205 relations: Acclamation, Adolfas Urbšas, Alien (law), Andrei Zhdanov, Andrey Vyshinsky, Annexation, Antanas Smetona, Baltic Offensive, Baltic states, Baltic Way, Battle for Velikiye Luki, Battle of Berlin, Battle of France, Battle of Määritsa, Battle of Narva (1944), Battle of Tannenberg Line, Belarus, Boris Vadimovich Sokolov, Central Asia, Collective farming, Council of Europe, Courland Pocket, De jure, Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Demography, Deportation, Deposition (politics), Destruction battalions, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, East Prussia, Eastern Europe, Einsatzgruppen, Electoral fraud, Enemy of the people, Era of Stagnation, Estonia, Estonian International Commission for Investigation of Crimes Against Humanity, Estonian language, Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic, European Court of Human Rights, European Parliament, Ex injuria jus non oritur, Falsifiers of History, Fellow traveller, Finland, Finnish Democratic Republic, Forest Brothers, Free France, Geneva Conventions, Genocide and Resistance Research Centre of Lithuania, ..., German occupation of the Baltic states during World War II, Gestapo, Glasnost, Government in exile, Government of Russia, Government of the Soviet Union, Great Purge, Great Soviet Encyclopedia, Gulag, Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Heinrich Himmler, Helsinki Accords, Hinrich Lohse, Historiography, Historiography in the Soviet Union, History of the Jews in Estonia, History of the Jews in Latvia, History of the Soviet Union (1982–91), Home Army, Human Rights Watch, Independence, Industrialisation, International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, Investment, Irina Saburova, Izvestia, Jamestown Foundation, January Events (Lithuania), Jüri Uluots, Jews, June deportation, June Uprising in Lithuania, Kaliningrad, Katyn massacre, Kaunas, Kārlis Ulmanis, Kersten Committee, Kievan Rus', Konstantin Päts, Latvia, Latvian Central Council, Latvian Legion, Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic, Leśni, Lennart Meri, Liepāja, List of military occupations of Latvia, Litene, Lithuania, Lithuanian Jews, Lithuanian Land Force, Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic, Lithuanian Territorial Defense Force, Lonely Planet, Mikhail Gorbachev, Military base, Military occupation, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Russia), Molotov Line, Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Museum of Occupations, Narew, National Committee of the Republic of Estonia, Nazi concentration camps, Nazi Germany, Nazi ghettos, Nikita Khrushchev, NKVD, Northern Europe, Oberkommando des Heeres, October Revolution, Official language, Oleg Platonov, On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences, Operation Barbarossa, Operation Priboi, Orzeł incident, Paldiski, Palgrave Macmillan, Partisan (military), Perestroika, Permanent residency, Pogrom, Polish government-in-exile, Pomeranian Wall, Popular front, Population transfer in the Soviet Union, Porkhov, Potsdam Conference, Provisional Government of Lithuania, Public service, Punishment, Puppet state, Racial policy of Nazi Germany, Rainiai massacre, Red Army, Reichskommissariat Ostland, Representation (politics), Republics of the Soviet Union, Revolutionary socialism, Riga, Routledge, Russian Empire, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Russification, Saint Petersburg State University, San (river), Second Polish Republic, Sergey Yastrzhembsky, Siberia, Siege of Leningrad, Singing Revolution, Skrunda, Skrunda-1, Soviet deportations from Estonia, Soviet Information Bureau, Soviet invasion of Poland, Soviet partisans, Soviet Union, Sovietization of the Baltic states, Sphere of influence, Stalinism, State continuity of the Baltic states, Sui generis, Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, Tallinn, Tallinn Offensive, Tartu Offensive, Territorial changes of the Baltic states, The Barricades, The Moscow Times, The Russian Review, Time (magazine), Tver Oblast, Ultimatum, United Nations Human Rights Council, Velikaya River, Ventspils, Villa Lituania, Vilnius, Vistula, Vladimir Dekanozov, Waffen-SS, Warsaw Uprising, Western world, Winter War, Yalta Conference, 16th Rifle Division (Soviet Union), 1940 Soviet ultimatum to Lithuania, 1977 Soviet Constitution, 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, 20th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Estonian), 8th Estonian Rifle Corps, 90th anniversary of the Latvian Republic. Expand index (155 more) » « Shrink index
An acclamation, in its most common sense, is a form of election that does not use a ballot.
