.
Bourne is an English market town and civil parish in the South Kesteven district of Lincolnshire.
Bowthorpe Oak in Manthorpe near Bourne, Lincolnshire, England is perhaps England's oldest oak tree with an estimated age of over 1,000 years.
Brady John Haran (born 18 June 1976) is an Australian-born British independent filmmaker and video journalist who is known for his educational videos and documentary films produced for BBC News and his YouTube channels, the most notable being Periodic Videos and Numberphile.
Brandy is a spirit produced by distilling wine.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
A bung, stopper or cork is a truncated cylindrical or conical closure to seal a container, such as a bottle, tube or barrel.
Butterflies are insects in the macrolepidopteran clade Rhopalocera from the order Lepidoptera, which also includes moths.
The calybium and the cupule make up the accessory fruit of flowering plants in the family Fagaceae.
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
Castanopsis, commonly called chinquapin or chinkapin, is a genus of evergreen trees belonging to the beech family, Fagaceae.
The Casuarinaceae are a family of dicotyledonous flowering plants placed in the order Fagales, consisting of four genera and 91 species of trees and shrubs native to the Australia, Southeast Asia, Malesia, Papuasia, and the Pacific Islands.
A catkin or ament is a slim, cylindrical flower cluster (a spike), with inconspicuous or no petals, usually wind-pollinated (anemophilous) but sometimes insect-pollinated (as in Salix).
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
Celtic polytheism, commonly known as Celtic paganism, comprises the religious beliefs and practices adhered to by the Iron Age people of Western Europe now known as the Celts, roughly between 500 BCE and 500 CE, spanning the La Tène period and the Roman era, and in the case of the Insular Celts the British and Irish Iron Age.
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
Chandra Prakash Kala is an Indian ecologist and professor.
Charleston is the oldest and largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina, the county seat of Charleston County, and the principal city in the Charleston–North Charleston–Summerville Metropolitan Statistical Area.
The Charter Oak was an unusually large white oak tree growing on Wyllys Hyll in Hartford, Connecticut in the United States, from around the 12th or 13th century until it fell during a storm in 1856.
The Chatti (also Chatthi or Catti) were an ancient Germanic tribe whose homeland was near the upper Weser.
Cheese is a dairy product derived from milk that is produced in a wide range of flavors, textures, and forms by coagulation of the milk protein casein.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Civic Crown (corona civica) was a military decoration during the Roman Republic and the subsequent Principate, regarded as the second highest to which a citizen could aspire (the Grass Crown being held in higher regard).
A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".
Commander is a common naval and air force officer rank.
Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.
County Kildare (Contae Chill Dara) is a county in Ireland.
County Londonderry (Contae Dhoire; Ulster-Scots: Coontie Lunnonderrie), also known as County Derry, is one of the six counties of Northern Ireland.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term deciduous (/dɪˈsɪdʒuəs/) means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usually in the autumn; to the shedding of petals, after flowering; and to the shedding of ripe fruit.
A dehesa is a multifunctional, agrosylvopastoral system (a type of agroforestry) and cultural landscape of southern and central Spain and southern Portugal; in Portugal, it is known as a montado.
The Democrats of the Left (Democratici di Sinistra, DS) was a social-democratic political party in Italy.
Derry, officially Londonderry, is the second-largest city in Northern Ireland and the fourth-largest city on the island of Ireland.
The Deutsche Mark ("German mark"), abbreviated "DM" or, was the official currency of West Germany from 1948 until 1990 and later the unified Germany from 1990 until 2002.
Dodona (Doric Greek: Δωδώνα, Dōdṓna, Ionic and Attic Greek: Δωδώνη, Dōdṓnē) in Epirus in northwestern Greece was the oldest Hellenic oracle, possibly dating to the second millennium BCE according to Herodotus.
The domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus or only Sus domesticus), often called swine, hog, or simply pig when there is no need to distinguish it from other pigs, is a large, even-toed ungulate.
Jove's Oak (interpretatio romana for Donar's Oak and therefore sometimes referred to as Thor's Oak) was a sacred tree of the Germanic pagans located in an unclear location around what is now the region of Hesse, Germany.
Dry rot is wood decay caused by certain species of fungi that digest parts of the wood which give the wood strength and stiffness.
Dutch elm disease (DED) is caused by a member of the sac fungi (Ascomycota) affecting elm trees, and is spread by elm bark beetles.
The eastern region of the San Francisco Bay Area, commonly referred to as the East Bay, includes cities along the eastern shores of the San Francisco Bay and San Pablo Bay.
