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Index Obesity

Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health. [1]

256 relations: Acanthosis nigricans, Adipocyte, Adipose tissue, Adjustable gastric band, Agouti-related peptide, Agricultural policy, Alessandro dal Borro, Allele, American Hospital Association, American Medical Association, Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, Ancient Greek comedy, Ancient Greek medicine, Angina, Anti-obesity medication, Anticonvulsant, Antidepressant, Appetite, Arcuate nucleus, Assortative mating, Asthma, Atypical antipsychotic, Bardet–Biedl syndrome, Bariatric ambulance, Bariatric surgery, Binge eating disorder, Birth defect, Body composition, Body fat percentage, Body mass index, Bupropion/naltrexone, Buried penis, Calorie count laws, Calorimeter, Canadian Obesity Network, Cancer, Cardiology, Cardiovascular disease, Carpal tunnel syndrome, Cellulitis, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Central nervous system, Childhood obesity, Chronic kidney disease, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript, Cognitive epidemiology, Cohen syndrome, Colorectal cancer, Coronary artery bypass surgery, ..., Coronary artery disease, Cushing's syndrome, Deep vein thrombosis, Dementia, Depression (mood), Derek Wanless, Dermatology, Developing country, Diabetes mellitus, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Diet (nutrition), Dietary energy supply, Dietary fiber, Dieting, Disease, Drifty gene hypothesis, Dyslipidemia, Early modern period, East Asia, Eating disorder, Economic inequality, Effects of the car on societies, Endocrine disease, Endocrine disruptor, Endocrinology, Endometrial cancer, Epigenetics, Erectile dysfunction, Esophageal cancer, Exercise, Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Faculty of Public Health, Famine, Fatty liver, Fertility, Food energy, Food marketing, FTO gene, Gallbladder cancer, Gallstone, Gastric balloon, Gastric bypass surgery, Gastroenterology, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Gene, General anaesthesia, Global Energy Balance Network, Globalization, Glucocorticoid, Gluttony, Gout, Green Revolution, Growth hormone deficiency, Gut flora, Health Select Committee, Heart failure, Henry VIII of England, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Heritability, Hippocrates, Hirsutism, HIV, Hormonal contraception, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, Human body weight, Hypercholesterolemia, Hyperlipidemia, Hypertension, Hypertriglyceridemia, Hypogonadism, Hypothalamus, Hypothyroidism, Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, Industrial Revolution, Infection, Infertility, Inflammation, Insulin, Insulin resistance, International Obesity Taskforce, International Size Acceptance Association, Intertrigo, Junk food, King's Fund, Lateral hypothalamus, Latin, Leptin, Leukemia, Life expectancy, Liraglutide, Lorcaserin, Low back pain, Lust, Lymphedema, Major depressive disorder, Malnutrition, Medication, Melanocortin, Melanoma, Menstruation, Mental disorder, Meralgia paraesthetica, Metabolic syndrome, Metabolism, Middle Ages, Migraine, MOMO syndrome, Mortality rate, Multiple sclerosis, Myocardial infarction, National Association to Advance Fat Acceptance, National Health Service, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, Natural selection, Nephrology, Neurology, Neuron, Neuropeptide Y, Night eating syndrome, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Non-governmental organization, Nutrition facts label, Obesity, Obesity and the environment, Obesity hypoventilation syndrome, Obesity-associated morbidity, Obstructive sleep apnea, Oncology, Orlistat, Orthopedic surgery, Osteoarthritis, Overweight, Oxford English Dictionary, Pancreatic cancer, Parental obesity, Pathophysiology, Percentile, Peripheral artery disease, Peter Paul Rubens, Phentermine/topiramate, Phenytoin, Physical fitness, Pizotifen, Pollutant, Polycystic ovary syndrome, Polymorphism (biology), Prader–Willi syndrome, Pregnancy, Preventable causes of death, Proopiomelanocortin, Psychiatry, Public health, Pulmonary embolism, Pulmonology, Quantitative trait locus, Randle Cotgrave, Renaissance, Renal cell carcinoma, Reproductive medicine, Rheumatology, Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, Royal College of Physicians, Sedentary lifestyle, Sleep apnea, Sleep debt, Sleeve gastrectomy, Sloth (deadly sin), Social class, Social stigma, Soft drink, Standard deviation, Stillbirth, Stretch marks, Stroke, Sub-Saharan Africa, Sulfonylurea, Sushruta, Swedish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Assessment of Social Services, The Coca-Cola Company, The Lancet, The Spirit Level (book), Thiazolidinedione, Thrifty gene hypothesis, Thrifty phenotype, Thrombosis, Tobacco smoking, Tobias Venner, United States Department of Agriculture, United States farm bill, United States Preventive Services Task Force, Urinary incontinence, Urology, Valproate, Ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, Venus figurines, Virus, Vitamin D deficiency, Waist, Waist-to-height ratio, Waist–hip ratio, Weight loss, Western world, Workers' compensation, World Health Organization. Expand index (206 more) »

