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Objectivism (Ayn Rand)

Index Objectivism (Ayn Rand)

Objectivism is a philosophical system developed by Russian-American writer Ayn Rand (1905–1982). [1]

166 relations: A priori and a posteriori, Abortion, Aesthetics, Affirmative action, Allan Gotthelf, Altruism (ethics), American Philosophical Association, Anarchism, Anarcho-capitalism, Andrew Bernstein, Animal rights, Anthony Quinton, Aristotle, Art, Atlas Shrugged, Auguste Comte, Austrian School, Axiom, Ayn Rand, Ayn Rand and the World She Made, Ayn Rand Institute, Ayn Rand: The Russian Radical, Begging the question, Bibliography of Ayn Rand and Objectivism, Cambridge University Press, Capital punishment, Capitalism, Capitalism: The Unknown Ideal, Cato Institute, Causality, Cengage, Censorship, Chandran Kukathas, Child labour, Chris Matthew Sciabarra, Classical economics, Classical liberalism, Competition law, Concept, Consciousness, Conscription, Conservatism in the United States, Court, David D. Friedman, David Hume, David Kelley, Deductive reasoning, Douglas B. Rasmussen, Douglas Den Uyl, E. P. Dutton, ..., Edwin Locke, Empiricism, Entity, Epistemology, Ethical egoism, Executive (government), Existence, Existentialism, Faith, For the New Intellectual, Force (law), Free will, Freedom of religion, Freedom of speech, Gateway drug theory, George Reisman, Gilbert Harman, Goddess of the Market, Happiness, Harry Binswanger, Individual and group rights, Inductive reasoning, Intellectual property, Intelligent design, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology, Is–ought problem, J. L. Austin, John Hospers, Journal of Humanistic Psychology, Justice, Kantianism, Laissez-faire, Law of identity, Legislature, Leonard Peikoff, Libertarianism, Lingua Franca (magazine), List of people influenced by Ayn Rand, Logic, Logical consequence, Louisiana State University, Metaphysics, Michelle Marder Kamhi, Military, Minimum wage, Morality, Murray Rothbard, Nathaniel Branden, Natural and legal rights, Negative and positive rights, Night-watchman state, Norman P. Barry, Objectivism and homosexuality, Objectivism and libertarianism, Objectivism's rejection of the primitive, Objectivism: The Philosophy of Ayn Rand, Objectivist movement, Objectivist periodicals, Objectivity (philosophy), On Ayn Rand, Optical illusion, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Ouija, Oxford University Press, Perception, Peter Schwartz (writer), Philosophical fiction, Philosophical skepticism, Philosophy: Who Needs It, Political philosophy, Pornography, Racism, Radicals for Capitalism, Random House, Rationalism, Rationality, Right-wing politics, Robert Nozick, Roderick T. Long, Romantic realism, Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Rowman & Littlefield, Roy Childs, Russian Americans, Rutland Herald, SAGE Publications, Scientific method, Self-determination, Social system, St. Martin's Press, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, State school, Stein and Day, Subjectivism, Tara Smith (philosopher), Tax, Ted Honderich, Teleology, The Fountainhead, The Journal of Ayn Rand Studies, The Ominous Parallels, The Oxford Companion to Philosophy, The Philosophic Thought of Ayn Rand, The Psychology of Self-Esteem, The Romantic Manifesto, The Virtue of Selfishness, Tibor Machan, University of Illinois Press, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of Pittsburgh, University of Texas at Austin, Virtue, Volition (psychology), White House Office of Faith-Based and Neighborhood Partnerships, Yaron Brook. Expand index (116 more) »

A priori and a posteriori

The Latin phrases a priori ("from the earlier") and a posteriori ("from the latter") are philosophical terms of art popularized by Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason (first published in 1781, second edition in 1787), one of the most influential works in the history of philosophy.

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Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by removing an embryo or fetus before it can survive outside the uterus.

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Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.

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Affirmative action

Affirmative action, also known as reservation in India and Nepal, positive action in the UK, and employment equity (in a narrower context) in Canada and South Africa, is the policy of protecting members of groups that are known to have previously suffered from discrimination.

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Allan Gotthelf

Allan Stanley Gotthelf (December 30, 1942 – August 30, 2013) was an American philosopher.

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Altruism (ethics)

Altruism (also called the ethic of altruism, moralistic altruism, and ethical altruism) is an ethical doctrine that holds that the moral value of an individual's actions depend solely on the impact on other individuals, regardless of the consequences on the individual itself.

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American Philosophical Association

The American Philosophical Association (APA) is the main professional organization for philosophers in the United States.