The East Bay Regional Park District (EBRPD) is a special district operating in Alameda County and Contra Costa County, California, within the East Bay area of the San Francisco Bay Area.
Eigersund is a municipality in Rogaland county, Norway.
Emancipation Oak is a historic tree on the campus of Hampton University in what is now the City of Hampton, Virginia in the United States.
Endurance (also related to sufferance, resilience, constitution, fortitude, and hardiness) is the ability of an organism to exert itself and remain active for a long period of time, as well as its ability to resist, withstand, recover from, and have immunity to trauma, wounds, or fatigue.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Epirus is a geographical and historical region in southeastern Europe, now shared between Greece and Albania.
The Ericaceae are a family of flowering plants, commonly known as the heath or heather family, found most commonly in acid and infertile growing conditions.
Erysiphe alphitoides is a species of fungus which causes powdery mildew on oak trees.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) is a small passerine bird in the Old World flycatcher family.
In botany, an evergreen is a plant that has leaves throughout the year, always green.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Fagaceae is a family of flowering plants that includes beeches and oaks, and comprises eight genera with about 927 species.
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.
The foamy bark canker is a disease affecting oak trees in California caused by the fungus Geosmithia pallida and spread by the Western oak bark beetle (Pseudopityopthorus pubipennis).
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Friendship Oak is a 500-year-old southern live oak (Quercus virginiana) located on the Gulf Park campus of the University of Southern Mississippi in Long Beach, Mississippi.
Furniture refers to movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating (e.g., chairs, stools, and sofas), eating (tables), and sleeping (e.g., beds).
A gale is a strong wind, typically used as a descriptor in nautical contexts.
Galls or cecidia are a kind of swelling growth on the external tissues of plants or animals.
Gall wasps, also called gallflies, are a family (Cynipidae) in the wasp superfamily Cynipoidea within the suborder Apocrita of the order Hymenoptera.
Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract -- the stomach and small intestine.
In population genetics, gene flow (also known as gene migration or allele flow) is the transfer of genetic variation from one population to another.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States.
The Imperial German Army (Deutsches Heer) was the name given to the combined land and air forces of the German Empire (excluding the Marine-Fliegerabteilung maritime aviation formations of the Imperial German Navy).
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.
Gommecourt is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region of France.
Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.
Grevillea robusta, commonly known as the southern silky oak, silk oak or silky oak, or Australian silver oak, is a flowering plant in the family Proteaceae.
Hayes is a suburb of the London Borough of Bromley, historically it was a village in Kent and retains much of that identity and retains typical features such a village hall, pub, farm and yearly Fête.
Hematuria is the presence of red blood cells in the urine.
The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.
Colic in horses is defined as abdominal pain, but it is a clinical sign rather than a diagnosis.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
In biology, a hybrid, or crossbreed, is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction.
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.
Introgression, also known as introgressive hybridization, in genetics is the movement of a gene (gene flow) from one species into the gene pool of another by the repeated backcrossing of an interspecific hybrid with one of its parent species.
Iowa is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States, bordered by the Mississippi River to the east and the Missouri and Big Sioux rivers to the west.
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
Irish whiskey (Fuisce or uisce beatha) is whiskey made on the island of Ireland.
Iron gall ink (also known as iron gall nut ink, oak gall ink, and common ink) is a purple-black or brown-black ink made from iron salts and tannic acids from vegetable sources.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Sir John Everett Millais, 1st Baronet, PRA (8 June 1829 – 13 August 1896) was an English painter and illustrator who was one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.
Johns Island, also spelled John's Island, is an island in Charleston County, South Carolina, United States, and is the largest island in the state of South Carolina.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
The Jurupa Oak is a clonal colony of Quercus palmeri (Palmer's oak) trees in the Jurupa Mountains in Crestmore Heights, Riverside County, California.
Kermes is a genus of scale insects in the order Hemiptera.
A keystone species is a species that has a disproportionately large effect on its environment relative to its abundance.
Kildare is a town in County Kildare, Ireland.
A larva (plural: larvae) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
Latvian mythology is set of paganic beliefs of Latvian people reconstructed from written evidence and folklore materials.
Lauraceae are the laurel family, that includes the true laurel and its closest relatives.
Laurel forest, also called laurisilva or laurissilva, is a type of subtropical forest found in areas with high humidity and relatively stable, mild temperatures.
Leaching is the process of extracting substances from a solid by dissolving them in a liquid, either naturally or through an industrial process.