Adolfas Urbšas (born Kirdonys, Rokiškis municipality, Lithuania 18 August 1900; died 19 May 1973) was an officer in the army of the Independent State of Lithuania and then the Red Army, rising eventually to the rank of Major General.
In law, an alien is a person who is not a national of a given country, though definitions and terminology differ to some degree.
Andrei Alexandrovich Zhdanov (p; – 31 August 1948) was a Soviet Communist Party leader and cultural ideologist.
Andrey Yanuaryevich Vyshinsky (italic; Andrzej Wyszyński) (– 22 November 1954) was a Soviet politician, jurist and diplomat.
Annexation (Latin ad, to, and nexus, joining) is the administrative action and concept in international law relating to the forcible transition of one state's territory by another state.
Antanas Smetona (10 August 1874 – 9 January 1944) was one of the most important Lithuanian political figures between World War I and World War II.
The Baltic Offensive, also known as the Baltic Strategic Offensive, denotes the campaign between the northern Fronts of the Red Army and the German Army Group North in the Baltic States during the autumn of 1944.
The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
The Baltic Way or Baltic Chain (also Chain of Freedom; Balti kett, Baltijas ceļš, Baltijos kelias, Балтийский путь) was a peaceful political demonstration that occurred on 23 August 1989.
The Velikiye Luki offensive operation (Великолукская наступательная операция) was executed by the forces of the Red Army's Kalinin Front against the Wehrmacht's 3rd Panzer Army during the Winter Campaign of 1942–1943 with the objective of liberating the Russian city of Velikiye Luki as part of the northern pincer of the Rzhev-Sychevka Strategic Offensive Operation (Operation Mars).
The Battle of Berlin, designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, and also known as the Fall of Berlin, was the final major offensive of the European theatre of World War II.
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.
Battle of Määritsa (Määritsa lahing,also known as Battle of Osula, Osula lahing) was a battle held in Osula village, at that time in Võru County, Estonian SSR, Soviet Union.
The Battle of Narva was a military campaign between the German Army Detachment "Narwa" and the Soviet Leningrad Front fought for possession of the strategically important Narva Isthmus on 2 February – 10 August 1944 during World War II.
This is a sub-article to Battle of Narva (1944). The Battle of Tannenberg Line (Die Schlacht um die Tannenbergstellung; Sinimägede lahing; Битва за линию «Танненберг») was a military engagement between the German Army Detachment Narwa and the Soviet Leningrad Front.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Boris Sokolov (Бори́с Вади́мович Соколо́в; born January 2, 1957 in Moscow), is a historian and a Russian literature researcher (he has Candidate of Science degree in History and Habilitat Doctor of Science in Philology).
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Collective farming and communal farming are various types of "agricultural production in which multiple farmers run their holdings as a joint enterprise." That type of collective is often an agricultural cooperative in which member-owners jointly engage in farming activities.
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
The Courland Pocket was a group of German forces of Reichskommissariat Ostland on the Courland Peninsula that was cut off and surrounded by the Red Army from July 1944 through May 1945.
In law and government, de jure (lit) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.
The Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Russian SFSR (r) was a political act of the Russian SFSR (Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic), then part of the Soviet Union, which marked the beginning of constitutional reform in Russia.
Demography (from prefix demo- from Ancient Greek δῆμος dēmos meaning "the people", and -graphy from γράφω graphō, implies "writing, description or measurement") is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings.
Deportation is the expulsion of a person or group of people from a place or country.
Deposition by political means concerns the removal of a politician or monarch.
Destruction battalions, colloquially istrebitels (истребители, "destroyers", "exterminators") abbreviated: istrebki (Russian), strybki (Ukrainian) were paramilitary units under the control of NKVD in the western Soviet Union, which performed tasks of internal security on the Eastern Front and after it.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
East Prussia (Ostpreußen,; Prusy Wschodnie; Rytų Prūsija; Borussia orientalis; Восточная Пруссия) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire from 1871); following World War I it formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia, until 1945.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
Einsatzgruppen ("task forces" or "deployment groups") were Schutzstaffel (SS) paramilitary death squads of Nazi Germany that were responsible for mass killings, primarily by shooting, during World War II (1939–45).
