50 relations: A. J. Ayer, Contractualism, Doxa, Empiricism, Epistemology, Ernest Nagel, Ethical egoism, Factual relativism, Gaston Bachelard, Geometry, George Berkeley, Gottlob Frege, Ideal observer theory, Idealism, Immanuel Kant, Incorporeality, Instrumentalism, Intension, Journalistic objectivity, Kantianism, Karl Popper, Mathematics, Metaphysics, Naïve realism, Neutrality (philosophy), Nicholas Rescher, Objectivity (science), Ontological commitment, Ontology, Philosophical realism, Philosophy, Philosophy of science, Plato, Platonic epistemology, Platonic idealism, Rationalism, Reference, Richard Rorty, Robert Nozick, Sentience, Subject (philosophy), Subjectivism, Synonym, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Thomas Kuhn, Thomas Nagel, Truth, Truth value, Universal (metaphysics), Utilitarianism.
Sir Alfred Jules "Freddie" Ayer, FBA (29 October 1910 – 27 June 1989), usually cited as A. J. Ayer, was a British philosopher known for his promotion of logical positivism, particularly in his books Language, Truth, and Logic (1936) and The Problem of Knowledge (1956).
Contractualism is a term in philosophy that refers either to a family of political theories in the social contract tradition (when used in this sense, the term is synonymous with contractarianism), or to the ethical theory developed in recent years by T. M. Scanlon, especially in his book What We Owe to Each Other.
Doxa (ancient Greek δόξα; from verb δοκεῖν dokein, "to appear", "to seem", "to think" and "to accept") is a Greek word meaning common belief or popular opinion.
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
Ernest Nagel (November 16, 1901 – September 20, 1985) was an American philosopher of science.
Ethical egoism is the normative ethical position that moral agents ought to do what is in their own self-interest.
Factual relativism (also called epistemic relativism, epistemological relativism, alethic relativism or cognitive relativism) is a way to reason where facts used to justify any claims are understood to be relative and subjective to the perspective of those proving or falsifying the proposition.
Gaston Bachelard (27 June 1884 – 16 October 1962) was a French philosopher.
Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.
George Berkeley (12 March 168514 January 1753) — known as Bishop Berkeley (Bishop of Cloyne) — was an Irish philosopher whose primary achievement was the advancement of a theory he called "immaterialism" (later referred to as "subjective idealism" by others).
Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (8 November 1848 – 26 July 1925) was a German philosopher, logician, and mathematician.
Ideal observer theory is the meta-ethical view which claims that.
In philosophy, idealism is the group of metaphysical philosophies that assert that reality, or reality as humans can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
Incorporeal or uncarnate means without a physical body, presence or form.
Instrumentalism is one of a multitude of modern schools of thought created by scientists and philosophers throughout the 20th century.
In linguistics, logic, philosophy, and other fields, an intension is any property or quality connoted by a word, phrase, or another symbol.
Journalistic objectivity is a considerable notion within the discussion of journalistic professionalism.
Kantianism is the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher born in Königsberg, Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia).
Sir Karl Raimund Popper (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher and professor.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
In philosophy of mind, naïve realism, also known as direct realism or common sense realism, is the idea that the senses provide us with direct awareness of objects as they really are.
Neutrality is the tendency not to side in a conflict (physical or ideological), which may not suggest neutral parties do not have a side or are not a side themselves.
Nicholas Rescher (born 15 July 1928) is a German-American philosopher at the University of Pittsburgh.
Objectivity in science is a value that informs how science is practiced and how scientific truths are discovered.
An ontological commitment refers to a relation between a language and certain objects postulated to be extant by that language.
Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.
Realism (in philosophy) about a given object is the view that this object exists in reality independently of our conceptual scheme.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Plato's epistemology holds that knowledge of Platonic Ideas is innate, so that learning is the development of ideas buried deep in the soul, often under the midwife-like guidance of an interrogator.
Platonic idealism usually refers to Plato's theory of forms or doctrine of ideas.
In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".
Reference is a relation between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another object.
Richard McKay Rorty (October 4, 1931 – June 8, 2007) was an American philosopher.
Robert Nozick (November 16, 1938 – January 23, 2002) was an American philosopher.
Sentience is the capacity to feel, perceive or experience subjectively.
A subject is a being who has a unique consciousness and/or unique personal experiences, or an entity that has a relationship with another entity that exists outside itself (called an "object").
Subjectivism is the doctrine that "our own mental activity is the only unquestionable fact of our experience.", instead of shared or communal, and that there is no external or objective truth.
A synonym is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language.
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962; second edition 1970; third edition 1996; fourth edition 2012) is a book about the history of science by the philosopher Thomas S. Kuhn.
Thomas Samuel Kuhn (July 18, 1922 – June 17, 1996) was an American physicist, historian and philosopher of science whose controversial 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions was influential in both academic and popular circles, introducing the term paradigm shift, which has since become an English-language idiom.
Thomas Nagel (born July 4, 1937) is an American philosopher and University Professor of Philosophy and Law Emeritus at New York University, where he taught from 1980 to 2016.
Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard.
In logic and mathematics, a truth value, sometimes called a logical value, is a value indicating the relation of a proposition to truth.
In metaphysics, a universal is what particular things have in common, namely characteristics or qualities.
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.