Acanthosis nigricans

Acanthosis nigricans is a brown to black, poorly defined, velvety hyperpigmentation of the skin.

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Adipocytes, also known as lipocytes and fat cells, are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat.

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Adipose tissue

In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.

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Adjustable gastric band

A laparoscopic adjustable gastric band, commonly called a lap-band, A band, or LAGB, is an inflatable silicone device placed around the top portion of the stomach to treat obesity, intended to decrease food consumption.

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Agouti-related peptide

Agouti-related protein (AgRP), also called agouti-related peptide, is a neuropeptide produced in the brain by the AgRP/NPY neuron.

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Agricultural policy

Agricultural policy describes a set of laws relating to domestic agriculture and imports of foreign agricultural products.

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Alessandro dal Borro

Marchese Alessandro dal Borro (22 April 1600 — 2 December 1656, Corfu) was a Tuscan nobleman and general.

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An allele is a variant form of a given gene.

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American Hospital Association

The American Hospital Association (AHA) is a professional association that seeks to promote quality health care provision by hospitals and health care networks through public policy and providing information about health care and health administration to health care providers and the public.

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American Medical Association

The American Medical Association (AMA), founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897, is the largest association of physicians—both MDs and DOs—and medical students in the United States.

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Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990

The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 is a civil rights law that prohibits discrimination based on disability.

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Ancient Greek comedy

Ancient Greek comedy was one of the final three principal dramatic forms in the theatre of classical Greece (the others being tragedy and the satyr play).

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Ancient Greek medicine

Ancient Greek medicine was a compilation of theories and practices that were constantly expanding through new ideologies and trials.

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Angina, also known as angina pectoris, is chest pain or pressure, usually due to not enough blood flow to the heart muscle.

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Anti-obesity medication

Anti-obesity medication or weight loss drugs are pharmacological agents that reduce or control weight.

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Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.

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Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.

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Appetite is the desire to eat food, sometimes due to hunger.

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Arcuate nucleus

The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (also known as ARH, ARC, or infundibular nucleus) is an aggregation of neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle and the median eminence.

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Assortative mating

Assortative mating is a mating pattern and a form of sexual selection in which individuals with similar phenotypes mate with one another more frequently than would be expected under a random mating pattern.

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Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.

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Atypical antipsychotic

The atypical antipsychotics (AAP; also known as second generation antipsychotics (SGAs)) are a group of antipsychotic drugs (antipsychotic drugs in general are also known as major tranquilizers and neuroleptics, although the latter is usually reserved for the typical antipsychotics) used to treat psychiatric conditions.

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Bardet–Biedl syndrome

Bardet–Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a ciliopathic human genetic disorder that produces many effects and affects many body systems.

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Bariatric ambulance

A bariatric ambulance is an ambulance vehicle modified to carry the severely obese.

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Bariatric surgery

Bariatric surgery (weight loss surgery) includes a variety of procedures performed on people who have obesity.

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Binge eating disorder

Binge eating disorder (BED) is an eating disorder characterized by frequent and recurrent binge eating episodes with associated negative psychological and social problems, but without subsequent purging episodes (e.g. vomiting).

