258 relations: A Million Open Doors, Ablative case, Abstand and ausbau languages, Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua, Algherese dialect, Allier, Alpes-Maritimes, Alps, Analogy, Ancient Rome, Aquitaine, Aragon, Aragonese language, Aranese dialect, Archaism, Arid, Arnaut Daniel, Artix, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Aspirated consonant, Astur-Leonese languages, Asturian language, Atlantic Ocean, Auvergnat (language), Auvergne, Baìo, Balearic Islands, Basque Country (autonomous community), Basque language, Bayonne, Béarn, Béarnese dialect, Betacism, Bidasoa, Bishop Myriel, Boecis, Boethius, Borough, Braga, Brigasc dialect, Calabria, Calandreta, Camino de Santiago, Camisard, Cançó de Santa Fe, Canso (song), Carcassonne, Castilian Spanish, Catalan language, Catalonia, Celts, ..., Centre-Val de Loire, Chants d'Auvergne, Charlemagne, Close front rounded vowel, Conselh de la Lenga Occitana, Dante Alighieri, Dauphiné, Daurel e Betó, De vulgari eloquentia, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar lateral approximants, Departments of France, Dialect continuum, Diasystem, Diglossia, Diphthong, Domergue Sumien, Earth Made of Glass, Eastern Lombard dialect, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Estella-Lizarra, European Bureau for Lesser-Used Languages, Executive Council of Catalonia, Félibrige, Fenouillèdes, Forez, France, Franco-Provençal language, Frankish language, Frédéric Mistral, French language, French orthography, French Revolution, Galician language, Gallia Aquitania, Gallia Narbonensis, Gallo-Romance languages, Garonne, Gascon language, GEO (magazine), Gerald of Braga, Gironde, Grammatical conjugation, Grammatical gender, Guanajuato, Guardia Piemontese, Guttural R, History of Limousin, History of Portuguese, History of the Spanish language, Huesca, Iberian Peninsula, Iberian Romance languages, Industrial Revolution, Institut d'Estudis Catalans, Institut d'Estudis Occitans, Italian language, Italic languages, Italy, John Barnes (author), John, King of England, Joseph Anglade, Joseph Canteloube, Julius Caesar, Kate Mosse, Kingdom of Aragon, Kingdom of Navarre, Koiné language, Kurt Baldinger, La nobla leyczon, Labyrinth (novel), Language shift, Languages of France, Languages of Italy, Languages of Spain, Languedoc-Roussillon, Languedocien dialect, Langues d'oïl, Las, qu'i non sun sparvir, astur, Latin, Leonese dialect, Les Misérables, Lexeme, Lexicography, Lexicon, Liguria, Ligurian (Romance language), Limousin, Limousin dialect, Linguistic distance, Linguistics, List of Navarrese monarchs, Litany, Lleida, Loire, Lope de Rueda, Louis Alibert, Lyonnais, Marsh, Massif Central, Mediterranean Sea, Menton, Mentonasc dialect, Meridional French, Michael Crichton, Middle Ages, Midi-Pyrénées, Mirandese language, Mistralian norm, Moissac, Monaco, Monégasque dialect, Morphology (linguistics), Mutual intelligibility, Nasal vowel, Navarro-Aragonese, Niçard dialect, Occitan alphabet, Occitan conjugation, Occitan cross, Occitan cuisine, Occitan language, Occitan phonology, Occitan Valleys, Occitania, Occitano-Romance languages, Old Catalan, Old Occitan, Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts, Orthography, Palatal consonant, Parliament of Catalonia, Pasaia, Pastourelle, Patois, Philology, Phoneme, Phonemic orthography, Phonology, Piedmont, Piedmontese language, Pierre Bec, Pigüé, Pluricentric language, Poetry, Poitevin dialect, Poitou-Charentes, Portuguese language, Pro-drop language, Provençal dialect, Provence, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, Purgatorio, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Pyrénées-Orientales, Pyrenees, Quebec, Raimon Vidal de Bezaudun, Red Book of Endangered Languages, Response (liturgy), Rhaeto-Romance languages, Rhône-Alpes, Richard I of England, Robèrt Lafont, Romance languages, Romance of Flamenca, Roncesvalles, Saintongeais dialect, San Sebastián, Sangüesa, Schwa, Shuadit, Sirventes, Somport, Song of the Albigensian Crusade, Southern France, Spain, Spanish language, Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia, Théodore Aubanel, The Armies of Memory, The Consolation of Philosophy, The Merchants of Souls, Timeline (novel), Tomida femina, Toulouse, Toulouse Metro, Trobairitz, Troubadour, Tudela, Navarre, UNESCO, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Val d'Aran, Valdese, North Carolina, Valencian, Velarization, Vergonha, Victor Hugo, Vivaro-Alpine dialect, Voiceless palatal stop, Voiceless postalveolar fricative, Vowel harmony, Vulgar Latin, Waldensians, Württemberg, Webster's Third New International Dictionary, World War I, Yes–no question, Zaragoza. Expand index (208 more) » « Shrink index
A Million Open Doors (1992) is a science fiction novel by American writer John Barnes, the first book of his Thousand Cultures series.