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.
Leather is a durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhides, mostly cattle hide.
Lepidoptera is an order of insects that includes butterflies and moths (both are called lepidopterans).
In the United States Army, U.S. Marine Corps, and U.S. Air Force, a lieutenant colonel is a field grade military officer rank just above the rank of major and just below the rank of colonel.
Lieutenant commander (also hyphenated lieutenant-commander and abbreviated LCdr, LCdr. or LCDR) is a commissioned officer rank in many navies.
The following is a list of notable trees from around the world.
This is a list of national trees, most official, but some unofficial.
The genus ''Quercus'' (oak) contains about 600 species,David J. Mabberley.
This is a list of U.S. state and territory trees, including official trees of the following states and U.S. territories (and the District of Columbia).
Lithocarpus is a genus in the beech family, Fagaceae, differing from Quercus in the erect spikes of insect-pollinated male flowers and the short styles with punctate stigmas on the female flowers.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Lithuanian mythology is a type of Baltic mythology, developed by Lithuanians throughout the centuries.
Live oak or evergreen oak is any of a number of oaks in several different sections of the genus Quercus that share the characteristic of evergreen foliage.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Long Beach is a city (incorporated August 10, 1905) located in Harrison County, Mississippi, United States.
Longships were a type of ship invented and used by the Norsemen (commonly known as the Vikings) for commerce, exploration, and warfare during the Viking Age.
Lymantria dispar dispar, commonly known as the gypsy moth, European gypsy moth, or North American gypsy moth, is a moth in the family Erebidae that is of Eurasian origin.
In the United States Army, Marine Corps, and Air Force, major is a field grade military officer rank above the rank of captain and below the rank of lieutenant colonel.
The Major Oak is a large English oak (Quercus robur) near the village of Edwinstowe in the midst of Sherwood Forest, Nottinghamshire, England.
The man-of-war (pl. men-of-war; also man of war, man-o'-war, man o' war, or simply man) was a British Royal Navy expression for a powerful warship or frigate from the 16th to the 19th century.
Mandeville is a small city in St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana, United States.
Acer is a genus of trees or shrubs commonly known as maple.
Marcescence is the retention of dead plant organs that normally are shed.
Marek Żukow-Karczewski (born May 6, 1961) is a Polish historian, journalist, and author who specializes in the history of Poland, especially Kraków, and in the history of architecture and environmental issues.
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east.
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (often Mecklenburg-West Pomerania in English and commonly shortened to "Meck-Pomm" or even "McPom" or "M-V" in German) is a federal state in northern Germany.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Moldova (or sometimes), officially the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south (by way of the disputed territory of Transnistria).
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Moths comprise a group of insects related to butterflies, belonging to the order Lepidoptera.
The National Trust, formally the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, is a conservation organisation in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, and the largest membership organisation in the United Kingdom.
The common spangle gall on the underside of leaves and the currant gall on the male catkins or occasionally the leaves, develop as chemically induced distortions on pedunculate oak (Quercus robur), or sessile oak (Quercus petraea) trees, caused by the cynipid wasp Neuroterus quercusbaccarum which has both agamic and bisexual generations.
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.
Norse mythology is the body of myths of the North Germanic people stemming from Norse paganism and continuing after the Christianization of Scandinavia and into the Scandinavian folklore of the modern period.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
A nut is a fruit composed of an inedible hard shell and a seed, which is generally edible.
Oak is used in winemaking to vary the color, flavor, tannin profile and texture of wine.
Oak apple or oak gall is the common name for a large, round, vaguely apple-like gall commonly found on many species of oak.
An oak leaf cluster is a miniature bronze or silver twig of four oak leaves with three acorns on the stem that is authorized by the United States Armed Forces as a ribbon device for a specific set of decorations and awards of the Department of Defense, Department of the Army, and Department of the Air Force to denote subsequent decorations and awards.
The oak processionary (Thaumetopoea processionea) is a moth whose caterpillars can be found in oak forests.
Oak wilt is a fungal disease affecting oak trees caused by the fungus Bretiziella fagacearum.
An oak-heath forest is a plant community association and type of forest ecology.
Oakland is the largest city and the county seat of Alameda County, California, United States.
Oakville is a suburban town in southern Ontario, located in Halton Region on Lake Ontario halfway between Toronto and Hamilton, and is part of the Greater Toronto Area, one of the most densely-populated areas of Canada.
Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English military and political leader.