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Birth defect

A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.

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Body composition

In physical fitness, body composition is used to describe the percentages of fat, bone, water and muscle in human bodies.

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Body fat percentage

The body fat percentage (BFP) of a human or other living being is the total mass of fat divided by total body mass, times 100; body fat includes essential body fat and storage body fat.

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Body mass index

The body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet index is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of an individual.

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Bupropion/naltrexone is a combination drug used for weight loss in those that are either obese or overweight with some weight-related illnesses.

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Buried penis

Buried penis (also known as hidden penis) is a congenital or acquired condition, in which the penis is partially or completely hidden below the surface of the skin.

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Calorie count laws

Calorie count laws are a type of law that require restaurants (typically only larger restaurant chains) to post food energy and nutritional information on the food served on menus, in a font equal to or larger than the size of the name of the item.

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A calorimeter is an object used for calorimetry, or the process of measuring the heat of chemical reactions or physical changes as well as heat capacity.

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Canadian Obesity Network

Obesity Canada-Obésité Canada, (OC) formerly known as the Canadian Obesity Network-Réseau Canadien en Obésité (CON-RCO) is a charitable organization representing Canada's authoritative voice on evidence-based approaches for obesity prevention, treatment, advocacy, and policy.

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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Cardiology (from Greek καρδίᾱ kardiā, "heart" and -λογία -logia, "study") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory system.

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Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.

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Carpal tunnel syndrome

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a medical condition due to compression of the median nerve as it travels through the wrist at the carpal tunnel.

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Cellulitis is a bacterial infection involving the inner layers of the skin.

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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Childhood obesity

Childhood obesity is a condition where excess body fat negatively affects a child's health or well-being.

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Chronic kidney disease

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a type of kidney disease in which there is gradual loss of kidney function over a period of months or years.

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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow.

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Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, also known as CART, is a neuropeptide protein that in humans is encoded by the CARTPT gene.

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Cognitive epidemiology

Cognitive epidemiology is a field of research that examines the associations between intelligence test scores (IQ scores or extracted ''g''-factors) and health, more specifically morbidity (mental and physical) and mortality.

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Cohen syndrome

Cohen syndrome (also known as Pepper syndrome or Cervenka syndrome, named after Michael Cohen, William Pepper and Jaroslav Cervenka, who researched the illness) is a genetic disorder.

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Colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine).

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Coronary artery bypass surgery

Coronary artery bypass surgery, also known as coronary artery bypass graft (CABG, pronounced "cabbage") surgery, and colloquially heart bypass or bypass surgery, is a surgical procedure to restore normal blood flow to an obstructed coronary artery.

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Coronary artery disease

Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.

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Cushing's syndrome

Cushing's syndrome is a collection of signs and symptoms due to prolonged exposure to cortisol.

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Deep vein thrombosis

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), is the formation of a blood clot in a deep vein, most commonly the legs.

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Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.

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Depression (mood)

Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.

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Derek Wanless

Sir Derek Wanless (29 September 1947 – 22 May 2012) was a former English banker and a former adviser to the Labour Party.

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Dermatology (from ancient Greek δέρμα, derma which means skin and λογία, logia) is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin, nails, hair and its diseases.

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Developing country

A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Diabetes mellitus type 2

Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.

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Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.

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Diet (nutrition)

In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.

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Dietary energy supply

The dietary energy supply is the food available for human consumption, usually expressed in kilocalories or kilojoules per person per day.

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Dietary fiber

Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants.

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Dieting is the practice of eating food in a regulated and supervised fashion to decrease, maintain, or increase body weight, or to prevent and treat diseases, such as diabetes.

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A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.

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Drifty gene hypothesis

The "drifty gene hypothesis" was proposed by the British biologist John Speakman as an alternative to the thrifty gene hypothesis originally proposed by James V Neel in 1962.

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Dyslipidemia is an abnormal amount of lipids (e.g. triglycerides, cholesterol and/or fat phospholipids) in the blood.

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Early modern period

The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.

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East Asia

East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.

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Eating disorder

An eating disorder is a mental disorder defined by abnormal eating habits that negatively affect a person's physical or mental health.