The ablative case (sometimes abbreviated) is a grammatical case for nouns, pronouns and adjectives in the grammar of various languages; it is sometimes used to express motion away from something, among other uses.
In sociolinguistics, an abstand language is a language variety or cluster of varieties with significant linguistic distance from all others, while an ausbau language is a standard variety, possibly with related dependent varieties.
The Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua (English: Valencian Language Academy), also known by the acronym AVL, is an institution created on September 16, 1998, by the Valencian Parliament, which belongs to the set of official institutions that compose the Generalitat Valenciana, according to the Act of Autonomy of the Valencian Community.
Algherese (Standard Catalan: Alguerès,; Algherese: Alguerés) is the variant of the Catalan language spoken in the city of Alghero (L'Alguer in Catalan), in the northwest of Sardinia, Italy.
Allier; is a French department located in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of central France named after the river Allier.
Alpes-Maritimes (Aups Maritims; Alpi Marittime) is a department of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in the extreme southeast corner of France.
The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.
Analogy (from Greek ἀναλογία, analogia, "proportion", from ana- "upon, according to" + logos "ratio") is a cognitive process of transferring information or meaning from a particular subject (the analog, or source) to another (the target), or a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Aquitaine (Aquitània; Akitania; Poitevin-Saintongeais: Aguiéne), archaic Guyenne/Guienne (Occitan: Guiana) was a traditional region of France, and was an administrative region of France until 1 January 2016.
Aragon (or, Spanish and Aragón, Aragó or) is an autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon.
Aragonese (aragonés in Aragonese) is a Romance language spoken in several dialects by 10,000 to 30,000 people in the Pyrenees valleys of Aragon, Spain, primarily in the comarcas of Somontano de Barbastro, Jacetania, Alto Gállego, Sobrarbe, and Ribagorza/Ribagorça.
Aranese (Aranés) is a standardized form of the Pyrenean Gascon variety of the Occitan language spoken in the Val d'Aran, in northwestern Catalonia close to the Spanish border with France, where it is one of the three official languages beside Catalan and Spanish.
In language, an archaism (from the ἀρχαϊκός, archaïkós, 'old-fashioned, antiquated', ultimately ἀρχαῖος, archaîos, 'from the beginning, ancient') is the use of a form of speech or writing that is no longer current or that is current only within a few special contexts.
A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life.
Arnaut Daniel (fl. 1180–1200) was an Occitan troubadour of the 12th century, praised by Dante as a "the best smith" (miglior fabbro) and called a "grand master of love" (gran maestro d'amore) by Petrarch.
Artix is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
Astur-Leonese is a group of closely related Romance languages of the West Iberian branch, including.
Asturian (asturianu,Art. 1 de la formerly also known as bable) is a West Iberian Romance language spoken in Principality of Asturias, Spain.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
Auvergnat or Auvergnat language (endonym: auvernhat) is an idiom spoken in France in part of the Massif Central and in particular, in most of Auvergne, province that gives it its name.
Auvergne (Auvergnat (occitan): Auvèrnhe / Auvèrnha) is a former administrative region of France.
The baìo (also known as "Baìo di Sampeyre") is a traditional festival that takes place every five years in the municipality of Sampeyre, in the Valle Varaita in the province of Cuneo, Italy.
The Balearic Islands (Illes Balears,; Islas Baleares) are an archipelago of Spain in the western Mediterranean Sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Basque Country (Euskadi; País Vasco; Pays Basque), officially the Basque Autonomous Community (Euskal Autonomia Erkidegoa, EAE; Comunidad Autónoma Vasca, CAV) is an autonomous community in northern Spain.
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
Bayonne (Gascon: Baiona; Baiona; Bayona) is a city and commune and one of the two sub-prefectures of the department of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France.
Béarn (Gascon: Bearn or Biarn; Bearno or Biarno) is one of the traditional provinces of France, located in the Pyrenees mountains and in the plain at their feet, in southwest France.
Béarnese is a dialect of Gascon spoken in Béarn (in the French department of the Pyrénées Atlantiques, in southwestern France).
In historical linguistics, betacism is a sound change in which (the voiced bilabial plosive, as in bane) and (the voiced labiodental fricative, as in vane) are confused.
The Bidasoa (Bidassoa) is a river in the Basque Country of northern Spain and southern France that runs largely south to north.
Bishop Charles-François-Bienvenu Myriel, referred to as Bishop Myriel or Monseigneur Bienvenu, is a fictional character in Victor Hugo's Les Misérables.
