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Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Index Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is an American multiprogram science and technology national laboratory sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and administered, managed, and operated by UT-Battelle as a federally funded research and development center (FFRDC) under a contract with the DOE. [1]

182 relations: Air pollution, Alvin M. Weinberg, Alvin Trivelpiece, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Locomotive Company, American Museum of Science and Energy, Antarctica, Argonne National Laboratory, Atom, Atomic nucleus, Battelle Memorial Institute, BBC, Berkelium, Biofuel, Bioinformatics, Biological agent, Biology, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Carbon neutrality, Catalysis, Caterpillar Inc., Cell wall, Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Ceramic, Chemical weapon, Chemistry, Chicago Pile-1, Clinton Engineer Works, Computational biology, Condensed matter physics, Contract, Cray XK7, Cray XT3, Cray XT5, Critical mass, Desalination, Distributed computing, Dosimeter, Dosimetry, Electromagnet, Electron microscope, Embryo, Energy security, Enriched uranium, Enrico Fermi, Federal Laboratory Consortium, Federally funded research and development centers, FLOPS, Forensic science, Free software, ..., Fusion power, Genomics, Geochemistry, Geographic information system, Graphics processing unit, Greenland, Health effects of pesticides, Health effects of tobacco, Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, Herman Postma, High Flux Isotope Reactor, High-temperature superconductivity, IBM System/360, Immune system, In vitro fertilisation, Intel Paragon, Isotopes in medicine, Isotopes of californium, ITER, Jack Dongarra, Jaguar (supercomputer), John F. Kennedy, K-25, Karl Z. Morgan, Kibibit, Knoxville, Tennessee, Light-water reactor, Limited liability partnership, Linear algebra, LINPACK, LINPACK benchmarks, Liquid nitrogen, Lithium-ion battery, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lyndon B. Johnson, Manganese, Manhattan Project, Martin Marietta, Mass spectrometry, Materials science, Matter, Microsecond, Military science, Millicent Dillon, Molten salt reactor, Molten-Salt Reactor Experiment, Monsanto, Nanomaterials, Nanotechnology, National Center for Computational Sciences, National security, National Transportation Research Center, Neutron, Neutron flux, Neutron scattering, Neutron source, Nitrogen, Nuclear marine propulsion, Nuclear medicine, Nuclear physics, Nuclear proliferation, Nuclear reactor, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility, Oak Ridge School of Reactor Technology, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Oncology, ORACLE (computer), Panama Canal Zone, Parallel Virtual Machine, Particle accelerator, Physics, Plasma (physics), Plutonium, Polymer, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Protein folding, Quantum mechanics, Racial segregation in the United States, Radionuclide, Radiopharmacology, Random-access memory, Reactor pressure vessel, Reaganomics, Research reactor, Robert Reich, Sandia National Laboratories, Savannah River National Laboratory, Spallation, Spallation Neutron Source, Structural biology, Subatomic particle, Summit (supercomputer), Supercomputer, Superconductivity, Surface science, Surrogacy, Switzerland, Systems biology, Tennessee, Tennessine, The New York Times, The Oak Ridger, Thorium Energy Alliance, Three Mile Island accident, Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station, Titan (supercomputer), Tokamak, Tomography, TOP500, Union Carbide, United States, United States Agency for International Development, United States Air Force, United States Armed Forces, United States Army, United States Army Corps of Engineers, United States Atomic Energy Commission, United States Department of Energy, United States Department of Energy national laboratories, United States Department of Homeland Security, United States Navy, University of Chicago, University of Tennessee, Uranium-233, Uranium-235, UT–Battelle, Whistleblower, Word (computer architecture), World War II, X-10 Graphite Reactor, Y-12 National Security Complex. Expand index (132 more) »

Air pollution

Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.

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Alvin M. Weinberg

Alvin Martin Weinberg (April 20, 1915 – October 18, 2006) was an American nuclear physicist who was the administrator at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during and after the Manhattan Project.

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Alvin Trivelpiece

Dr.

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American Association for the Advancement of Science

The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, and supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity.

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American Locomotive Company

The American Locomotive Company, often shortened to ALCO, ALCo or Alco, designed, built and sold steam locomotives, diesel-electric locomotives, diesel engines and generators, specialized forgings, high quality steel, armed tanks and automobiles and produced nuclear energy.