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Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.

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Anarcho-capitalism is a political philosophy and school of anarchist thought that advocates the elimination of centralized state dictum in favor of self-ownership, private property and free markets.

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Andrew Bernstein

Andrew Bernstein (born 1949) is an American philosopher.

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Animal rights

Animal rights is the idea in which some, or all, non-human animals are entitled to the possession of their own lives and that their most basic interests—such as the need to avoid suffering—should be afforded the same consideration as similar interests of human beings.

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Anthony Quinton

Anthony Meredith Quinton, Baron Quinton, FBA (25 March 1925 – 19 June 2010) was a British political and moral philosopher, metaphysician, and materialist philosopher of mind.

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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual idea, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.

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Atlas Shrugged

Atlas Shrugged is a 1957 novel by Ayn Rand.

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Auguste Comte

Isidore Marie Auguste François Xavier Comte (19 January 1798 – 5 September 1857) was a French philosopher who founded the discipline of praxeology and the doctrine of positivism.

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Austrian School

The Austrian School is a school of economic thought that is based on methodological individualism—the concept that social phenomena result from the motivations and actions of individuals.

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An axiom or postulate is a statement that is taken to be true, to serve as a premise or starting point for further reasoning and arguments.

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Ayn Rand

Ayn Rand (born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum; – March 6, 1982) was a Russian-American writer and philosopher.

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Ayn Rand and the World She Made

Ayn Rand and the World She Made is a 2009 biography of Russian-American philosopher Ayn Rand by Anne C. Heller.

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Ayn Rand Institute

The Ayn Rand Institute: The Center for the Advancement of Objectivism, commonly known as the Ayn Rand Institute (ARI), is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit think tank in Irvine, California that promotes Objectivism, the philosophy developed by Ayn Rand.

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Ayn Rand: The Russian Radical

Ayn Rand: The Russian Radical is a 1995 book by Chris Matthew Sciabarra tracing the intellectual roots of 20th-century Russian-American novelist and philosopher Ayn Rand and the philosophy she developed, Objectivism.

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Begging the question

Begging the question is a logical fallacy which occurs when an argument's premises assume the truth of the conclusion, instead of supporting it.

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Bibliography of Ayn Rand and Objectivism

This is a bibliography for Ayn Rand and Objectivism.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Capital punishment

Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.

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Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.

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Capitalism: The Unknown Ideal

Capitalism: The Unknown Ideal is a collection of essays, mostly by Ayn Rand, with additional essays by her associates Nathaniel Branden, Alan Greenspan, and Robert Hessen.

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Cato Institute

The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.

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Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.

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Cengage is an educational content, technology, and services company for the higher education, K-12, professional, and library markets worldwide.

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Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information, on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or "inconvenient" as determined by government authorities.

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Chandran Kukathas

Chandran Kukathas (born 12 September 1957) is a Malaysian-born Australian political theorist and the author of several books.

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Child labour

Child labour refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful.

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Chris Matthew Sciabarra

Chris Matthew Sciabarra (born February 17, 1960) is an American political theorist based in Brooklyn, New York.

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Classical economics

Classical economics or classical political economy (also known as liberal economics) is a school of thought in economics that flourished, primarily in Britain, in the late 18th and early-to-mid 19th century.

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Classical liberalism

Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.

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Competition law

Competition law is a law that promotes or seeks to maintain market competition by regulating anti-competitive conduct by companies.

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Concepts are mental representations, abstract objects or abilities that make up the fundamental building blocks of thoughts and beliefs.

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Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.

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Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.

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Conservatism in the United States

American conservatism is a broad system of political beliefs in the United States that is characterized by respect for American traditions, republicanism, support for Judeo-Christian values, moral absolutism, free markets and free trade, anti-communism, individualism, advocacy of American exceptionalism, and a defense of Western culture from the perceived threats posed by socialism, authoritarianism, and moral relativism.

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A court is a tribunal, often as a government institution, with the authority to adjudicate legal disputes between parties and carry out the administration of justice in civil, criminal, and administrative matters in accordance with the rule of law.

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David D. Friedman

David Director Friedman (born February 12, 1945) is an American economist, physicist, legal scholar, and libertarian theorist.

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David Hume

David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.

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David Kelley

David Kelley (born June 23, 1949) is an American philosopher.

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Deductive reasoning

Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic, logical deduction is the process of reasoning from one or more statements (premises) to reach a logically certain conclusion.

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Douglas B. Rasmussen

Douglas B. Rasmussen (born 1948) is professor of philosophy at St. John's University, where he has taught since 1981.