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Economic inequality

Economic inequality is the difference found in various measures of economic well-being among individuals in a group, among groups in a population, or among countries.

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Effects of the car on societies

Since the twentieth century, the role of the car has become highly important though controversial.

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Endocrine disease

Endocrine diseases are disorders of the endocrine system.

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Endocrine disruptor

Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that can interfere with endocrine (or hormone) systems at certain doses.

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Endocrinology (from endocrine + -ology) is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones.

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Endometrial cancer

Endometrial cancer is a cancer that arises from the endometrium (the lining of the uterus or womb).

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Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence.

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Erectile dysfunction

Erectile dysfunction (ED), also known as impotence, is a type of sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual activity.

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Esophageal cancer

Esophageal cancer is cancer arising from the esophagus—the food pipe that runs between the throat and the stomach.

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Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.

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Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology

Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of gastroenterology and hepatology.

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Faculty of Public Health

The Faculty of Public Health (FPH) is a public health association in the United Kingdom established as a registered charity.

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A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.

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Fatty liver

Fatty liver is a reversible condition wherein large vacuoles of triglyceride fat accumulate in liver cells via the process of steatosis (i.e., abnormal retention of lipids within a cell).

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Fertility is the natural capability to produce offspring.

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Food energy

Food energy is chemical energy that animals (including humans) derive from food through the process of cellular respiration.

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Food marketing

Food marketing brings together the food producer and the consumer through a chain of marketing activities.

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FTO gene

Fat mass and obesity-associated protein also known as alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase FTO is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FTO gene located on chromosome 16.

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Gallbladder cancer

Gallbladder cancer is a relatively uncommon cancer.

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A gallstone is a stone formed within the gallbladder out of bile components. The term cholelithiasis may refer to the presence of gallstones or to the diseases caused by gallstones. Most people with gallstones (about 80%) never have symptoms. When a gallstone blocks the bile duct, a crampy pain in the right upper part of the abdomen, known as biliary colic (gallbladder attack) can result. This happens in 1–4% of those with gallstones each year. Complications of gallstones may include inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), jaundice, and infection of a bile duct (cholangitis). Symptoms of these complications may include pain of more than five hours duration, fever, yellowish skin, vomiting, dark urine, and pale stools. Risk factors for gallstones include birth control pills, pregnancy, a family history of gallstones, obesity, diabetes, liver disease, or rapid weight loss. The bile components that form gallstones include cholesterol, bile salts, and bilirubin. Gallstones formed mainly from cholesterol are termed cholesterol stones, and those mainly from bilirubin are termed pigment stones. Gallstones may be suspected based on symptoms. Diagnosis is then typically confirmed by ultrasound. Complications may be detected on blood tests. The risk of gallstones may be decreased by maintaining a healthy weight through sufficient exercise and eating a healthy diet. If there are no symptoms, treatment is usually not needed. In those who are having gallbladder attacks, surgery to remove the gallbladder is typically recommended. This can be carried out either through several small incisions or through a single larger incision, usually under general anesthesia. In rare cases when surgery is not possible medication may be used to try to dissolve the stones or lithotripsy to break down the stones. In developed countries, 10–15% of adults have gallstones. Rates in many parts of Africa, however, are as low as 3%. Gallbladder and biliary related diseases occurred in about 104 million people (1.6%) in 2013 and they resulted in 106,000 deaths. Women more commonly have stones than men and they occur more commonly after the age of 40. Certain ethnic groups have gallstones more often than others. For example, 48% of Native Americans have gallstones. Once the gallbladder is removed, outcomes are generally good.

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Gastric balloon

A gastric balloon, also known as stomach balloon, is an inflatable medical device that is temporarily placed into the stomach to reduce weight.

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Gastric bypass surgery

Gastric bypass surgery refers to a surgical procedure in which the stomach is divided into a small upper pouch and a much larger lower "remnant" pouch and then the small intestine is rearranged to connect to both.

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Gastroenterology (MeSH heading) is the branch of medicine focused on the digestive system and its disorders.