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American Museum of Science and Energy

The American Museum of Science and Energy (AMSE) is a science museum in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, designed to teach both children and adults about energy, especially nuclear power, and to document the role Oak Ridge played in the Manhattan Project.

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Antarctica

Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.

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Argonne National Laboratory

Argonne National Laboratory is a science and engineering research national laboratory operated by the University of Chicago Argonne LLC for the United States Department of Energy located near Lemont, Illinois, outside Chicago.

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Atom

An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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Atomic nucleus

The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.

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Battelle Memorial Institute

Battelle Memorial Institute (more widely known as simply Battelle) is a private nonprofit applied science and technology development company headquartered in Columbus, Ohio.

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BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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Berkelium

Berkelium is a transuranic radioactive chemical element with symbol Bk and atomic number 97.

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Biofuel

A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter.

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Bioinformatics

Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools for understanding biological data.

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Biological agent

A biological agent—also called bio-agent, biological threat agent, biological warfare agent, biological weapon, or bioweapon—is a bacterium, virus, protozoan, parasite, or fungus that can be used purposefully as a weapon in bioterrorism or biological warfare (BW).

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Biology

Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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Brookhaven National Laboratory

Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory located in Upton, New York, on Long Island, and was formally established in 1947 at the site of Camp Upton, a former U.S. Army base.

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Carbon neutrality

Carbon neutrality, or having a net zero carbon footprint, refers to achieving net zero carbon emissions by balancing a measured amount of carbon released with an equivalent amount sequestered or offset, or buying enough carbon credits to make up the difference.

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Catalysis

Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.

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Caterpillar Inc.

Caterpillar Inc. is an American Fortune 100 corporation which designs, develops, engineers, manufactures, markets and sells machinery, engines, financial products and insurance to customers via a worldwide dealer network.

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Cell wall

A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane.

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Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences

The Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences(CNMS) was the first to open of the five Nanoscale Science Research Centers the United States Department of Energy sponsors.

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Ceramic

A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.

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Chemical weapon

A chemical weapon (CW) is a specialized munition that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on humans.

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Chemistry

Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.

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Chicago Pile-1

Chicago Pile-1 (CP-1) was the world's first nuclear reactor.

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Clinton Engineer Works

The Clinton Engineer Works (CEW) was the production installation of the Manhattan Project that during World War II produced the enriched uranium used in the 1945 bombing of Hiroshima, as well as the first examples of reactor-produced plutonium.

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Computational biology

Computational biology involves the development and application of data-analytical and theoretical methods, mathematical modeling and computational simulation techniques to the study of biological, behavioral, and social systems.

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Condensed matter physics

Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic and microscopic physical properties of matter.

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Contract

A contract is a promise or set of promises that are legally enforceable and, if violated, allow the injured party access to legal remedies.

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Cray XK7

XK7 is a supercomputing platform, produced by Cray, launched on October 29, 2012.

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Cray XT3

The Cray XT3 is a distributed memory massively parallel MIMD supercomputer designed by Cray Inc. with Sandia National Laboratories under the codename Red Storm.

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Cray XT5

The Cray XT5 is an updated version of the Cray XT4 supercomputer, launched on November 6, 2007.

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Critical mass

A critical mass is the smallest amount of fissile material needed for a sustained nuclear chain reaction.

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Desalination

Desalination is a process that extracts mineral components from saline water.

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Distributed computing

Distributed computing is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems.

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Dosimeter

A radiation dosimeter is a device that measures exposure to ionizing radiation.

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Dosimetry

Radiation dosimetry in the fields of health physics and radiation protection is the measurement, calculation and assessment of the ionizing radiation dose absorbed by the human body.

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Electromagnet

An electromagnet is a type of magnet in which the magnetic field is produced by an electric current.

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Electron microscope

An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.

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Embryo

An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.

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Energy security

Energy security is the association between national security and the availability of natural resources for energy consumption.

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Enriched uranium

Enriched uranium is a type of uranium in which the percent composition of uranium-235 has been increased through the process of isotope separation.