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Douglas Den Uyl

Douglas J. Den Uyl (born 1950) is vice president of educational programs at Liberty Fund.

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E. P. Dutton


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Edwin Locke

Edwin A. Locke (born January 5, 1938) is an American psychologist and a pioneer in goal-setting theory.

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In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.

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An entity is something that exists as itself, as a subject or as an object, actually or potentially, concretely or abstractly, physically or not.

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Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.

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Ethical egoism

Ethical egoism is the normative ethical position that moral agents ought to do what is in their own self-interest.

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Executive (government)

The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.

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Existence, in its most generic terms, is the ability to, directly or indirectly, interact with reality or, in more specific cases, the universe.

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Existentialism is a tradition of philosophical inquiry associated mainly with certain 19th and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,Oxford Companion to Philosophy, ed.

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In the context of religion, one can define faith as confidence or trust in a particular system of religious belief, within which faith may equate to confidence based on some perceived degree of warrant, in contrast to the general sense of faith being a belief without evidence.

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For the New Intellectual

For the New Intellectual: The Philosophy of Ayn Rand is a 1961 work by Ayn Rand, her first long non-fiction book.

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Force (law)

In law, force means unlawful violence, or lawful compulsion.

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Free will

Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded.

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Freedom of religion

Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.

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Freedom of speech

Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.

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Gateway drug theory

Gateway drug theory (alternatively, stepping-stone theory, escalation hypothesis, or progression hypothesis) is a comprehensive catchphrase for the medical theory that the use of a psychoactive drug can be coupled to an increased probability of the use of further drugs.

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George Reisman

George Gerald Reisman (born January 13, 1937)"George Gerald Reisman" (2002), Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, Retrieved on January 18, 2007.

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Gilbert Harman

Gilbert Harman (born 1938) is an American philosopher, who taught at Princeton University from 1963 until his retirement in 2017.

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Goddess of the Market

Goddess of the Market: Ayn Rand and the American Right is a 2009 biography of Ayn Rand by historian Jennifer Burns.

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In psychology, happiness is a mental or emotional state of well-being which can be defined by positive or pleasant emotions ranging from contentment to intense joy.

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Harry Binswanger

Harry Binswanger (born 1944) is an American philosopher.

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Individual and group rights

Group rights, also known as collective rights, are rights held by a group qua group rather than by its members severally; in contrast, individual rights are rights held by individual people; even if they are group-differentiated, which most rights are, they remain individual rights if the right-holders are the individuals themselves.

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Inductive reasoning

Inductive reasoning (as opposed to ''deductive'' reasoning or ''abductive'' reasoning) is a method of reasoning in which the premises are viewed as supplying some evidence for the truth of the conclusion.

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Intellectual property

Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect, and primarily encompasses copyrights, patents, and trademarks.

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Intelligent design

Intelligent design (ID) is a religious argument for the existence of God, presented by its proponents as "an evidence-based scientific theory about life's origins",Numbers 2006, p. 373; " captured headlines for its bold attempt to rewrite the basic rules of science and its claim to have found indisputable evidence of a God-like being.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (IEP) is a scholarly online encyclopedia, dealing with philosophy, philosophical topics, and philosophers.

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Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology

Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology is a work of philosophy by Ayn Rand (with an additional article by Leonard Peikoff).

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Is–ought problem

The is–ought problem, as articulated by Scottish philosopher and historian David Hume (1711–76), states that many writers make claims about what ought to be, based on statements about what is.

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J. L. Austin

John Langshaw "J.

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John Hospers

John Hospers (June 9, 1918 – June 12, 2011) was an American philosopher and political activist.

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Journal of Humanistic Psychology

Journal of Humanistic Psychology is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers in the field of Psychology.

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Justice is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered.

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Kantianism is the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher born in Königsberg, Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia).

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Laissez-faire (from) is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government intervention such as regulation, privileges, tariffs and subsidies.

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Law of identity

In logic, the law of identity states that each thing is identical with itself.

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A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.

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Leonard Peikoff

Leonard Sylvan Peikoff (born October 15, 1933) is a Canadian-American philosopher.

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Libertarianism (from libertas, meaning "freedom") is a collection of political philosophies and movements that uphold liberty as a core principle.

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Lingua Franca (magazine)

Lingua Franca was an American magazine about intellectual and literary life in academia.

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List of people influenced by Ayn Rand

Novelist and philosopher Ayn Rand (1905–1982) has had a significant influence on a variety of people, including writers, artists and political figures.

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Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.