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Gastroesophageal reflux disease

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), also known as acid reflux, is a long-term condition where stomach contents come back up into the esophagus resulting in either symptoms or complications.

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In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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General anaesthesia

General anaesthesia or general anesthesia (see spelling differences) is a medically induced coma with loss of protective reflexes, resulting from the administration of one or more general anaesthetic agents.

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Global Energy Balance Network

The Global Energy Balance Network (GEBN) was a US-based nonprofit claiming to fund research into causes of obesity, but was primarily known for promoting the idea that lack of exercise, not bad diet, was primarily responsible for the obesity epidemic.

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Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.

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Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.

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Gluttony (gula, derived from the Latin gluttire meaning "to gulp down or swallow") means over-indulgence and over-consumption of food, drink, or wealth items.

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Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint.

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Green Revolution

The Green Revolution, or Third Agricultural Revolution, refers to a set of research and the development of technology transfer initiatives occurring between the 1930s and the late 1960s (with prequels in the work of the agrarian geneticist Nazareno Strampelli in the 1920s and 1930s), that increased agricultural production worldwide, particularly in the developing world, beginning most markedly in the late 1960s.

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Growth hormone deficiency

Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a medical condition due to not enough growth hormone (GH).

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Gut flora

Gut flora, or gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota, is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals, including insects.

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Health Select Committee

The Health Select Committee is one of the Select Committees of the British House of Commons.

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Heart failure

Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.

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Henry VIII of England

Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death.

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Hepatocellular carcinoma

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer in adults, and is the most common cause of death in people with cirrhosis.

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Heritability is a statistic used in the fields of breeding and genetics that estimates the degree of variation in a phenotypic trait in a population that is due to genetic variation between individuals in that population.

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Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.

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Hirsutism is excessive body hair in men and women on parts of the body where hair is normally absent or minimal, such as on the chin or chest in particular, or the face or body in general.

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The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

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Hormonal contraception

Hormonal contraception refers to birth control methods that act on the endocrine system.

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House of Commons of the United Kingdom

The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Human body weight

Human body weight refers to a person's mass or weight.

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Hypercholesterolemia, also called high cholesterol, is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood.

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Hyperlipidemia is abnormally elevated levels of any or all lipids or lipoproteins in the blood.

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Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

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Hypertriglyceridemia denotes high (hyper-) blood levels (-emia) of triglycerides, the most abundant fatty molecule in most organisms.

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Hypogonadism means diminished functional activity of the gonads—the testes or the ovaries —that may result in diminished sex hormone biosynthesis.

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The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.

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Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid, is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.

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Idiopathic intracranial hypertension

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition characterized by increased intracranial pressure (pressure around the brain) without a detectable cause.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.

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Infertility is the inability of a person, animal or plant to reproduce by natural means.

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Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.

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Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.

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Insulin resistance

Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin.

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International Obesity Taskforce

The International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) is an organization designed to combat obesity around the world.

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International Size Acceptance Association

The International Size Acceptance Association (ISAA) is a United States based non-governmental organization (NGO) aimed at advancing fat acceptance, directed by Allen Steadham.

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Intertrigo refers to a type of inflammatory rash (dermatitis) of the superficial skin that occurs within a person's body folds.

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Junk food

Junk food is a pejorative term for food containing a large number of calories from sugar or fat with little fibre, protein, vitamins or minerals.

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King's Fund

The King's Fund is an independent think tank in England, which is involved with work relating to the health system in England.

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Lateral hypothalamus

The lateral hypothalamus, also called the lateral hypothalamic area, contains the primary orexinergic nucleus within the hypothalamus that widely projects throughout the nervous system; this system of neurons mediates an array of cognitive and physical processes, such as promoting feeding behavior and arousal, reducing pain perception, and regulating body temperature, digestive functions, and blood pressure, among many others.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Leptin (from Greek λεπτός leptos, "thin"), "the hormone of energy expenditure", is a hormone predominantly made by adipose cells that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger.

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Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.

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Life expectancy

Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.