The Boecis (original name: Lo poema de Boecis,,; "The poem of Boethius") is an anonymous fragment written around the year 1000 CE in the Limousin dialect of Old Occitan, currently spoken only in southern France.
Anicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius, commonly called Boethius (also Boetius; 477–524 AD), was a Roman senator, consul, magister officiorum, and philosopher of the early 6th century.
A borough is an administrative division in various English-speaking countries.
Braga (Bracara) is a city and a municipality in the northwestern Portuguese district of Braga, in the historical and cultural Minho Province.
Brigasc is a dialect of the Ligurian language.
Calabria (Calàbbria in Calabrian; Calavría in Calabrian Greek; Καλαβρία in Greek; Kalavrì in Arbëresh/Albanian), known in antiquity as Bruttium, is a region in Southern Italy.
A Calandreta is a bilingual school in Occitania in the South of France where the Occitan language is taught alongside the French language.
The Camino de Santiago (Peregrinatio Compostellana, "Pilgrimage of Compostela"; O Camiño de Santiago), known in English as the Way of Saint James among other names, is a network of pilgrims' ways serving pilgrimage to the shrine of the apostle Saint James the Great in the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela in Galicia in northwestern Spain, where tradition has it that the remains of the saint are buried.
Camisards were Huguenots (French Calvinist Protestants) of the rugged and isolated Cévennes region, and the Vaunage in southern France.
The Cançó (or Cançon) de Santa Fe (Chanson de Sainte Foi d'Agen, Song of Saint Fides), a hagiographical poem about Saint Faith, is the earliest surviving written work in a Catalan dialect of Old Occitan.
The canso or canson or canzo was a song style used by the troubadours; it was, by far, the most common genre used, especially by early troubadours; only in the second half of the 13th century would its dominance be challenged by a growing number of poets writing coblas esparsas.
Carcassonne (Carcaso) is a French fortified city in the department of Aude, in the region of Occitanie.
In English, Castilian Spanish sometimes refers to the variety of Peninsular Spanish spoken in northern and central Spain or as the language standard for radio and TV speakers.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
Catalonia (Catalunya, Catalonha, Cataluña) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
Centre-Val de Loire ("Centre-Loire Valley") is one of the 18 administrative regions of France.
Chants d'Auvergne (Songs from the Auvergne) is a collection of folk songs from the Auvergne region of France arranged for soprano voice and orchestra or piano by Joseph Canteloube between 1923 and 1930.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
The close front rounded vowel, or high front rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
The Conselh de la Lenga Occitana or CLO (Occitan Language Council) is the body responsible for managing and developing the standard variant of the Occitan language.
Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.
The Dauphiné or Dauphiné Viennois, formerly Dauphiny in English, is a former province in southeastern France, whose area roughly corresponded to that of the present departments of Isère, Drôme, and Hautes-Alpes.
Daurel e Betó; Daurèl e Beton in modern Occitan, Daurel et Beton in French, "Daurel and Beton"), is an anonymous chanson de geste in Old Occitan which full title reads Lo romans de Daurel e de Betó. It is made up of 2198 lines, grouped in 53 monorhymed laisses of alexandrines (1-138) and decasyllables (139-2198), but the last fifteen being only partially readable, the end of the story remains a mystery. The one extant record of the text is a poorly kept manuscript discovered in 1876 by Ambroise-Firmin Didot. Though it could never be authentified before, the existence of such a work had been known since the early Middle Ages through a quick mention in a poem by the troubadour Guiraut de Cabrera. Daurel e Betó was written in the late twelfth or the early first half of the thirteenth century and is connected with the cycle of Charlemagne, but by the romantic character of the events is more like a regular romance of adventure. Excluding the cities of Paris and Babylon, all the places evoked in the tale are located in a region comprised between Poitiers and Agen, where it was probably composed. A thorough study of the vocabulary and alleged pronunciation (there was no fixed rules for spelling) of the author further reduces this area to Haute-Garonne and Tarn. Moreover, Beton, Aicelina, Gauserand and Bertrand were names mostly found in Occitania.
De vulgari eloquentia (On Eloquence in the vernacular) is the title of a Latin essay by Dante Alighieri.
The alveolar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
In the administrative divisions of France, the department (département) is one of the three levels of government below the national level ("territorial collectivities"), between the administrative regions and the commune.
A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible.
In the field of dialectology, a diasystem or polylectal grammar is a linguistic analysis set up to encode or represent a range of related varieties in a way that displays their structural differences.
In linguistics, diglossia is a situation in which two dialects or languages are used by a single language community.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
Domergue Sumien (born 1968 in Compiègne, France) is an Occitan linguist and writer.
Earth Made of Glass (1998) is a science fiction novel by American writer John Barnes, the second book of his Thousand Cultures series.