Electoral fraud, election manipulation, or vote rigging is illegal interference with the process of an election, whether by increasing the vote share of the favored candidate, depressing the vote share of the rival candidates, or both.
The term enemy of the people is a designation for the political or class opponents of the subgroup in power within a larger group.
The Era of Stagnation (Период застоя, Stagnation Period, also called the Brezhnevian Stagnation) was the period in the history of the Soviet Union which began during the rule of Leonid Brezhnev (1964–1982) and continued under Yuri Andropov (1982–1984) and Konstantin Chernenko (1984–1985).
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
The Estonian International Commission for Investigation of Crimes Against Humanity (also known as the History Commission or Max Jakobson Commission) was the commission established by President of Estonia Lennart Meri in October 1998 to investigate crimes against humanity committed in Estonia or against its citizens during the Soviet and German occupation, such as Soviet deportations from Estonia and the Holocaust in Estonia.
Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.
The Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic (Estonian SSR or ESSR; Eesti Nõukogude Sotsialistlik Vabariik ENSV; Эстонская Советская Социалистическая Республика ЭССР, Estonskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika ESSR), also known as Soviet Estonia or Estonia was an unrecognized republic of the Soviet Union, administered by a subordinate of the Government of the Soviet Union.
The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR or ECtHR; Cour européenne des droits de l’homme) is a supranational or international court established by the European Convention on Human Rights.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
Ex injuria jus non oritur (Latin for "law does not arise from injustice") is a principle of international law.
Falsifiers of History was a book published by the Soviet Information Bureau, edited and partially re-written by Joseph Stalin, in response to documents made public in January 1948 regarding German–Soviet relations before and after the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact.
The term fellow traveller (also fellow traveler) identifies a person who is intellectually sympathetic to the ideology of a political organization, and who co-operates in the organization's politics, without being a formal member of that organization.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
The Finnish Democratic Republic (Suomen kansanvaltainen tasavalta, also Suomen kansantasavalta, Demokratiska Republiken Finland, Russian: Финляндская Демократическая Республика) was a short-lived puppet government created and recognised only by the Soviet Union.
The Forest Brothers (also Brothers of the Forest, Forest Brethren, or Forest Brotherhood; metsavennad, meža brāļi, miško broliai) were Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian partisans who waged a guerrilla war against Soviet rule during the Soviet invasion and occupation of the three Baltic states during, and after, World War II.
Free France and its Free French Forces (French: France Libre and Forces françaises libres) were the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle during the Second World War and its military forces, that continued to fight against the Axis powers as one of the Allies after the fall of France.
Original document as PDF in single pages, 1864 The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for humanitarian treatment in war.
The Genocide and Resistance Research Centre of Lithuania (Lietuvos gyventojų genocido ir rezistencijos tyrimo centras or LGGRTC) is a state-funded research institute in Lithuania dedicated to "the study of genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes in Lithuania; the study of the persecution of local residents by occupying regimes; the study of armed and unarmed resistance to occupying regimes; the initiation of the legal evaluation of the activities of the organisers and implementers of genocide; and the commemoration of freedom fighters and genocide victims." The centre was founded on 25 October 1992 by the Supreme Council of the Lithuanian Republic as the "State Genocide Research Centre of Lithuania".
The occupation of the Baltic states by Nazi Germany occurred during Operation Barbarossa from 1941 to 1944.
The Gestapo, abbreviation of Geheime Staatspolizei (Secret State Police), was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe.
In the Russian language the word glasnost (гла́сность) has several general and specific meanings.
A government in exile is a political group which claims to be a country or semi-sovereign state's legitimate government, but is unable to exercise legal power and instead resides in another state or foreign country.
The Government of Russia exercises executive power in the Russian Federation.
The Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Правительство СССР, Pravitel'stvo SSSR) was the main body of the executive branch of government in the Soviet Union.