Oomycota or oomycetes form a distinct phylogenetic lineage of fungus-like eukaryotic microorganisms.
In classical antiquity, an oracle was a person or agency considered to provide wise and insightful counsel or prophetic predictions or precognition of the future, inspired by the god.
Pannage is the practice of releasing livestock-pigs in a forest, so that they can feed on fallen acorns, beechmast, chestnuts or other nuts.
Perkūnas (Perkūnas, Pērkons, Old Prussian: Perkūns, Yotvingian: Parkuns) was the common Baltic god of thunder, one of the most important deities in the Baltic pantheon.
In Slavic mythology, Perun (Cyrillic: Перун) is the highest god of the pantheon and the god of thunder and lightning.
Phytophthora ramorum is the oomycete plant pathogen known to cause the disease sudden oak death (SOD).
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Powdery mildew is a fungal disease that affects a wide range of plants.
Prince Edward Island (PEI or P.E.I.; Île-du-Prince-Édouard) is a province of Canada consisting of the island of the same name, and several much smaller islands.
The Progressive Democrats (An Páirtí Daonlathach, literally The Democratic Party, PDs) was a conservative-liberal political party in the Republic of Ireland.
The Prussian mythology was a polytheistic religion of the Old Prussians, indigenous peoples of Prussia before the Prussian Crusade waged by the Teutonic Knights.
Quarter sawing also quarter-cut is a type of cut in the rip-sawing of logs into lumber.
Quercus alba, the white oak, is one of the preeminent hardwoods of eastern and central North America.
Quercus alnifolia, commonly known as the golden oak, is an evergreen oak species of Cyprus.
Quercus coccifera, the kermes oak, is an oak tree in the ''Quercus'' section ''Cerris''.
Quercus coccinea, the scarlet oak, is an oak in the red oak section Quercus sect.
Quercus ilex, the evergreen oak, holly oak or holm oak, is a large evergreen oak native to the Mediterranean region.
Quercus montana, the chestnut oak, is a species of oak in the white oak group, Quercus sect.
Quercus muehlenbergii, the chinkapin oak (or chinquapin oak), is an oak in the white oak group (Quercus sect. Quercus).
Quercus nigra, the water oak, is an oak in the red oak group (Quercus sect. Lobatae), native to the eastern and south-central United States, found in all the coastal states from New Jersey to Texas, and inland as far as Oklahoma, Kentucky, and southern Missouri.
Quercus pagoda, the cherrybark oak, is one of the most highly valued red oaks in the southern United States.
Quercus petraea, commonly known as the sessile oak, Cornish oak, or durmast oak, is a species of oak tree native to most of Europe and into Anatolia and Iran.
Quercus phellos (willow oak) is a North American species of a deciduous tree in the red oak group of oaks.
Quercus robur, commonly known as common oak, pedunculate oak, European oak or English oak, is a species of flowering plant in the beech and oak family, Fagaceae.
Quercus rubra, commonly called northern red oak, or champion oak, (syn. Quercus borealis), is an oak in the red oak group (Quercus section Lobatae).
Quercus shumardii, the Shumard oak, spotted oak, Schneck oak, Shumard red oak, or swamp red oak, is one of the largest of the oak species in the red oak group (Quercus section Lobatae).
Quercus stellata (post oak, iron oak) is a North American species of oak in the white oak section.
Quercus suber, commonly called the cork oak, is a medium-sized, evergreen oak tree in the section ''Quercus'' sect. ''Cerris''.
Quercus virginiana, also known as the southern live oak, is an evergreen oak tree native to the southeastern United States.
Raleigh is the capital of the state of North Carolina and the seat of Wake County in the United States.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
Robin Hood is a legendary heroic outlaw originally depicted in English folklore and subsequently featured in literature and film.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Roof shingles are a roof covering consisting of individual overlapping elements.
The Royal Oak is the English oak tree within which the future King Charles II of England hid to escape the Roundheads following the Battle of Worcester in 1651.
The Royal Oak Foundation is an alliance of American citizens supporting the mission of the National Trust of England, Wales and Northern Ireland, which is Britain's largest heritage organisation.
The San Francisco Bay Area (popularly referred to as the Bay Area) is a populous region surrounding the San Francisco, San Pablo and Suisun estuaries in the northern part of the U.S. state of California.
The scale insects are small insects of the order Hemiptera, suborder Sternorrhyncha.
Scotch whisky (often simply called Scotch) is malt whisky or grain whisky made in Scotland.