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Liraglutide (NN2211) is a derivative of human incretin (metabolic hormone) glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) that is used as a long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, binding to the same receptors as does the endogenous metabolic hormone GLP-1 that stimulates insulin secretion.

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Lorcaserin, currently marketed under the trade name Belviq and previously Lorqess during development, is a weight-loss drug developed by Arena Pharmaceuticals.

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Low back pain

Low back pain (LBP) is a common disorder involving the muscles, nerves, and bones of the back.

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Lust is a craving, it can take any form such as the lust for sexuality, lust for money or the lust for power.

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Lymphedema, also known as lymphoedema and lymphatic edema, is a condition of localized fluid retention and tissue swelling caused by a compromised lymphatic system, which normally returns interstitial fluid to the bloodstream.

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Major depressive disorder

Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.

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Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.

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A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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The melanocortins are a group of peptide hormones which include adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and the different forms of melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), and are derived from proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in the pituitary gland.

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Melanoma, also known as malignant melanoma, is a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes.

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Menstruation, also known as a period or monthly, is the regular discharge of blood and mucosal tissue (known as menses) from the inner lining of the uterus through the vagina.

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Mental disorder

A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.

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Meralgia paraesthetica

Meralgia paresthetica or meralgia paraesthetica (or Bernhardt-Roth syndrome), is numbness or pain in the outer thigh not caused by injury to the thigh, but by injury to a nerve that extends from the spinal column to the thigh.

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Metabolic syndrome

Metabolic syndrome, sometimes known by other names, is a clustering of at least three of the five following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high serum triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels.

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.

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MOMO syndrome

MOMO syndrome is an extremely rare genetic disorder which belongs to the overgrowth syndromes and has been diagnosed in only seven cases around the world, and occurs in 1 in 100 million births.

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Mortality rate

Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.

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Multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.

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Myocardial infarction

Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.

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National Association to Advance Fat Acceptance

The National Association to Advance Fat Acceptance (NAAFA) is a non-profit, civil-rights organization in the United States dedicated to improving the quality of life for the obese.

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National Health Service

The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.

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National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) is the third largest Institute of the National Institutes of Health, located in Bethesda, Maryland, United States.

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National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) is an executive non-departmental public body of the Department of Health in the United Kingdom, which publishes guidelines in four areas.

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Natural selection

Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.

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Nephrology (from Greek nephros "kidney", combined with the suffix -logy, "the study of") is a specialty of medicine and pediatrics that concerns itself with the kidneys: the study of normal kidney function and kidney disease, the preservation of kidney health, and the treatment of kidney disease, from diet and medication to renal replacement therapy (dialysis and kidney transplantation).

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Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.

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A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.

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Neuropeptide Y

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36 amino-acid neuropeptide that is involved in various physiological and homeostatic processes in both the central and peripheral nervous systems.

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Night eating syndrome

Night eating syndrome (NES) is an eating disorder, characterized by a delayed circadian pattern of food intake.

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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the types of fatty liver which occurs when fat is deposited (steatosis) in the liver due to causes other than excessive alcohol use.

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Non-governmental organization

Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.

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Nutrition facts label

The nutrition facts label (also known as the nutrition information panel, and other slight variations) is a label required on most packaged food in many countries.

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Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.

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Obesity and the environment

Obesity and the environment aims to look at the different environmental factors that have been determined by researchers to cause and perpetuate obesity.

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Obesity hypoventilation syndrome

Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (also known as Pickwickian syndrome) is a condition in which severely overweight people fail to breathe rapidly enough or deeply enough, resulting in low blood oxygen levels and high blood carbon dioxide (CO2) levels.

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Obesity-associated morbidity

Obesity is an important risk factor for many chronic physical and mental illnesses that people suffer from.

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Obstructive sleep apnea

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common type of sleep apnea and is caused by complete or partial obstructions of the upper airway.

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Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.

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Orlistat is a drug designed to treat obesity.

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Orthopedic surgery

Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics, also spelled orthopaedic, is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system.

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Osteoarthritis (OA) is a type of joint disease that results from breakdown of joint cartilage and underlying bone.

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Being overweight or fat is having more body fat than is optimally healthy.

