307 relations: Abiogenesis, Abyssal plain, Abyssal zone, Africa, Algae, American English, American Geographical Society, Americas, Ammonia, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Andes, Animal, Antarctic Circumpolar Current, Antarctica, Aphotic zone, Archaea, Archipelago, Arctic, Arctic Ocean, Argon, Asia, Atlantic Ocean, Atmosphere, Atmosphere of Venus, Atmospheric pressure, Atmospheric wave, Australia (continent), Bacteria, Bathyal zone, Bathyscaphe Trieste, Bay, Benthic zone, Bight (geography), Biodiversity, Bioluminescence, Biosalinity, Biosphere, Blue carbon, Brachiopod, Brackish water, Breaking wave, Brown algae, Callisto (moon), Cape (geography), Carbon cycle, Carbon dioxide, Carbon disulfide, Caspian Sea, Cassini–Huygens, ..., Central Intelligence Agency, Cephalopod, Ceres (dwarf planet), Cetacea, Challenger Deep, Chemical compound, Chemical element, Chemocline, Chlorophyll, Circumstellar habitable zone, Classical antiquity, Climate, Cnidaria, Color of water, Continent, Continental shelf, Coral, Crab, Crustacean, Ctenophora, Deep sea, Density gradient, Diamond, Diatom, Dinoflagellate, Dolphin, Dwarf planet, Earth, Earth's energy budget, Earth's rotation, Echinoderm, Effects of global warming on oceans, Ekman spiral, Enceladus, Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopedia of Earth, Eris (dwarf planet), Estuary, Ethane, Eukaryote, Eurasia, Europa (moon), Europe, European Atlas of the Seas, Evaporation, Evolution, Exomoon, Exoplanet, Extraterrestrial liquid water, Extremophile, Fish, Fishing industry, Flux, Four Seas, Fresh water, Fungus, Ganymede (moon), Gas giant, Geology of Venus, Geyser, Giant planet, Gliese 1214 b, Gliese 436 b, Gliese 581d, Global warming, Greek mythology, Green algae, Gull, Habitat, Hadal zone, Hadean, Halocline, Hot Neptune, Hydrazine, Hydrocarbon, Hydrodynamic escape, Hydrogen, Hydrogen cyanide, Hydrogen sulfide, Hydrosphere, Hydrothermal vent, Icarus (journal), Ice, Ice giant, Ice planet, Ice VII, Icy moon, Indian Ocean, Indian subcontinent, International Hydrographic Organization, International Maritime Organization, International Telecommunication Union, Intertidal zone, Io (moon), Jellyfish, Jupiter, Kelp, Kepler-22b, Lakes of Titan, Life, Liquid, Liquid hydrogen, List of alternative names for oceans, List of bodies of water by salinity, List of gulfs, List of largest lakes and seas in the Solar System, List of seas, Littoral zone, Lobster, Magma, Mangrove, Mantle (geology), Mariana Trench, Marine debris, Marine fungi, Marine pollution, Marine snow, Mars, Mars ocean hypothesis, Martian polar ice caps, Mechanical wave, Mesopelagic zone, Methane, Mid-ocean ridge, Milky seas effect, Mountain range, NASA, NASA Earth Observatory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Natural satellite, Neon, Neptune, Neritic zone, New Scientist, Nitric oxide, Nitrogen, Nori, North America, Northern Mariana Islands, Ocean, Ocean acidification, Ocean current, Ocean general circulation model, Ocean governance, Ocean planet, Ocean rowing, Oceania, Oceanic trench, Oceanic zone, Oceanography, Oceans (film), Oceanus, Octopus, Ogyges, Origin of water on Earth, Pacific Ocean, Pelagic zone, Pelecaniformes, Penguin, Perseus Project, Phosphine, Photic zone, Photosynthesis, Phylum, Physical oceanography, Planet, Planetary core, Planetary differentiation, Planetary geology, Plant, Pluto, Polar regions of Earth, Polar seas, Porpoise, Port, Precipitation, Prokaryote, Protist, Proto-Indo-European religion, Pyropia, Quasiperiodicity, Ranko Matasović, Red algae, Reuters, River, Rock (geology), Romanization of Greek, Runaway greenhouse effect, Saline water, Salinity, Salt (chemistry), Saturn, Sea, Sea ice, Sea in culture, Sea level, Sea level rise, Sea salt, Sea state, Sea surface temperature, Sea turtle, Sea urchin, Seabird, Seagrass, Seawater, Seven Seas, Shark, Ship, Shrimp, Shutdown of thermohaline circulation, Silane, Solar System, South China Sea, Southern Ocean, Species, Spectroscopy, Sponge, Squid, Starfish, Stokes drift, Strait, Subtropics, Sulfuric acid, Supercritical fluid, Swell (ocean), Temperature, Terrestrial planet, Thermocline, Thermohaline circulation, Tide, Titan (moon), Titan (mythology), Trans-Neptunian object, Triton (moon), Tropical cyclone, Tropics, United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, University of Hawaii at Manoa, University of Puerto Rico at Arecibo, Uranus, USA Today, Vedas, Venus, Water, Water cycle, Water distribution on Earth, Wave, Weather, Whale, Wind, Wind wave, Windward and leeward, World Ocean, World Ocean Atlas, World Oceans Day, 90377 Sedna, 90482 Orcus. Expand index (257 more) » « Shrink index
Abiogenesis, or informally the origin of life,Compare: Also occasionally called biopoiesis.