The Great Purge or the Great Terror (Большо́й терро́р) was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union which occurred from 1936 to 1938.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (GSE; Большая советская энциклопедия, БСЭ, Bolshaya sovetskaya entsiklopediya) is one of the largest Russian-language encyclopedias, published by the Soviet state from 1926 to 1990, and again since 2002 by Russia (under the name Bolshaya Rossiyskaya entsiklopediya or Great Russian Encyclopedia).
The Gulag (ГУЛАГ, acronym of Главное управление лагерей и мест заключения, "Main Camps' Administration" or "Chief Administration of Camps") was the government agency in charge of the Soviet forced labor camp system that was created under Vladimir Lenin and reached its peak during Joseph Stalin's rule from the 1930s to the 1950s.
The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 are a series of international treaties and declarations negotiated at two international peace conferences at The Hague in the Netherlands.
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים, Ha-Universita ha-Ivrit bi-Yerushalayim; الجامعة العبرية في القدس, Al-Jami'ah al-Ibriyyah fi al-Quds; abbreviated HUJI) is Israel's second oldest university, established in 1918, 30 years before the establishment of the State of Israel.
Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (Protection Squadron; SS), and a leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) of Germany.
The Helsinki Accords, Helsinki Final Act, or Helsinki Declaration was the final act of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe held in Finlandia Hall of Helsinki, Finland, during July and August 1, 1975.
Hinrich Lohse (2 September 1896 – 25 February 1964) was a Nazi German politician and a convicted war criminal, best known for his rule of the Baltic states during World War II.
Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject.
Soviet historiography is the methodology of history studies by historians in the Soviet Union (USSR).
The history of the Jews in Estonia starts with individual reports of Jews in what is now Estonia from as early as the 14th century.
The History of the Jews in Latvia dates back to the first Jewish colony established in Piltene in 1571.
The history of the Soviet Union from 1982 through 1991 spans the period from Leonid Brezhnev's death and funeral until the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The Home Army (Armia Krajowa;, abbreviated AK) was the dominant Polish resistance movement in Poland, occupied by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, during World War II.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
Independence is a condition of a nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory.
Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.
The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD) is a United Nations convention.
In general, to invest is to allocate money (or sometimes another resource, such as time) in the expectation of some benefit in the future – for example, investment in durable goods, in real estate by the service industry, in factories for manufacturing, in product development, and in research and development.
Irina Evgenyevna Saburova (Ирина Евгеньевна Сабурова, 1 April 1907 – 22 November 1979) was a Russian writer, poet, translator, and magazine editor.
Izvestia (p) is a long-running high-circulation daily broadsheet newspaper in Russia.
The Jamestown Foundation is a Washington, D.C.-based institute for research and analysis, founded in 1984 as a platform to support Soviet defectors.
The January Events (Sausio įvykiai) took place in Lithuania between 11 and 13 January 1991 in the aftermath of the Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania.
Jüri Uluots (13 January 1890 – 9 January 1945) was an Estonian prime minister, journalist, prominent attorney and distinguished Professor and Dean of the Faculty of Law at the University of Tartu.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
The June deportation (Juuniküüditamine, Jūnija deportācijas, Birželio trėmimai) was a mass deportation by the Soviet Union of tens of thousands of people from the territories occupied in 1940–1941: Baltic states, occupied Poland (mostly present-day western Belarus and western Ukraine), and Moldavia.
The June Uprising (birželio sukilimas) was a brief period in the history of Lithuania between the first Soviet occupation and the Nazi occupation in late June 1941.
Kaliningrad (p; former German name: Königsberg; Yiddish: קעניגסבערג, Kenigsberg; r; Old Prussian: Twangste, Kunnegsgarbs, Knigsberg; Polish: Królewiec) is a city in the administrative centre of Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea.
The Katyn massacre (zbrodnia katyńska, "Katyń massacre" or "Katyn crime"; Катынская резня or Катынский расстрел Katynskij reznya, "Katyn massacre") was a series of mass executions of Polish intelligentsia carried out by the NKVD ("People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs", the Soviet secret police) in April and May 1940.