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Enrico Fermi

Enrico Fermi (29 September 1901 – 28 November 1954) was an Italian-American physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1.

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Federal Laboratory Consortium

The Federal Laboratory Consortium for Technology Transfer (FLC) is a U.S.-based nationwide network of federal laboratories that provides the forum to develop strategies and opportunities to help transfer laboratory mission technologies into commercial products for the global marketplace.

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Federally funded research and development centers

Federally funded research and development centers (FFRDCs) are public-private partnerships which conduct research for the United States Government.

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FLOPS

In computing, floating point operations per second (FLOPS, flops or flop/s) is a measure of computer performance, useful in fields of scientific computations that require floating-point calculations.

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Forensic science

Forensic science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure.

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Free software

Free software or libre software is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any adapted versions.

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Fusion power

Fusion power is a form of power generation in which energy is generated by using fusion reactions to produce heat for electricity generation.

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Genomics

Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes.

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Geochemistry

Geochemistry is the science that uses the tools and principles of chemistry to explain the mechanisms behind major geological systems such as the Earth's crust and its oceans.

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Geographic information system

A geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data.

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Graphics processing unit

A graphics processing unit (GPU) is a specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly manipulate and alter memory to accelerate the creation of images in a frame buffer intended for output to a display device.

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Greenland

Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

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Health effects of pesticides

Health effects of pesticides may be acute or delayed in those who are exposed.

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Health effects of tobacco

Tobacco use has predominantly negative effects on human health and concern about health effects of tobacco has a long history.

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Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells, usually derived from bone marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood.

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Herman Postma

Herman Postma (March 29, 1933 – November 7, 2004) was an American scientist and educational leader.

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High Flux Isotope Reactor

The High Flux Isotope Reactor (or HFIR) is a nuclear research reactor located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, United States.

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High-temperature superconductivity

High-temperature superconductors (abbreviated high-Tc or HTS) are materials that behave as superconductors at unusually high temperatures.

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IBM System/360

The IBM System/360 (S/360) is a family of mainframe computer systems that was announced by IBM on April 7, 1964, and delivered between 1965 and 1978.

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Immune system

The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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In vitro fertilisation

In vitro fertilisation (IVF) is a process of fertilisation where an egg is combined with sperm outside the body, in vitro ("in glass").

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Intel Paragon

The Intel Paragon is a discontinued series of massively parallel supercomputers that was produced by Intel in the 1990s.

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Isotopes in medicine

A medical isotope is an isotope used in medicine.

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Isotopes of californium

Californium (98Cf) is an artificial element, and thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given.

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ITER

ITER (Latin for "the way") is an international nuclear fusion research and engineering megaproject, which will be the world's largest magnetic confinement plasma physics experiment.

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Jack Dongarra

Jack J. Dongarra (born July 18, 1950) is an American University Distinguished Professor of Computer Science in the Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department at the University of Tennessee.

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Jaguar (supercomputer)

Jaguar or OLCF-2 was a petascale supercomputer built by Cray at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

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John F. Kennedy

John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.

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K-25

K-25 was the codename given by the Manhattan Project to the program to produce enriched uranium for atomic bombs using the gaseous diffusion method.

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Karl Z. Morgan

Karl Ziegler Morgan (September 27, 1907 – June 8, 1999), was an American physicist who was one of the founders of the field of radiation health physics.

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Kibibit

The kibibit is a multiple of the bit, a unit of digital information storage, using the standard binary prefix kibi, which has the symbol Ki, meaning 210.

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Knoxville, Tennessee

Knoxville is a city in the U.S. state of Tennessee, and the county seat of Knox County.

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Light-water reactor

The light-water reactor (LWR) is a type of thermal-neutron reactor that uses normal water, as opposed to heavy water, as both its coolant and neutron moderator – furthermore a solid form of fissile elements is used as fuel.

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Limited liability partnership

A limited liability partnership (LLP) is a partnership in which some or all partners (depending on the jurisdiction) have limited liabilities.

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Linear algebra

Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerning linear equations such as linear functions such as and their representations through matrices and vector spaces.

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LINPACK

LINPACK is a software library for performing numerical linear algebra on digital computers.

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LINPACK benchmarks

The LINPACK Benchmarks are a measure of a system's floating point computing power.