Eastern Lombard is a group of closely related dialects of Lombard, a Gallo-Italic language spoken in Lombardy, mainly in the provinces of Bergamo, Brescia and Mantua, in the area around Crema and in parts of Trentino.
Eleanor of Aquitaine (Aliénor d'Aquitaine, Éléonore,; 1124 – 1 April 1204) was queen consort of France (1137–1152) and England (1154–1189) and duchess of Aquitaine in her own right (1137–1204).
Estella (Spanish) or Lizarra (Basque) is a town located in the autonomous community of Navarre, in northern Spain.
The European Bureau for Lesser-Used Languages (EBLUL) was a non-governmental organisation that was set up to promote linguistic diversity and languages.
The Executive Council of Catalonia (Consell Executiu) or the Government of Catalonia (Catalan: Govern de Catalunya) is the executive branch of the Generalitat of Catalonia.
The Félibrige (Lo Felibritge in classical Occitan, Lou Felibrige in Mistralian spelling) is a literary and cultural association founded by Frédéric Mistral and other Provençal writers to defend and promote the Provençal language (also called the Occitan language or langue d’oc) and literature.
Fenouillèdes (Fenolhedés/Fenolheda; Fenolledès/Fenolleda) is a French comarca and a traditional Occitan-speaking area in the département of Pyrénées-Orientales.
Forez is a former province of France, corresponding approximately to the central part of the modern Loire département and a part of the Haute-Loire and Puy-de-Dôme départements.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Frankish (reconstructed Frankish: *italic), Old Franconian or Old Frankish was the West Germanic language spoken by the Franks between the 4th and 8th century.
Frédéric Mistral (Frederic Mistral, 8 September 1830 – 25 March 1914) was a French writer and lexicographer of the Occitan language.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
French orthography encompasses the spelling and punctuation of the French language.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Galician (galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.
Gallia Aquitania, also known as Aquitaine or Aquitaine Gaul, was a province of the Roman Empire.
Gallia Narbonensis (Latin for "Gaul of Narbonne", from its chief settlement) was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France.
The Gallo-Romance branch of the Romance languages includes sensu stricto the French language, the Occitan language, and the Franco-Provençal language (Arpitan).
The Garonne (Garonne,; in Occitan, Catalan, and Spanish: Garona; Garumna or Garunna) is a river in southwest France and northern Spain, with a length of.
Gascon is a dialect of Occitan.
GEO is a family of educational monthly magazines similar to the ''National Geographic'' magazine.
Gerald of Braga, born in Cahors, Gascony, was a Benedictine monk at Moissac, France.
Gironde (in Occitan Gironda) is a department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwest France.
In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (alteration of form according to rules of grammar).
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
Guanajuato, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Guanajuato (Estado Libre y Soberano de Guanajuato), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, are the 32 Federal entities of Mexico.
Guardia Piemontese (Occitan: La Gàrdia) is a town and comune in the province of Cosenza and the region of Calabria in southern Italy.
In common parlance, "guttural R" is the phenomenon whereby a rhotic consonant (an "R-like" sound) is produced in the back of the vocal tract (usually with the uvula) rather than in the front portion thereof and thus as a guttural consonant.
The history of Limousin (Lemosin), one of the traditional provinces of France, reaches back to Celtic and Roman times.
The Portuguese language developed in the Western Iberian Peninsula from Latin spoken by Roman soldiers and colonists starting in the 3rd century BC.
The language known today as Spanish is derived from a dialect of spoken Latin that evolved in the north-central part of the Iberian Peninsula after the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the fifth century.
Huesca (Uesca) is a city in north-eastern Spain, within the autonomous community of Aragon.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
The Iberian Romance, Ibero-Romance or simply Iberian languages is an areal grouping of Romance languages that developed on the Iberian Peninsula, an area consisting primarily of Spain, Portugal, Gibraltar and Andorra, and in southern France which are today more commonly separated into West Iberian and Occitano-Romance language groups.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
The Institut d'Estudis Catalans (English: "Institute for Catalan Studies"), also known by the acronym IEC, is an academic institution which seeks to undertake research and study into "all elements of Catalan culture".
The Institut d'Estudis Occitans (English: Occitan Studies Institute or Institute for Occitan Studies), or IEO, is a cultural association that was founded in 1945 by a group of Occitan and French writers including Jean Cassou, Tristan Tzara, Ismaël Girard, Max Roqueta, Renat Nelli, and Pierre Rouquette.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
The Italic languages are a subfamily of the Indo-European language family, originally spoken by Italic peoples.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
John Barnes (born 1957 in Angola, Indiana) is an American science fiction author.
John (24 December 1166 – 19 October 1216), also known as John Lackland (Norman French: Johan sanz Terre), was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216.
Joseph Anglade (1868–1930) was a French philologist.