Kaunas (also see other names) is the second-largest city in Lithuania and the historical centre of Lithuanian economic, academic, and cultural life.
Kārlis Augusts Vilhelms Ulmanis (September 4, 1877 in Bērze, Bērze Parish, Courland Governorate, Russian Empire – September 20, 1942 in Krasnovodsk prison, Soviet Union, now Türkmenbaşy, Turkmenistan) was one of the most prominent Latvian politicians of pre-World War II Latvia during the interwar period of independence from November 1918 to June 1940.
The Select Committee to Investigate Communist Aggression and the Forced Incorporation of the Baltic States into the U.S.S.R., also known as the Kersten Committee after its chairman, Rep.
Kievan Rus' (Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.
Konstantin Päts (– 18 January 1956) was the most influential politician of interwar Estonia, and served five times as the country's head of state.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
The Latvian Central Council (LCC) ('Latvijas Centrālā Padome, LCP') was the pro-independence Latvian resistance movement during World War II from 1943 onwards.
The Latvian Legion (Latviešu leģions) was a formation of the German Waffen-SS during World War II.
The Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic (Latvian SSR; Latvijas Padomju Sociālistiskā Republika; Латвийская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Latviyskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), also known as Soviet Latvia or Latvia, was a republic of the Soviet Union.
Leśni ludzie ("forest people") is an informal name applied to some anti-German partisan groups that operated in occupied Poland during World War II, being a part of Polish resistance movement.
Lennart Georg Meri (29 March 1929 – 14 March 2006) was an Estonian statesman, writer, and film director.
Liepāja (pronounced) (Libau; see other names) is a city in western Latvia, located on the Baltic Sea.
The Baltic sovereign nation of Latvia has been occupied by military forces from other nations from time to time.
Litene (Lettin) is the center of Litene parish, in Gulbene Municipality, in north-eastern Latvia.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Lithuanian Jews or Litvaks are Jews with roots in the present-day Lithuania, Belarus, Latvia, northeastern Suwałki and Białystok region of Poland and some border areas of Russia and Ukraine.
The Lithuanian Land Forces (LLF) form the backbone of the country's defence force, capable of acting as an integral part of NATO forces.
The Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic (Lithuanian SSR; Lietuvos Tarybų Socialistinė Respublika; Литовская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Litovskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), one of the USSR republics that existed in 1940–1941 and 1944–1990, was formed on the basis of the Soviet occupation rule.
The Lithuanian Territorial Defense Force or LTDF (Lietuvos vietinė rinktinė, LVR, Litauische Sonderverbände) was a short-lived, Lithuanian, volunteer armed force created and disbanded in 1944 during the German occupation of Lithuania.
Lonely Planet is the largest travel guide book publisher in the world.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
A military base is a facility directly owned and operated by or for the military or one of its branches that shelters military equipment and personnel, and facilitates training and operations.
Military occupation is effective provisional control by a certain ruling power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the violation of the actual sovereign.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation (MFA Russia; Министерство иностранных дел Российской Федерации, МИД РФ) is the central government institution charged with leading the foreign policy and foreign relations of Russia.
The so-called Molotov Line (Liniya Molotova) was a system of border fortified regions built by the Soviet Union in the years 1940–1941 along its new western borders.
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact,Charles Peters (2005), Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World, New York: PublicAffairs, Ch.
The Museum of Occupations (Okupatsioonide muuseum) in Tallinn, Estonia, is located at the corner of Toompea St.
The Narew River (Нараў Naraŭ; Lithuanian: Narvė, Narevas, Naruva, Naura; Нарва Narva), in western Belarus and north-eastern Poland, is a right tributary of the Vistula river.
The National Committee of the Republic of Estonia (EVRK) was a self-styled resistance movement in German-occupied Estonia in March 1944.
Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Beginning with the invasion of Poland during World War II, the regime of Nazi Germany set up ghettos across occupied Europe in order to segregate and confine Jews, and sometimes Romani people, into small sections of towns and cities furthering their exploitation.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del), abbreviated NKVD (НКВД), was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union.