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Liquid nitrogen

Liquid nitrogen is nitrogen in a liquid state at an extremely low temperature.

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Lithium-ion battery

A lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery (abbreviated as LIB) is a type of rechargeable battery in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge and back when charging.

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Los Alamos National Laboratory

Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos or LANL for short) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory initially organized during World War II for the design of nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project.

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Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.

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Manganese

Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.

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Manhattan Project

The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.

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Martin Marietta

The Martin Marietta Corporation was an American company founded in 1961 through the merger of Glenn L. Martin Company and American Marietta Corporation.

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Mass spectrometry

Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.

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Materials science

The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids.

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Matter

In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.

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Microsecond

A microsecond is an SI unit of time equal to one millionth (0.000001 or 10−6 or 1/1,000,000) of a second.

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Military science

Military science is the study of military processes, institutions, and behavior, along with the study of warfare, and the theory and application of organized coercive force.

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Millicent Dillon

Millicent Dillon (née Gerson; born May 24, 1925) is an American writer.

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Molten salt reactor

A molten salt reactor (MSR) is a class of generation IV nuclear fission reactor in which the primary nuclear reactor coolant, or even the fuel itself, is a molten salt mixture.

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Molten-Salt Reactor Experiment

The Molten-Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) was an experimental molten salt reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) researching this technology through the 1960s; constructed by 1964, it went critical in 1965 and was operated until 1969.

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Monsanto

Monsanto Company was an agrochemical and agricultural biotechnology corporation.

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Nanomaterials

Nanomaterials describe, in principle, materials of which a single unit is sized (in at least one dimension) between 1 to 1000 nanometres (10−9 meter) but usually is 1 to 100 nm (the usual definition of nanoscale).

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Nanotechnology

Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale.

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National Center for Computational Sciences

The National Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS) is a United States Department of Energy Leadership Computing Facility.

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National security

National security refers to the security of a nation state, including its citizens, economy, and institutions, and is regarded as a duty of government.

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National Transportation Research Center

For the sigma N-transcription factor activator protein in prokaryotes, see NtrC The National Transportation Research Center (NTRC) is an institution, located in Knoxville, Tennessee, that conducts research and development aimed at increasing the efficiency and safety of transportation systems and reducing their energy utilization and effects on the environment.

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Neutron

| magnetic_moment.

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Neutron flux

The neutron flux is a scalar quantity used in nuclear physics and nuclear reactor physics.

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Neutron scattering

Neutron scattering, the irregular dispersal of free neutrons by matter, can refer to either the naturally occurring physical process itself or to the man-made experimental techniques that use the natural process for investigating materials.

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Neutron source

A neutron source is any device that emits neutrons, irrespective of the mechanism used to produce the neutrons.

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Nitrogen

Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Nuclear marine propulsion

Nuclear marine propulsion is propulsion of a ship or submarine with heat provided by a nuclear power plant.

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Nuclear medicine

Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.

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Nuclear physics

Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.

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Nuclear proliferation

Nuclear proliferation is the spread of nuclear weapons, fissionable material, and weapons-applicable nuclear technology and information to nations not recognized as "Nuclear Weapon States" by the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT.

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Nuclear reactor

A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.

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Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) is a U.S. Department of Energy institute that facilitates a variety of scientific initiatives by placing students and scholars in organizations seeking interim expertise.

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Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility

The Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF), formerly the National Leadership Computing Facility, is a designated user facility operated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Department of Energy.

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Oak Ridge School of Reactor Technology

Oak Ridge School of Reactor Technology (ORSORT) was the successor of the school known locally as the Clinch College of Nuclear Knowledge, later shorten to Clinch College.

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Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Oak Ridge is a city in Anderson and Roane counties in the eastern part of the U.S. state of Tennessee, about west of Knoxville.

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Oncology

Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.

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ORACLE (computer)

The ORACLE or Oak Ridge Automatic Computer and Logical Engine, an early computer built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, was based on the IAS architecture developed by John von Neumann.

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Panama Canal Zone

The Panama Canal Zone (Zona del Canal de Panamá) was an unincorporated territory of the United States from 1903 to 1979, centered on the Panama Canal and surrounded by the Republic of Panama.