Marie-Joseph Canteloube de Malaret (21 October 18794 November 1957) was a French composer, musicologist, and author best known for his collections of orchestrated folksongs from the Auvergne region, Chants d'Auvergne.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
Katharine Louise Mosse OBE (born 20 October 1961), or Kate Mosse, is an English novelist, non-fiction and short story writer and broadcaster.
The Kingdom of Aragon (Reino d'Aragón, Regne d'Aragó, Regnum Aragonum, Reino de Aragón) was a medieval and early modern kingdom on the Iberian Peninsula, corresponding to the modern-day autonomous community of Aragon, in Spain.
The Kingdom of Navarre (Nafarroako Erresuma, Reino de Navarra, Royaume de Navarre, Regnum Navarrae), originally the Kingdom of Pamplona (Iruñeko Erresuma), was a Basque-based kingdom that occupied lands on either side of the western Pyrenees, alongside the Atlantic Ocean between present-day Spain and France.
In linguistics, a koiné language, koiné dialect, or simply koiné (Ancient Greek κοινή, "common ") is a standard language or dialect that has arisen as a result of contact between two or more mutually intelligible varieties (dialects) of the same language.
Kurt Baldinger (November 17, 1919 – January 17, 2007) was a Swiss linguist and philologist who made important contributions to Romance studies in the Gallo-Romanic and Ibero-Romanic branches, with works of lexicography, historical linguistics, etymology and semantics.
La nobla leyczon (La nòbla leiçon in modern Occitan, "The Noble Lesson") is an anonymous text written in Old Occitan.
Labyrinth is an archaeological mystery English-language novel written by Kate Mosse set both in the Middle Ages and present-day France.
Language shift, also known as language transfer or language replacement or language assimilation, is the process whereby a community of speakers of a language shifts to speaking a completely different language, usually over an extended period of time.
Of the languages of France, the national language, French, is the only official language according to the second article of the French Constitution, and its standardized variant is by far the most widely spoken.
There are approximately thirty-four living spoken languages and related dialects in Italy; most of which are indigenous evolutions of Vulgar Latin, and are therefore classified as Romance languages.
The languages of Spain (lenguas de España), or Spanish languages (lenguas españolas), are the languages spoken or once spoken in Spain.
Languedoc-Roussillon (Lengadòc-Rosselhon; Llenguadoc-Rosselló) is a former administrative region of France.
Languedocien (French name) or Lengadocian (native name) is an Occitan dialect spoken in rural parts of southern France such as Languedoc, Rouergue, Quercy, Agenais and Southern Périgord.
The langues d'oïl (French) or oïl languages (also in langues d'oui) are a dialect continuum that includes standard French and its closest autochthonous relatives historically spoken in the northern half of France, southern Belgium, and the Channel Islands.
Oh, to be a sparrow-hawk, a goshawk! I'd fly to my love, Touch her, embrace her, Kiss her lips so soft,Sweeten and soothe our pain.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Leonese is a set of vernacular Romance dialects spoken in the northern and western portions of the historical region of León in Spain (the modern provinces of León, Zamora, and Salamanca) and a few adjoining areas in Portugal.
Les Misérables is a French historical novel by Victor Hugo, first published in 1862, that is considered one of the greatest novels of the 19th century.
A lexeme is a unit of lexical meaning that exists regardless of the number of inflectional endings it may have or the number of words it may contain.
Lexicography is divided into two separate but equally important groups.
A lexicon, word-hoard, wordbook, or word-stock is the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or medical).
Liguria (Ligûria, Ligurie) is a coastal region of north-western Italy; its capital is Genoa.
Ligurian (ligure or lengua ligure) is a Gallo-Italic language spoken in Liguria in Northern Italy, parts of the Mediterranean coastal zone of France, Monaco and in the villages of Carloforte and Calasetta in Sardinia.
Limousin (Lemosin) is a former administrative region of France.
Limousin (Lemosin) is a dialect of the Occitan language, spoken in the three departments of Limousin, parts of Charente and the Dordogne in the southwest of France.
Linguistic distance is how different one language or dialect is from another.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
This is a list of the kings and queens of Pamplona, later Navarre.
Litany, in Christian worship and some forms of Judaic worship, is a form of prayer used in services and processions, and consisting of a number of petitions.
Lleida (Lérida) is a city in the west of Catalonia, Spain.
The Loire (Léger; Liger) is the longest river in France and the 171st longest in the world.
Lope de Rueda (c.1510–1565) was a Spanish dramatist and author, regarded by some as the best of his era.
Louis Alibert (Loís Alibèrt in Occitan; 1884–1959) was a French linguist.
The Lyonnais is a historical province of France which owes its name to the city of Lyon.
A marsh is a wetland that is dominated by herbaceous rather than woody plant species.
The Massif Central (Massís Central) is a highland region in the middle of southern France, consisting of mountains and plateaus.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Menton (written Menton in classical norm or Mentan in Mistralian norm; Mentone) is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.