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
The Oberkommando des Heeres (OKH) was the High Command of the German Army during the Era of Nazi Germany.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Oleg Anatolyevich Platonov (Оле́г Анато́льевич Плато́нов; born 11 January 1950) is a contemporary Russian writer, historian, and economist.
"On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences" («О культе личности и его последствиях», «O kul'te lichnosti i yego posledstviyakh») was a report by Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev made to the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union on 25 February 1956.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
Operation Priboi ("Coastal Surf") was the code name for the Soviet mass deportation from the Baltic states on 25–28 March 1949.
The Orzeł incident occurred at the beginning of World War II.
Paldiski is a town and Baltic Sea port situated on the Pakri peninsula of north-western Estonia.
Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.
A partisan is a member of an irregular military force formed to oppose control of an area by a foreign power or by an army of occupation by some kind of insurgent activity.
Perestroika (a) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s until 1991 and is widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.
Permanent residency refers to a person's resident status in a country of which they are not a citizen.
The term pogrom has multiple meanings, ascribed most often to the deliberate persecution of an ethnic or religious group either approved or condoned by the local authorities.
The Polish government-in-exile, formally known as the Government of the Republic of Poland in exile (Rząd Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej na uchodźstwie), was the government in exile of Poland formed in the aftermath of the Invasion of Poland of September 1939, and the subsequent occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, which brought to an end the Second Polish Republic.
The Pomeranian Wall, Pomeranian Line or Pomeranian Position (Die Pommernstellung, Wał Pomorski) was a line of fortifications constructed by Nazi Germany in the Pomeranian Lakeland region.
A popular front is a broad coalition of different political groupings, usually made up of leftists and centrists.
Population transfer in the Soviet Union refers to forced transfer of various groups from the 1930s up to the 1950s ordered by Joseph Stalin and may be classified into the following broad categories: deportations of "anti-Soviet" categories of population (often classified as "enemies of workers"), deportations of entire nationalities, labor force transfer, and organized migrations in opposite directions to fill the ethnically cleansed territories.
Porkhov (По́рхов) is a town and the administrative center of Porkhovsky District in Pskov Oblast, Russia, located on the Shelon River, east of Pskov, the administrative center of the oblast.
The Potsdam Conference (Potsdamer Konferenz) was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm, in Potsdam, occupied Germany, from 17 July to 2 August 1945.
The Provisional Government of Lithuania (Laikinoji Vyriausybė) was a temporary government aiming for independent Lithuania during the last days of the Soviet occupation and the first weeks of German Nazi occupation in 1941.
Public service is a service which is provided by government to people living within its jurisdiction, either directly (through the public sector) or by financing provision of services.
A punishment is the imposition of an undesirable or unpleasant outcome upon a group or individual, meted out by an authority—in contexts ranging from child discipline to criminal law—as a response and deterrent to a particular action or behaviour that is deemed undesirable or unacceptable.
A puppet state is a state that is supposedly independent but is in fact dependent upon an outside power.
The racial policy of Nazi Germany was a set of policies and laws implemented in Nazi Germany (1933–45) based on a specific racist doctrine asserting the superiority of the Aryan race, which claimed scientific legitimacy.
The Rainiai massacre (Rainių žudynės) was the mass murder of between 70 and 80 Lithuanian political prisoners by the NKVD, with help from the Red Army, in a forest near Telšiai, Lithuania, during the night of June 24–25, 1941.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Nazi Germany established the Reichskommissariat Ostland (RKO) in 1941 as the civilian occupation regime in the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania), the northeastern part of Poland and the west part of the Belarusian SSR during World War II.
In the common view, political representation is assumed to refer only to the political activities undertaken, in representative democracies, by citizens elected to political office on behalf of their fellow citizens who do not hold political office.
The Republics of the Soviet Union or the Union Republics (r) of the Soviet Union were ethnically based proto-states that were subordinated directly to the Government of the Soviet Union.
Revolutionary socialism is the socialist doctrine that social revolution is necessary in order to bring about structural changes to society.
Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
Russification (Русификация), or Russianization, is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one.
Saint Petersburg State University (SPbU, Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет, СПбГУ) is a Russian federal state-owned higher education institution based in Saint Petersburg.