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Parallel Virtual Machine

Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) is a software tool for parallel networking of computers.

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Particle accelerator

A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.

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Physics

Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Plasma (physics)

Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.

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Plutonium

Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.

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Polymer

A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.

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Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory for plasma physics and nuclear fusion science.

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Protein folding

Protein folding is the physical process by which a protein chain acquires its native 3-dimensional structure, a conformation that is usually biologically functional, in an expeditious and reproducible manner.

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Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

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Racial segregation in the United States

Racial segregation in the United States, as a general term, includes the segregation or separation of access to facilities, services, and opportunities such as housing, medical care, education, employment, and transportation along racial lines.

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Radionuclide

A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.

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Radiopharmacology

Radiopharmacology or medicinal radiochemistry is radiochemistry applied to medicine and thus the pharmacology of radiopharmaceuticals (medicinal radiocompounds, that is, pharmaceutical drugs that are radioactive).

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Random-access memory

Random-access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage that stores data and machine code currently being used.

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Reactor pressure vessel

A reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in a nuclear power plant is the pressure vessel containing the nuclear reactor coolant, core shroud, and the reactor core.

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Reaganomics

Reaganomics (a portmanteau of Reagan and economics attributed to Paul Harvey) refers to the economic policies promoted by U.S. President Ronald Reagan during the 1980s.

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Research reactor

Research reactors are nuclear reactors that serve primarily as a neutron source.

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Robert Reich

Robert Bernard Reich (born June 24, 1946) is an American political commentator, professor, and author.

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Sandia National Laboratories

The Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), managed and operated by the National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia (a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International), is one of three National Nuclear Security Administration research and development laboratories.

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Savannah River National Laboratory

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is a multi-program national laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Environmental Management.

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Spallation

Spallation is a process in which fragments of material (spall) are ejected from a body due to impact or stress.

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Spallation Neutron Source

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron source facility that provides the most intense pulsed neutron beams in the world for scientific research and industrial development.

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Structural biology

Structural biology is a branch of molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysics concerned with the molecular structure of biological macromolecules (especially proteins, made up of amino acids, and RNA or DNA, made up of nucleic acids), how they acquire the structures they have, and how alterations in their structures affect their function.

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Subatomic particle

In the physical sciences, subatomic particles are particles much smaller than atoms.

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Summit (supercomputer)

Summit or OLCF-4 is a supercomputer developed by IBM for use at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which as of June 8, 2018 is the fastest supercomputer in the world.

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Supercomputer

A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer.

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Superconductivity

Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.

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Surface science

Surface science is the study of physical and chemical phenomena that occur at the interface of two phases, including solid–liquid interfaces, solid–gas interfaces, solid–vacuum interfaces, and liquid–gas interfaces.

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Surrogacy

Surrogacy is a method or agreement whereby a woman agrees to carry a pregnancy for another person or persons, who will become the newborn child's parent(s) after birth.

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Switzerland

Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Systems biology

Systems biology is the computational and mathematical modeling of complex biological systems.

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Tennessee

Tennessee (translit) is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States.

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Tennessine

Tennessine is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Ts and atomic number 117.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Oak Ridger

The Oak Ridger is an American daily newspaper published Mondays through Fridays in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

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Thorium Energy Alliance

Thorium Energy Alliance (TEA) is a non-governmental, non-profit 501(c)3, educational organization based in the United States, which seeks to promote energy security of the world through the use of thorium as a fuel source.

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Three Mile Island accident

The Three Mile Island accident occurred on March 28, 1979, in reactor number 2 of Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station (TMI-2) in Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, near Harrisburg.

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Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station

Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station (TMI) is a nuclear power plant located on Three Mile Island in Londonderry Township, Pennsylvania, on the Susquehanna River just south of Harrisburg.