Mentonasc (Mentonasco in Italian, Mentonnais or Mentonasque in French) is a Romance dialect historically spoken in and around Menton, France.
Meridional French (français méridional), also referred to as Francitan, is a regional variant of the French language.
John Michael Crichton (October 23, 1942 – November 4, 2008) was an American author, screenwriter, film director and producer best known for his work in the science fiction, thriller, and medical fiction genres.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Midi-Pyrénées (Occitan: Miègjorn-Pirenèus or Mieidia-Pirenèus; Mediodía-Pirineos) is a former administrative region of France.
The Mirandese language (autonym: mirandés or lhéngua mirandesa; mirandês or língua mirandesa) is an Astur-Leonese language that is sparsely spoken in a small area of northeastern Portugal in the municipalities of Miranda do Douro, Mogadouro and Vimioso.
The Mistralian norm is a linguistic norm for the Occitan language.
Moissac is a commune in the Tarn-et-Garonne department in the Occitanie region in southern France.
Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco (Principauté de Monaco), is a sovereign city-state, country and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe.
Monégasque (natively Munegascu) is a variety of Ligurian, a Gallo-Romance language spoken in Monaco as well as nearby in Italy and France.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the nose as well as the mouth, such as the French vowel.
Navarro-Aragonese is a Romance language once spoken in a large part of the Ebro River basin, south of the middle Pyrenees, although it is only currently spoken in a small portion of its original territory.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Niçard (Classical orthography), Nissart/Niçart (Mistralian orthography), Niçois (French), or Nizzardo (Italian) is a subdialect of the Occitan language (Provençal dialect) spoken in the city of Nice (Niçard: Niça/Nissa) and in the historical County of Nice (since 1860 the main part of the current French département of Alpes-Maritimes).
The Occitan alphabet consists of the following 23 Latin letters: |- |bgcolor.
This article discusses the conjugation of verbs in a number of varieties of the Occitan language, including Old Occitan.
The Occitan cross (also called cross of Occitania, cross of Languedoc, cross of Toulouse; heraldically cross cleché voided) is a heraldic cross, today chiefly used as a symbol of Occitania.
A slice of clafoutis, a cherry-based dessert Occitan cuisine is the traditional cuisine and gastronomy of Occitania, the supranational region where Occitan is traditionally spoken.
Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
This article describes the phonology of the Occitan language.
The Occitan Valleys (Valadas Occitanas, Valli Occitane, Vallées Occitanes) are the part of Occitania (the territory of the Occitan language) within the borders of Italy.
Occitania (Occitània,,,, or) is the historical region and a nation, in southern Europe where Occitan was historically the main language spoken, and where it is sometimes still used, for the most part as a second language.
The Occitano-Romance or Gallo-Narbonnese (llengües occitanoromàniques, lengas occitanoromanicas) is a branch of the Romance language group that encompasses the Occitan language, the Catalan language, and the Aragonese language.
Old Catalan was the Romance variety spoken in territories that spanned roughly the territories of the Principality of Catalonia, the Kingdom of Valencia, the Balearic Islands, and the island of Sardinia; all of them then part of the Crown of Aragon.
Old Occitan (Modern Occitan: occitan ancian, occità antic), also called Old Provençal, was the earliest form of the Occitano-Romance languages, as attested in writings dating from the eighth through the fourteenth centuries.
The Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts (Ordonnance de Villers-Cotterêts) is an extensive piece of reform legislation signed into law by Francis I of France on August 10, 1539 in the city of Villers-Cotterêts and the oldest French legislation still used partly by French courts.
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
The Parliament of Catalonia (Parlament de Catalunya) is the unicameral regional legislature of Catalonia.
Pasaia (Spanish: Pasajes) is a town and municipality located in the province of Gipuzkoa in the Basque Autonomous Community of northern Spain.
The pastourelle (also pastorelle, pastorella, or pastorita is a typically Old French lyric form concerning the romance of a shepherdess. In most of the early pastourelles, the poet knight meets a shepherdess who bests him in a battle of wit and who displays general coyness. The narrator usually has sexual relations, either consensual or rape, with the shepherdess, and there is a departure or escape. Later developments moved toward pastoral poetry by having a shepherd and sometimes a love quarrel. The form originated with the troubadour poets of the 12th century and particularly with the poet Marcabru (pastorela). This troubadour form melded with goliard poetry and was practiced in France and Occitania until the Carmina Burana of c. 1230. In Spanish literature, the pastourelle influenced the serranilla, and fifteenth century pastourelles exist in French, German, English, and Welsh. One short Scots example is Robene and Makyne. Adam de la Halle's Jeu de Robin et Marion (the game of Robin and Maid Marion) is a dramatization of a pastourelle, and as late as Edmund Spenser the pastourelle is referred to in book six of Faerie Queene. Child's ballads gives an example in The Baffled Knight.