The San (San; Сян Sian; Saan) is a river in southeastern Poland and western Ukraine, a tributary of the Vistula River, with a length of 458 km (it is the 6th-longest Polish river) and a basin area of 16,877 km2 (14,426 km2 of it in Poland).
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).
Sergey Vladimirovich Yastrzhembsky (Серге́й Владимирович Ястржембский, Siergiej Władimirowicz Jastrzębski), born December 4, 1953, Moscow, is a Russian Federation politician and diplomat.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
The Siege of Leningrad (also known as the Leningrad Blockade (Блокада Ленинграда, transliteration: Blokada Leningrada) and the 900-Day Siege) was a prolonged military blockade undertaken from the south by the Army Group North of Nazi Germany and the Finnish Army in the north, against Leningrad, historically and currently known as Saint Petersburg, in the Eastern Front theatre of World War II.
The Singing Revolution is a commonly used name for events between 1987 and 1991 that led to the restoration of the independence of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.
Skrunda (Schrunden) is a town in Latvia.
Skrunda-1, also known as Skrunda-2, is a ghost town and former Soviet radar station located 5 km (3 mi) to the north of Skrunda, in Raņķi Parish, Latvia.
Soviet deportations from Estonia were a series of mass deportations by the Soviet Union from Estonia in 1941 and 1945–1951.
Soviet Information Bureau (Советское информационное бюро (Sovetskoye informatsionnoye byuro), commonly known as Sovinformburo (Совинформбюро)) was a leading Soviet news agency, operating from 1941 to 1961.
The Soviet invasion of Poland was a Soviet Union military operation that started without a formal declaration of war on 17 September 1939.
The Soviet partisans were members of resistance movements that fought a guerrilla war against the Axis forces in the Soviet Union, the previously Soviet-occupied territories of interwar Poland in 1941–45 and eastern Finland.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Sovietization of the Baltic states refers to the sovietization of all spheres of life in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania when they were under control of the Soviet Union.
In the field of international relations, a sphere of influence (SOI) is a spatial region or concept division over which a state or organization has a level of cultural, economic, military, or political exclusivity, accommodating to the interests of powers outside the borders of the state that controls it.
Stalinism is the means of governing and related policies implemented from the 1920s to 1953 by Joseph Stalin (1878–1953).
State continuity of the Baltic states describes the continuity of the Baltic states as legal entities under international lawZiemele (2005).
Sui generis is a Latin phrase that means "of its (his, her, their) own kind; in a class by itself; unique." A number of disciplines use the term to refer to unique entities.
The Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union was the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments.
Tallinn (or,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia.
The Tallinn Offensive (Таллинская наступательная операция) was a strategic offensive by the Red Army's 2nd Shock and 8th Armies and the Baltic Fleet against the German Army Detachment ''Narwa'' and Estonian units in mainland Estonia on the Eastern Front of World War II on 17–26 September 1944.
The Tartu Offensive Operation (Тартуская наступательная операция), also known as the Battle of Tartu (Tartu lahing) and the Battle of Emajõgi (Emajõe lahingud, Schlacht am Embach) was a campaign fought over southeastern Estonia in 1944.
Territorial changes of the Baltic states refers to the redrawing of borders of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia after 1940.
The Barricades (Barikādes) were a series of confrontations between Latvia and forces loyal to the Soviet Union in January 1991 which took place mainly in Riga.
The Moscow Times is an English-language weekly newspaper published in Moscow, with a circulation of 55,000 copies.
The Russian Review is a major independent peer-reviewed multi-disciplinary academic journal devoted to the history, literature, culture, fine arts, cinema, society, and politics of the Russian Federation, former Soviet Union and former Russian Empire.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Tver Oblast (Тверска́я о́бласть, Tverskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
An ultimatum (the last one) is a demand whose fulfillment is requested in a specified period of time and which is backed up by a threat to be followed through in case of noncompliance.
The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is a United Nations body whose mission is to promote and protect human rights around the world.
The Velikaya is a river in Novosokolnichesky, Pustoshkinsky, Sebezhsky, Opochetsky, Pushkinogorsky, Ostrovsky, Palkinsky, and Pskovsky Districts of Pskov Oblast, as well as in the city of Pskov in Russia.