An abyssal plain is an underwater plain on the deep ocean floor, usually found at depths between and.
The abyssal zone or abyssopelagic zone is a layer of the pelagic zone of the ocean.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.
The American Geographical Society (AGS) is an organization of professional geographers, founded in 1851 in New York City.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is an ocean current that flows clockwise from west to east around Antarctica.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
The aphotic zone (aphotic from Greek prefix ἀ- + φῶς "without light") is the portion of a lake or ocean where there is little or no sunlight.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.
The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.
The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans.
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
The atmosphere of Venus is the layer of gases surrounding Venus.
Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).
An atmospheric wave is a periodic disturbance in the fields of atmospheric variables (like surface pressure or geopotential height, temperature, or wind velocity) which may either propagate (traveling wave) or not (standing wave).
The continent of Australia, sometimes known in technical contexts by the names Sahul, Australinea or Meganesia to distinguish it from the country of Australia, consists of the land masses which sit on Australia's continental shelf.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
The bathyal zone or bathypelagic – from Greek βαθύς (bathýs), deep – (also known as midnight zone) is the part of the pelagic zone that extends from a depth of below the ocean surface.
Trieste is a Swiss-designed, Italian-built deep-diving research bathyscaphe, which with its crew of two reached a record maximum depth of about, in the deepest known part of the Earth's oceans, the Challenger Deep, in the Mariana Trench near Guam in the Pacific.
A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean, a lake, or another bay.
The benthic zone is the ecological region at the lowest level of a body of water such as an ocean or a lake, including the sediment surface and some sub-surface layers.
In geography, a bight is a bend or curve in a coastline, river, or other geographical feature.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism.
Biosalinity is the study and practice of using saline (salty) water for irrigating agricultural crops.
The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.
Blue carbon is the carbon captured by the world's oceans and coastal ecosystems.
Brachiopods, phylum Brachiopoda, are a group of lophotrochozoan animals that have hard "valves" (shells) on the upper and lower surfaces, unlike the left and right arrangement in bivalve molluscs.
Brackish water is water that has more salinity than fresh water, but not as much as seawater.
In fluid dynamics, a breaking wave is a wave whose amplitude reaches a critical level at which some process can suddenly start to occur that causes large amounts of wave energy to be transformed into turbulent kinetic energy.
The brown algae (singular: alga), comprising the class Phaeophyceae, are a large group of multicellular algae, including many seaweeds located in colder waters within the Northern Hemisphere.
Callisto (Jupiter IV) is the second-largest moon of Jupiter, after Ganymede.
In geography, a cape is a headland or a promontory of large size extending into a body of water, usually the sea.
The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon disulfide is a colorless volatile liquid with the formula CS2.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
The Cassini–Huygens mission, commonly called Cassini, was a collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) to send a probe to study the planet Saturn and its system, including its rings and natural satellites.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
A cephalopod is any member of the molluscan class Cephalopoda (Greek plural κεφαλόποδα, kephalópoda; "head-feet") such as a squid, octopus or nautilus.
Ceres (minor-planet designation: 1 Ceres) is the largest object in the asteroid belt that lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, slightly closer to Mars' orbit.
Cetacea are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.
The Challenger Deep is the deepest known point in the Earth's seabed hydrosphere, with a depth of by direct measurement from submersibles, and slightly more by sonar bathymetry.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
A chemocline is a cline caused by a strong, vertical chemistry gradient within a body of water.
Chlorophyll (also chlorophyl) is any of several related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants.
In astronomy and astrobiology, the circumstellar habitable zone (CHZ), or simply the habitable zone, is the range of orbits around a star within which a planetary surface can support liquid water given sufficient atmospheric pressure.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic (freshwater and marine) environments: they are predominantly marine species.
The color of water varies with the ambient conditions in which that water is present.
A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world.