Patois (pl. same or) is speech or language that is considered nonstandard, although the term is not formally defined in linguistics.
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
In linguistics, a phonemic orthography is an orthography (system for writing a language) in which the graphemes (written symbols) correspond to the phonemes (significant spoken sounds) of the language.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Piedmont (Piemonte,; Piedmontese, Occitan and Piemont; Piémont) is a region in northwest Italy, one of the 20 regions of the country.
Piedmontese (Piemontèis or Lenga Piemontèisa, in Italian: Piemontese) is a Romance language spoken by some 700,000 people in Piedmont, northwestern region of Italy.
Pierre Bec (in Occitan Pèire Bèc 11 December 1921 – 30 June 2014) was a French Occitan language poet and linguist.
Pigüé is a town in Argentina located in the Pampas, south-west of Buenos Aires.
A pluricentric language or polycentric language is a language with several interacting codified standard versions, often corresponding to different countries.
Poetry (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.
Poitevin (Poetevin) is a language spoken in Poitou, France.
Poitou-Charentes is a former administrative region in south-western France.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
A pro-drop language (from "pronoun-dropping") is a language in which certain classes of pronouns may be omitted when they are pragmatically or grammatically inferable (the precise conditions vary from language to language, and can be quite intricate).
Provençal (Provençau or Prouvençau) is a variety of Occitan spoken by a minority of people in southern France, mostly in Provence.
Provence (Provençal: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône River to the west to the Italian border to the east, and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south.
Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (Provença-Aups-Còsta d'Azur; Provenza-Alpi-Costa Azzurra; PACA) is one of the 18 administrative regions of France.
Purgatorio (Italian for "Purgatory") is the second part of Dante's Divine Comedy, following the Inferno, and preceding the Paradiso.
Pyrénées-Atlantiques (Gascon: Pirenèus-Atlantics; Pirinio Atlantiarrak or Pirinio Atlantikoak) is a department in the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine, in southwestern France.
Pyrénées-Orientales (Pirineus Orientals; Pirenèus Orientals; "Eastern Pyrenees") is a department of southern France adjacent to the northern Spanish frontier and the Mediterranean Sea.
The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France.
Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
Raimon Vidal de Bezaudu(n) (Catalan: Ramon Vidal de Besalú) (flourished early 13th century) was a Catalan troubadour from Besalù.
The Red Book of Endangered Languages was published by UNESCO and collected a comprehensive list of the world's endangered languages.
A response, responsicle, or respond, is the second half of one of a set of preces, the said or sung answer by a congregation or choir to a versicle said or sung by an officiant or cantor.
Rhaeto-Romance, or Rhaetian, is a traditional subfamily of the Romance languages that is spoken in north and north-eastern Italy and in Switzerland.
Rhône-Alpes (Arpitan: Rôno-Arpes; Ròse-Aups; Rodano-Alpi) is a former administrative region of France.
Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 1189 until his death.
Robèrt Lafont (March 16, 1923 in Nîmes – June 24, 2009 in Florence) was an Occitan intellectual from Provence.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Flamenca is a 13th-century romance, written in the Occitan language in Occitania.
Roncesvalles (Orreaga, Ronzesbals, Roncevaux) is a small village and municipality in Navarre, northern Spain.
Saintongeais (saintonjhais) is a dialect of Poitevin spoken halfway down the western coast of France in the former provinces of Saintonge, Aunis and Angoumois, all of which have been incorporated into the current departments of Charente and Charente-Maritime as well as in parts of their neighbouring departments of Gironde and a town in Dordogne.
San Sebastián or Donostia is a coastal city and municipality located in the Basque Autonomous Community, Spain.
Sangüesa (Basque: Zangoza) is a city in Navarre, Spain, 44.5 kilometers from Pamplona.
In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa (rarely or; sometimes spelled shwa) is the mid central vowel sound (rounded or unrounded) in the middle of the vowel chart, denoted by the IPA symbol ə, or another vowel sound close to that position.
Shuadit (also spelled Chouhadite, Chouhadit, Chouadite, Chouadit, and Shuhadit), also called Judæo-Occitan or less accurately Judæo-Provençal or Judæo-Comtadin, is the Occitan dialect historically spoken by French Jews.
The sirventes or serventes, sometimes translated as "service song", was a genre of Old Occitan lyric poetry practiced by the troubadours.
Somport or Col du Somport, known also as the Aspe Pass or Canfranc Pass, (el. 1632 m.) is a mountain pass in the central Pyrenees on the border of France and Spain.
The Song of the Albigensian Crusade (French: Chanson de la croisade albigeoise, Occitan: Canso de la crozada) is an Old Occitan epic poem narrating events of the Albigensian Crusade from March 1208 to June 1219.