Ventspils (see other names) is a town in northwestern Latvia in the historical Courland region of Latvia, and is the sixth largest city in the country.
Villa Lituania is a villa in Rome at Via Nomentana 116.
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
The Vistula (Wisła, Weichsel,, ווייסל), Висла) is the longest and largest river in Poland, at in length. The drainage basin area of the Vistula is, of which lies within Poland (54% of its land area). The remainder is in Belarus, Ukraine and Slovakia. The Vistula rises at Barania Góra in the south of Poland, above sea level in the Silesian Beskids (western part of Carpathian Mountains), where it begins with the White Little Vistula (Biała Wisełka) and the Black Little Vistula (Czarna Wisełka). It then continues to flow over the vast Polish plains, passing several large Polish cities along its way, including Kraków, Sandomierz, Warsaw, Płock, Włocławek, Toruń, Bydgoszcz, Świecie, Grudziądz, Tczew and Gdańsk. It empties into the Vistula Lagoon (Zalew Wiślany) or directly into the Gdańsk Bay of the Baltic Sea with a delta and several branches (Leniwka, Przekop, Śmiała Wisła, Martwa Wisła, Nogat and Szkarpawa).
Vladimir Georgievich Dekanozov (Dekanozishvili) (Влади́мир Гео́ргиевич Декано́зов (Деканозишви́ли)) (June 1898 – 23 December 1953) was a Soviet senior state security operative and diplomat.
The Waffen-SS (Armed SS) was the armed wing of the Nazi Party's SS organisation.
The Warsaw Uprising (powstanie warszawskie; Warschauer Aufstand) was a major World War II operation, in the summer of 1944, by the Polish underground resistance, led by the Home Army (Armia Krajowa), to liberate Warsaw from German occupation.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
The Winter War was a military conflict between the Soviet Union (USSR) and Finland.
The Yalta Conference, also known as the Crimea Conference and code named the Argonaut Conference, held from 4 to 11 February 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union for the purpose of discussing Germany and Europe's postwar reorganization.
The 16th Rifle Division (16-я 'Литовская' стрелковая дивизия, 16-oji 'Lietuviškoji' divizija) was a formation in the Red Army created during World War II.
The Soviet Union issued an ultimatum to Lithuania before midnight of June 14, 1940.
At the 7th (Special) Session of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union Ninth Convocation on October 7, 1977, the third and last Soviet Constitution, also known as the Brezhnev Constitution, was unanimously adopted.
The 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, also known as the August Coup (r "August Putsch"), was an attempt by members of the Soviet Union's government to take control of the country from Soviet President and General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev.
20th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Estonian) (20., 20.) was a unit of the Waffen SS established on 25 May 1944 in German-occupied Estonia during World War II.
The 8th Estonian Rifle Corps (2nd formation) (8-й Эстонский стрелковый корпус, 8.) was a formation in the Soviet Army, created on 6 November 1942, during World War II.
The 90th Anniversary of the Latvian Republic was celebrated in 2008.
Allegations of Soviet occupation denialism, Annexation of Baltic Republics, Annexation of the Baltic republics, Denial of Soviet occupation, Directive 02622ss/ov, Myth of 1939–40, Myth of Soviet occupation 1940, Occupation and annexation of the Baltic states, Occupation of Baltic Republics, Occupation of Baltic States, Occupation of Baltic states, Occupation of Estonia by Soviet Union 1940, Occupation of Estonia by Soviet Union 1944, Occupation of Lithuania by Soviet Union 1940, Occupation of Lithuania by Soviet Union 1944-1945, Occupation of the Baltic Republics, Occupation of the Baltic States, Occupation of the Baltic countries, Occupation of the Baltic states during World War II, Occupation of the Baltic states in World War II, Occupation of the baltic states, Russian government view on Soviet occupation, Second Soviet occupation of the Baltic states, Soviet invasion of the Baltics, Soviet occupation denial, Soviet occupation in Estonia, Soviet occupation of Baltic states, Soviet occupation of Estonia, Soviet occupation of Lithuania, Soviet occupation of the Baltic States, Takeover of Estonia.