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Logical consequence

Logical consequence (also entailment) is a fundamental concept in logic, which describes the relationship between statements that hold true when one statement logically follows from one or more statements.

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Louisiana State University

The Louisiana State University (officially Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, commonly referred to as LSU) is a public coeducational university located in Baton Rouge, Louisiana.

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Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.

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Michelle Marder Kamhi

Michelle Marder Kamhi is an art critic with a focus on art education.

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A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.

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Minimum wage

A minimum wage is the lowest remuneration that employers can legally pay their workers.

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Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.

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Murray Rothbard

Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2, 1926 – January 7, 1995) was an American heterodox economist of the Austrian School, a historian and a political theorist whose writings and personal influence played a seminal role in the development of modern right-libertarianism.

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Nathaniel Branden

Nathaniel Branden (born Nathan Blumenthal; April 9, 1930 – December 3, 2014) was a Canadian–American psychotherapist and writer known for his work in the psychology of self-esteem.

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Natural and legal rights

Natural and legal rights are two types of rights.

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Negative and positive rights

Negative and positive rights are rights that oblige either action (positive rights) or inaction (negative rights).

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Night-watchman state

In libertarian political philosophy, a night-watchman state is a model of a state whose only functions are to provide its citizens with the military, the police and courts, thus protecting them from aggression, theft, breach of contract and fraud and enforcing property laws.

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Norman P. Barry

Norman Patrick Barry (25 June 1944 – 21 October 2008) was an English political philosopher best known as an exponent of classical liberalism.

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Objectivism and homosexuality

Ayn Rand, author and developer of Objectivism, held controversial views regarding homosexuality and gender roles.

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Objectivism and libertarianism

Ayn Rand's philosophy of Objectivism has been and continues to be a major influence on the libertarian movement, particularly in the United States.

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Objectivism's rejection of the primitive

Ayn Rand's Objectivism rejects an array of ideas and modes of living that it deems are primitive by nature and indicative of a primitive culture.

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Objectivism: The Philosophy of Ayn Rand

Objectivism: The Philosophy of Ayn Rand is a 1991 book by the philosopher Leonard Peikoff, in which the author discusses the ideas of his mentor, Ayn Rand.

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Objectivist movement

The Objectivist movement is a movement of individuals who seek to study and advance Objectivism, the philosophy expounded by novelist-philosopher Ayn Rand.

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Objectivist periodicals

Objectivist periodicals are a variety of academic journals, magazines and newsletters with an editorial perspective explicitly based on Ayn Rand's philosophy of Objectivism.

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Objectivity (philosophy)

Objectivity is a central philosophical concept, objective means being independent of the perceptions thus objectivity means the property of being independent from the perceptions, which has been variously defined by sources.

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On Ayn Rand

On Ayn Rand is a book about the life and thought of 20th-century philosopher Ayn Rand by scholar Allan Gotthelf.

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Optical illusion

An optical illusion (also called a visual illusion) is an illusion caused by the visual system and characterized by a visual percept that (loosely said) appears to differ from reality.

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Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes

Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering organizational behavior and psychology.

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The ouija, also known as a spirit board or talking board, is a flat board marked with the letters of the alphabet, the numbers 0–9, the words "yes", "no", "hello" (occasionally), and "goodbye", along with various symbols and graphics.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.

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Peter Schwartz (writer)

Peter Schwartz (born 1949) is an American journalist.

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Philosophical fiction

Philosophical fiction refers to the class of works of fiction which devote a significant portion of their content to the sort of questions normally addressed in discursive philosophy.

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Philosophical skepticism

Philosophical skepticism (UK spelling: scepticism; from Greek σκέψις skepsis, "inquiry") is a philosophical school of thought that questions the possibility of certainty in knowledge.

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Philosophy: Who Needs It

Philosophy: Who Needs It is a collection of essays by Ayn Rand, published posthumously in 1982.

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Political philosophy

Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.

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Pornography (often abbreviated porn) is the portrayal of sexual subject matter for the exclusive purpose of sexual arousal.

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Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity.

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Radicals for Capitalism

Radicals for Capitalism: A Freewheeling History of the Modern American Libertarian Movement is a 2007 book about the history of libertarianism in the 20th century by American journalist and Reason senior editor Brian Doherty.

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Random House

Random House is an American book publisher and the largest general-interest paperback publisher in the world.

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In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".

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Rationality is the quality or state of being rational – that is, being based on or agreeable to reason.

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Right-wing politics

Right-wing politics hold that certain social orders and hierarchies are inevitable, natural, normal or desirable, typically supporting this position on the basis of natural law, economics or tradition.