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Oxford English Dictionary

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.

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Pancreatic cancer

Pancreatic cancer arises when cells in the pancreas, a glandular organ behind the stomach, begin to multiply out of control and form a mass.

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Parental obesity

Maternal obesity refers to obesity (often including being overweight) of a woman during pregnancy.

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Pathophysiology or physiopathology is a convergence of pathology with physiology.

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A percentile (or a centile) is a measure used in statistics indicating the value below which a given percentage of observations in a group of observations fall.

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Peripheral artery disease

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a narrowing of the arteries other than those that supply the heart or the brain.

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Peter Paul Rubens

Sir Peter Paul Rubens (28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish artist.

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Phentermine and topiramate, sold under the trade name Qsymia, is a combination medication used for weight loss.

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Phenytoin (PHT), sold under the brand name Dilantin among others, is an anti-seizure medication.

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Physical fitness

Physical fitness is a state of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports, occupations and daily activities.

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Pizotifen (INN) or pizotyline (USAN), trade name Sandomigran, is a benzocycloheptene-based drug used as a medicine, primarily as a preventative to reduce the frequency of recurrent migraine headaches.

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A pollutant is a substance or energy introduced into the environment that has undesired effects, or adversely affects the usefulness of a resource.

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Polycystic ovary syndrome

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a set of symptoms due to elevated androgens (male hormones) in females.

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Polymorphism (biology)

Polymorphism in biology and zoology is the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species.

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Prader–Willi syndrome

Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder due to loss of function of specific genes.

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Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.

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Preventable causes of death

The World Health Organization has traditionally classified death according to the primary type of disease or injury.

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Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a precursor polypeptide with 241 amino acid residues.

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Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.

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Public health

Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".

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Pulmonary embolism

Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance that has moved from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism).

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Pulmonology is a medical speciality that deals with diseases involving the respiratory tract.

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Quantitative trait locus

A quantitative trait locus (QTL) is a section of DNA (the locus) which correlates with variation in a phenotype (the quantitative trait).

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Randle Cotgrave

Randle Cotgrave was an English lexicographer who in 1611 compiled and published A Dictionarie of the French and English Tongues, a bilingual dictionary that represented a breakthrough at the time and remains historically important.

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The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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Renal cell carcinoma

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a kidney cancer that originates in the lining of the proximal convoluted tubule, a part of the very small tubes in the kidney that transport primary urine.

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Reproductive medicine

Reproductive medicine is a branch of medicine that deals with prevention, diagnosis and management of reproductive problems; goals include improving or maintaining reproductive health and allowing people to have children at a time of their choosing.

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Rheumatology (Greek ρεύμα, rheuma, flowing current) is a branch of medicine devoted to the diagnosis and therapy of rheumatic diseases.

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Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health

The Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, often referred to as the RCPCH, is the professional body for paediatricians (doctors specialising in child health) in the United Kingdom.

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Royal College of Physicians

The Royal College of Physicians is a British professional body dedicated to improving the practice of medicine, chiefly through the accreditation of physicians by examination.

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Sedentary lifestyle

A sedentary lifestyle is a type of lifestyle with little or no physical activity.

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Sleep apnea

Sleep apnea, also spelled sleep apnoea, is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing or periods of shallow breathing during sleep.

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Sleep debt

Sleep debt or sleep deficit is the cumulative effect of not getting enough sleep.

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Sleeve gastrectomy

Sleeve gastrectomy is a surgical weight-loss procedure in which the stomach is reduced to about 15% of its original size, by surgical removal of a large portion of the stomach along the greater curvature.

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Sloth (deadly sin)

Sloth is one of the seven capital sins.

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Social class

A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.

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Social stigma

Social stigma is disapproval of (or discontent with) a person based on socially characteristic grounds that are perceived.

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Soft drink

A soft drink (see terminology for other names) typically contains carbonated water (although some lemonades are not carbonated), a sweetener, and a natural or artificial flavoring.

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Standard deviation

In statistics, the standard deviation (SD, also represented by the Greek letter sigma σ or the Latin letter s) is a measure that is used to quantify the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of data values.