Southern France or the South of France, colloquially known as le Midi, is a defined geographical area consisting of the regions of France that border the Atlantic Ocean south of the Marais Poitevin, Spain, the Mediterranean, and Italy.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia of 2006 (Estatut d’Autonomia de Catalunya) provides Catalonia's basic institutional regulations under the Spanish Constitution of 1978.
Théodore Aubanel (Occitan: Teodòr Aubanèu) (March 26, 1829 – November 2, 1886) was a Provençal poet.
The Armies of Memory (2006) is a science fiction novel by American writer John Barnes, the fourth book of his Thousand Cultures series.
The Consolation of Philosophy (De consolatione philosophiae) is a philosophical work by Boethius, written around the year 524.
The Merchants of Souls is a 2001 science fiction novel by John Barnes and the third book in the Thousand Cultures series.
Timeline is a science fiction novel by American writer Michael Crichton, published in November 1999.
Tomida femina ("A swollen woman") is the earliest surviving poem in Occitan, a sixteen-line charm probably for the use of midwives.
Toulouse (Tolosa, Tolosa) is the capital of the French department of Haute-Garonne and of the region of Occitanie.
The Toulouse Metro (Métro de Toulouse) serves the city of Toulouse, France, and some of the surrounding area.
The trobairises (singular: trobairitz) were Occitan female troubadours of the 12th and 13th centuries, active from around 1170 to approximately 1260.
A troubadour (trobador, archaically: -->) was a composer and performer of Old Occitan lyric poetry during the High Middle Ages (1100–1350).
Tudela is a municipality in Spain, the second largest city of the autonomous community of Navarre and twice a former Latin bishopric.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.
Aran (previously officially called Val d'Aran) is an administrative entity in Catalonia, Spain, consisting of the Aran Valley, in area, in the Pyrenees mountains, in the northwestern part of the province of Lleida.
Valdese is a town in Burke County, North Carolina, United States.
Valencian (or; endonym: valencià, llengua valenciana, or idioma valencià) is a linguistic variety spoken in the Valencian Community, Spain. In the Valencian Community, Valencian is the traditional language and is co-official with Spanish. It is considered different from Catalan by a slight majority of the people of the Valencian Community (including non-speakers), but this is at odds with the broad academic view, which considers it a dialect of Catalan. A standardized form exists, based on the Southern Valencian dialect. Valencian belongs to the Western group of Catalan dialects. Under the Valencian Statute of Autonomy, the Valencian Academy of the Language (Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua, AVL) has been established as its regulator. The AVL considers Catalan and Valencian to be simply two names for the same language. Some of the most important works of Valencian literature experienced a golden age during the Late Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Important works include Joanot Martorell's chivalric romance Tirant lo Blanch, and Ausiàs March's poetry. The first book produced with movable type in the Iberian Peninsula was printed in the Valencian variety. The earliest recorded chess game with modern rules for moves of the queen and bishop was in the Valencian poem Scachs d'amor (1475).
Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant.
La vergonha (meaning "shame") is what Occitans call the effects of various policies of the government of France on its citizens whose native language was a so-called patois, a language other than French, such as Occitan or one of the dialects of the langues d'oc.
Victor Marie Hugo (26 February 1802 – 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, and dramatist of the Romantic movement.
Vivaro-Alpine (vivaroalpenc, vivaroaupenc) is a variety of Occitan spoken in southeastern France (namely, around the Dauphiné area) and northwestern Italy (the Occitan Valleys of Piedmont and Liguria).
The voiceless palatal stop or voiceless palatal plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in some vocal languages.
Voiceless fricatives produced in the postalveolar region include the voiceless palato-alveolar fricative, the voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant fricative, the voiceless retroflex fricative, and the voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative.
Vowel harmony is a type of long-distance assimilatory phonological process involving vowels that occurs in some languages.
Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin (as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire.
The Waldensians (also known variously as Waldenses, Vallenses, Valdesi or Vaudois) are a pre-Protestant Christian movement founded by Peter Waldo in Lyon around 1173.
Württemberg is a historical German territory.
Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (commonly known as Webster's Third, or W3) was published in September 1961.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
In linguistics, a yes–no question, formally known as a polar question or a general question, is a question whose expected answer is either "yes" or "no".
Zaragoza, also called Saragossa in English, is the capital city of the Zaragoza province and of the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
Debates concerning Occitan linguistic classification, French language/Proven, ISO 639:oc, ISO 639:oci, Langue d'Oc, Langue d'oc, Langue dOoc, Langue dÕoc, Langues d'oc, Lenga d'oc, Lenga d'òc, Mistralian, Modern Occitan, Northern Occitan, Oc language family, Oc languages, Occitan, Occitan (post 1500), Occitan Language, Occitan dialect, Occitan dialects, Occitan language (post 1500), Occitan languages, Occitan orthography, Occitanian, Provençal languages, Southern Occitan, Òc.