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Titan (supercomputer)

Titan or OLCF-3 is a supercomputer built by Cray at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in a variety of science projects. Titan is an upgrade of Jaguar, a previous supercomputer at Oak Ridge, that uses graphics processing units (GPUs) in addition to conventional central processing units (CPUs). Titan is the first such hybrid to perform over 10 petaFLOPS. The upgrade began in October 2011, commenced stability testing in October 2012 and it became available to researchers in early 2013. The initial cost of the upgrade was US$60 million, funded primarily by the United States Department of Energy. Titan is due to be eclipsed at Oak Ridge by Summit in 2019, which is being built by IBM and features fewer nodes with much greater GPU capability per node as well as local per-node non-volatile caching of file data from the system's parallel file system. Titan employs AMD Opteron CPUs in conjunction with Nvidia Tesla GPUs to improve energy efficiency while providing an order of magnitude increase in computational power over Jaguar. It uses 18,688 CPUs paired with an equal number of GPUs to perform at a theoretical peak of 27 petaFLOPS; in the LINPACK benchmark used to rank supercomputers' speed, it performed at 17.59 petaFLOPS. This was enough to take first place in the November 2012 list by the TOP500 organization, but Tianhe-2 overtook it on the June 2013 list. Titan is available for any scientific purpose; access depends on the importance of the project and its potential to exploit the hybrid architecture. Any selected programs must also be executable on other supercomputers to avoid sole dependence on Titan. Six vanguard programs were the first selected. They dealt mostly with molecular scale physics or climate models, while 25 others were queued behind them. The inclusion of GPUs compelled authors to alter their programs. The modifications typically increased the degree of parallelism, given that GPUs offer many more simultaneous threads than CPUs. The changes often yield greater performance even on CPU-only machines.

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Tokamak

A tokamak (Токамáк) is a device that uses a powerful magnetic field to confine a hot plasma in the shape of a torus.

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Tomography

Tomography is imaging by sections or sectioning, through the use of any kind of penetrating wave.

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TOP500

The TOP500 project ranks and details the 500 most powerful non-distributed computer systems in the world.

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Union Carbide

Union Carbide Corporation is a wholly owned subsidiary (since 2001) of Dow Chemical Company.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Agency for International Development

The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is an independent agency of the United States federal government that is primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid and development assistance.

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United States Air Force

The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.

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United States Armed Forces

The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.

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United States Army

The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.

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United States Army Corps of Engineers

The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is a U.S. federal agency under the Department of Defense and a major Army command made up of some 37,000 civilian and military personnel, making it one of the world's largest public engineering, design, and construction management agencies.

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United States Atomic Energy Commission

The United States Atomic Energy Commission, commonly known as the AEC, was an agency of the United States government established after World War II by U.S. Congress to foster and control the peacetime development of atomic science and technology.

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United States Department of Energy

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.

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United States Department of Energy national laboratories

The United States Department of Energy National Laboratories and Technology Centers are a system of facilities and laboratories overseen by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for the purpose of advancing science and technology to fulfill the DOE mission.

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United States Department of Homeland Security

The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is a cabinet department of the United States federal government with responsibilities in public security, roughly comparable to the interior or home ministries of other countries.

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United States Navy

The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.

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University of Chicago

The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.

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University of Tennessee

The University of Tennessee (also referred to as The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, UT Knoxville, UTK, or UT) is a public sun- and land-grant university in Knoxville, Tennessee, United States.

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Uranium-233

Uranium-233 is a fissile isotope of uranium that is bred from thorium-232 as part of the thorium fuel cycle.

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Uranium-235

Uranium-235 (235U) is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium.

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UT–Battelle

UT–Battelle, LLC is a nonprofit limited liability company (LLC) organized under the laws of Tennessee.

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Whistleblower

A whistleblower (also written as whistle-blower or whistle blower) is a person who exposes any kind of information or activity that is deemed illegal, unethical, or not correct within an organization that is either private or public.

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Word (computer architecture)

In computing, a word is the natural unit of data used by a particular processor design.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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X-10 Graphite Reactor

The X-10 Graphite Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, formerly known as the Clinton Pile and X-10 Pile, was the world's second artificial nuclear reactor (after Enrico Fermi's Chicago Pile-1), and the first designed and built for continuous operation.

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Y-12 National Security Complex

The Y-12 National Security Complex is a United States Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration facility located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, near the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

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Redirects here:

Center for Transportation Analysis, Clinton Laboratories, ORNL, ORNL Review, Oak Ridge National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Review, Site X, Site X: Oakridge.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oak_Ridge_National_Laboratory

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