In botany, a section (sectio) is a taxonomic rank below the genus, but above the species.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
The Serbian Orthodox Church (Српска православна црква / Srpska pravoslavna crkva) is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Christian Churches.
The Seven Sisters Oak is the largest certified southern live oak tree.
Shechem, also spelled Sichem (שְׁכָם / Standard Šəḵem Tiberian Šeḵem, "shoulder"), was a Canaanite city mentioned in the Amarna letters, and is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible as an Israelite city of the tribe of Manasseh and the first capital of the Kingdom of Israel.
Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.
Sherry (Jerez or) is a fortified wine made from white grapes that are grown near the city of Jerez de la Frontera in Andalusia, Spain.
Sherwood Forest is a royal forest in Nottinghamshire, England, famous by its historic association with the legend of Robin Hood.
A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep waterways, carrying passengers or goods, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, research and fishing.
A shrub or bush is a small to medium-sized woody plant.
Single barrel whisky (or single cask whisky) is a premium class of whisky in which each bottle comes from an individual aging barrel, instead of being created by blending together the contents of various barrels to provide uniformity of color and taste.
Slavic paganism or Slavic religion define the religious beliefs, godlores and ritual practices of the Slavs before the formal Christianisation of their ruling elites.
Smoking is the process of flavoring, browning, cooking, or preserving food by exposing it to smoke from burning or smoldering material, most often wood.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
Southgate is a suburban area of north London, England in the London Borough of Enfield.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
The species problem is the set of questions that arises when biologists attempt to define what a species is.
In mathematics, a spiral is a curve which emanates from a point, moving farther away as it revolves around the point.
The stigma (plural: stigmata) is the receptive tip of a carpel, or of several fused carpels, in the gynoecium of a flower.
In biology, a subgenus (plural: subgenera) is a taxonomic rank directly below genus.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
A symbol is a mark, sign or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship.
Tanbark is the bark of certain species of tree.
Tannic acid is a specific form of tannin, a type of polyphenol.
Tannins (or tannoids) are a class of astringent, polyphenolic biomolecules that bind to and precipitate proteins and various other organic compounds including amino acids and alkaloids.
Tanned leather in Marrakesh Tanning is the process of treating skins and hides of animals to produce leather.
In Celtic mythology Taranis was the god of thunder worshipped primarily in Gaul, Gallaecia, the British Isles, but also in the Rhineland and Danube regions, amongst others.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
The Proscribed Royalist, 1651 (1853) is a painting by John Everett Millais which depicts a young Puritan woman protecting a fleeing Royalist after the Battle of Worcester in 1651, the decisive defeat of Charles II by Oliver Cromwell.
In Norse mythology, Thor (from Þórr) is the hammer-wielding god of thunder, lightning, storms, oak trees, strength, the protection of mankind, in addition to hallowing, and fertility.
Timber framing and "post-and-beam" construction are traditional methods of building with heavy timbers, creating structures using squared-off and carefully fitted and joined timbers with joints secured by large wooden pegs.
A Tory is a person who holds a political philosophy, known as Toryism, based on a British version of traditionalism and conservatism, which upholds the supremacy of social order as it has evolved throughout history.
Traditional Korean roof construction has traditionally used many kinds of natural materials.
In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species.
Trees are significant in many of the world's mythologies and religions, and have been given deep and sacred meanings throughout the ages.
The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.
A truffle is the fruiting body of a subterranean Ascomycete fungus, predominantly one of the many species of the genus Tuber.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
In the United States Navy, commissioned officers are either line officers or staff corps officers.
The University of Nottingham is a public research university in Nottingham, United Kingdom.
Vanillin is a phenolic aldehyde, which is an organic compound with the molecular formula C8H8O3.
Vest-Agder (West Agder) is a county in Norway, bordering Rogaland to the West and Aust-Agder to the East.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
Virtue (virtus, ἀρετή "arete") is moral excellence.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
Wicca, also termed Pagan Witchcraft, is a contemporary Pagan new religious movement.
Wilhelm II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern; 27 January 18594 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918.
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.
The term woodboring beetle encompasses many species and families of beetles whose larval or adult forms eat and destroy wood (i.e., are xylophagous).
The Woodland Trust is the largest woodland conservation charity in the United Kingdom concerned with the creation, protection, and restoration of native woodland heritage.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
The Wye Oak was the largest white oak tree in the United States and the State Tree of Maryland from 1941 until its demise in 2002.
Yamaha Drums is a subsidiary of the Yamaha Corporation founded in 1967.
Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeús) is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.