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Robert Nozick

Robert Nozick (November 16, 1938 – January 23, 2002) was an American philosopher.

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Roderick T. Long

Roderick Tracy Long (born February 4, 1964) is an American professor of philosophy at Auburn University and libertarian blogger.

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Romantic realism

Romantic realism is an aesthetic term that usually refers to art which combines elements of both romanticism and realism.

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Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy is an encyclopedia of philosophy edited by Edward Craig that was first published by Routledge in 1998.

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Rowman & Littlefield

Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.

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Roy Childs

Roy Alan Childs Jr. (January 4, 1949 – May 22, 1992) was an American libertarian essayist and critic.

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Russian Americans

Russian Americans are Americans who trace their ancestry to Russia, the Russian Empire, or the former Soviet Union.

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Rutland Herald

The Rutland Herald is the second largest daily newspaper in the U.S. state of Vermont (after the Burlington Free Press).

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SAGE Publications

SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.

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Scientific method

Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.

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The right of people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.

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Social system

In sociology, a social system is the patterned network of relationships constituting a coherent whole that exist between individuals, groups, and institutions.

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St. Martin's Press


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Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.

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State school

State schools (also known as public schools outside England and Wales)In England and Wales, some independent schools for 13- to 18-year-olds are known as 'public schools'.

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Stein and Day

Stein and Day, Inc. was an American publishing company founded by Sol Stein and his wife Patricia Day in 1962.

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Subjectivism is the doctrine that "our own mental activity is the only unquestionable fact of our experience.", instead of shared or communal, and that there is no external or objective truth.

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Tara Smith (philosopher)

Tara A. Smith (born 1961) is an American philosopher.

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A tax (from the Latin taxo) is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or other legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures.

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Ted Honderich

Ted Honderich (born 30 January 1933) is a Canadian-born British philosopher, Grote Professor Emeritus of the Philosophy of Mind and Logic, University College London.

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Teleology or finality is a reason or explanation for something in function of its end, purpose, or goal.

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The Fountainhead

The Fountainhead is a 1943 novel by Russian-American author Ayn Rand, her first major literary success.

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The Journal of Ayn Rand Studies

The Journal of Ayn Rand Studies (JARS) is an academic journal devoted to the study of Objectivism, the philosophy of Ayn Rand.

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The Ominous Parallels

The Ominous Parallels: The End of Freedom in America is a 1982 book by philosopher Leonard Peikoff, in which the author compares the culture of the United States with the culture of Germany leading up to the Nazis.

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The Oxford Companion to Philosophy

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (1995; second edition 2005) is a reference work in philosophy edited by Ted Honderich and published by Oxford University Press.

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The Philosophic Thought of Ayn Rand

The Philosophic Thought of Ayn Rand is a 1984 collection of essays on Ayn Rand's philosophy of Objectivism, edited by Douglas Den Uyl and Douglas B. Rasmussen.

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The Psychology of Self-Esteem

The Psychology of Self-Esteem is a book by Nathaniel Branden, first published in 1969.

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The Romantic Manifesto

The Romantic Manifesto: A Philosophy of Literature is a non-fiction work by Ayn Rand, a collection of essays regarding the nature of art.

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The Virtue of Selfishness

The Virtue of Selfishness: A New Concept of Egoism is a 1964 collection of essays by Ayn Rand and Nathaniel Branden.

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Tibor Machan

Tibor Richard Machan (18 March 1939 – 24 March 2016) was a Hungarian-American philosopher.

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University of Illinois Press

The University of Illinois Press (UIP) is a major American university press and is part of the University of Illinois system.

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University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, also known as UNC, UNC Chapel Hill, the University of North Carolina, or simply Carolina, is a public research university located in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States.

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University of Pittsburgh

The University of Pittsburgh (commonly referred to as Pitt) is a state-related research university located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

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University of Texas at Austin

The University of Texas at Austin (UT, UT Austin, or Texas) is a public research university and the flagship institution of the University of Texas System.

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Virtue (virtus, ἀρετή "arete") is moral excellence.

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Volition (psychology)

Volition or will is the cognitive process by which an individual decides on and commits to a particular course of action.

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White House Office of Faith-Based and Neighborhood Partnerships

The White House Office of Faith-Based and Neighborhood Partnerships, formerly the White House Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives (OFBCI) is an office within the White House Office that is part of the Executive Office of the President of the United States.

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Yaron Brook

Yaron Brook (ירון ברוק; born May 23, 1961) is an Israeli-American entrepreneur, writer, and activist.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Objectivism_(Ayn_Rand)

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