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Stillbirth is typically defined as fetal death at or after 20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy.

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Stretch marks

Stretch marks, also known as striae, are a form of scarring on the skin with an off-color hue.

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A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.

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Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.

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Sulfonylureas (UK: sulphonylurea) are a class of organic compounds used in medicine and agriculture.

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Sushruta, or Suśruta (Sanskrit: सुश्रुत, lit. "well heard") was an ancient Indian physician during 1500 BCE to 1000 BCE, known as the main author of the treatise The Compendium of Suśruta (Sanskrit: ''Suśruta-saṃhitā'').

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Swedish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Assessment of Social Services

The Swedish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Assessment of Social Services (SBU – Statens beredning för medicinsk och social utvärdering in Swedish) previously the Swedish Council on Health Technology Assessment is an independent Swedish governmental agency tasked with assessing and evaluating methods in use in healthcare och social services.

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The Coca-Cola Company

The Coca-Cola Company is an American corporation, and manufacturer, retailer, and marketer of nonalcoholic beverage concentrates and syrups.

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The Lancet

The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.

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The Spirit Level (book)

The Spirit Level: Why More Equal Societies Almost Always Do BetterUK Hardback edition: The Spirit Level: Why More Equal Societies Almost Always Do Better.

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The thiazolidinediones, abbreviated as TZD, also known as glitazones after the prototypical drug ciglitazone, are a class of heterocyclic compounds consisting of a five-membered C3NS ring.

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Thrifty gene hypothesis

The thrifty gene hypothesis, or Gianfranco's hypothesis is an attempt by geneticist James V. Neel to explain why certain populations and subpopulations in the modern day are prone to diabetes mellitus type 2.

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Thrifty phenotype

The thrifty phenotype hypothesis says that reduced fetal growth is strongly associated with a number of chronic conditions later in life.

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Thrombosis (from Ancient Greek θρόμβωσις thrómbōsis "clotting”) is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system.

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Tobacco smoking

Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).

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Tobias Venner

Tobias Venner (1577–1660) was an English physician and medical writer born near North Petherton.

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United States Department of Agriculture

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.

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United States farm bill

In the United States, the farm bill is the primary agricultural and food policy tool of the federal government.

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United States Preventive Services Task Force

The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) is "an independent panel of experts in primary care and prevention that systematically reviews the evidence of effectiveness and develops recommendations for clinical preventive services".

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Urinary incontinence

Urinary incontinence (UI), also known as involuntary urination, is any uncontrolled leakage of urine.

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Urology (from Greek οὖρον ouron "urine" and -λογία -logia "study of"), also known as genitourinary surgery, is the branch of medicine that focuses on surgical and medical diseases of the male and female urinary-tract system and the male reproductive organs.

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Valproate (VPA), and its valproic acid, sodium valproate, and valproate semisodium forms, are medications primarily used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder and to prevent migraine headaches.

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Ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus

The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMN, also sometimes referred to as the ventromedial hypothalamus, VMH) is a nucleus of the hypothalamus.

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Venus figurines

A Venus figurine is any Upper Paleolithic statuette portraying a woman,Fagan, 740 although the fewer images depicting men or figures of uncertain sex, and those in relief or engraved on rock or stones are often discussed together.

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A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.

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Vitamin D deficiency

Vitamin D deficiency, or hypovitaminosis D, most commonly results from inadequate sunlight exposure (in particular sunlight with adequate ultraviolet B rays).

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The waist is the part of the abdomen between the rib cage and hips.

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Waist-to-height ratio

A person's waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), also called waist-to-stature ratio (WSR), is defined as their waist circumference divided by their height, both measured in the same units.

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Waist–hip ratio

The Waist-hip ratio or waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is the dimensionless ratio of the circumference of the waist to that of the hips.

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Weight loss

Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue.

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Western world

The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.

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Workers' compensation

Workers' compensation is a form of insurance providing wage replacement and medical benefits to employees injured in the course of employment in exchange for mandatory relinquishment of the employee's right to sue their employer for the tort of negligence.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obesity

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