The continental shelf is an underwater landmass which extends from a continent, resulting in an area of relatively shallow water known as a shelf sea.
Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria.
Crabs are decapod crustaceans of the infraorder Brachyura, which typically have a very short projecting "tail" (abdomen) (translit.
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
Ctenophora (singular ctenophore, or; from the Greek κτείς kteis 'comb' and φέρω pherō 'to carry'; commonly known as comb jellies) is a phylum of invertebrate animals that live in marine waters worldwide.
The deep sea or deep layer is the lowest layer in the ocean, existing below the thermocline and above the seabed, at a depth of 1000 fathoms (1800 m) or more.
Density gradient is a spatial variation in density over an area.
Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.
Diatoms (diá-tom-os "cut in half", from diá, "through" or "apart"; and the root of tém-n-ō, "I cut".) are a major group of microorganisms found in the oceans, waterways and soils of the world.
The dinoflagellates (Greek δῖνος dinos "whirling" and Latin flagellum "whip, scourge") are a large group of flagellate eukaryotes that constitute the phylum Dinoflagellata.
Dolphins are a widely distributed and diverse group of aquatic mammals.
A dwarf planet is a planetary-mass object that is neither a planet nor a natural satellite.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Earth's energy budget accounts for the balance between energy Earth receives from the Sun, energy Earth radiates back into outer space after having been distributed throughout the five components of Earth's climate system and having thus powered the so-called "Earth’s heat engine".
Earth's rotation is the rotation of Planet Earth around its own axis.
Echinoderm is the common name given to any member of the phylum Echinodermata (from Ancient Greek, ἐχῖνος, echinos – "hedgehog" and δέρμα, derma – "skin") of marine animals.
Effects of global warming on oceans provides information on the various effects that global warming has on oceans.
The Ekman spiral is a structure of currents or winds near a horizontal boundary in which the flow direction rotates as one moves away from the boundary.
Enceladus is the sixth-largest moon of Saturn.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The Encyclopedia of Earth (abbreviated EoE) is an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.
Eris (minor-planet designation 136199 Eris) is the most massive and second-largest (by volume) dwarf planet in the known Solar System.
An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.
Ethane is an organic chemical compound with chemical formula.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
Europa or as Ευρώπη (Jupiter II) is the smallest of the four Galilean moons orbiting Jupiter, and the sixth-closest to the planet.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Atlas of the Seas is an interactive electronic atlas on the coasts and seas within and around Europe.
Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
An exomoon or extrasolar moon is a natural satellite that orbits an exoplanet or other non-stellar extrasolar body.
An exoplanet or extrasolar planet is a planet outside our solar system.
Extraterrestrial liquid water (from the Latin words: extra and terrestris) is water in its liquid state that naturally occurs outside Earth.
An extremophile (from Latin extremus meaning "extreme" and Greek philiā (φιλία) meaning "love") is an organism that thrives in physically or geochemically extreme conditions that are detrimental to most life on Earth.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
The fishing industry includes any industry or activity concerned with taking, culturing, processing, preserving, storing, transporting, marketing or selling fish or fish products.
Flux describes the quantity which passes through a surface or substance.
The Four Seas were four bodies of water that metaphorically made up the boundaries of ancient China.
Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Ganymede (Jupiter III) is the largest and most massive moon of Jupiter and in the Solar System.
A gas giant is a giant planet composed mainly of hydrogen and helium.
Venus is a planet with striking geology.
A geyser is a spring characterized by intermittent discharge of water ejected turbulently and accompanied by steam.
A giant planet is any massive planet.
Gliese 1214 b (often shortened to GJ 1214 b) is an exoplanet that orbits the star Gliese 1214, and was discovered in December 2009.
Gliese 436 b (sometimes called GJ 436 b) is a Neptune-sized exoplanet orbiting the red dwarf Gliese 436.
Gliese 581d (often shortened to Gl 581d or GJ 581d) is a possible extrasolar planet orbiting within the Gliese 581 system, approximately 20.4 light-years away in the Libra constellation.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.
The green algae (singular: green alga) are a large, informal grouping of algae consisting of the Chlorophyta and Charophyta/Streptophyta, which are now placed in separate divisions, as well as the more basal Mesostigmatophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae and Spirotaenia.
Gulls or seagulls are seabirds of the family Laridae in the suborder Lari.
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
The hadal zone (named after the realm of Hades, the underworld in Greek mythology), also known as the hadopelagic zone, is the deepest region of the ocean lying within oceanic trenches.
The Hadean is a geologic eon of the Earth predating the Archean.
In oceanography, a halocline (from Greek hals, halo- ‘salt’ and klinein ‘to slope’) is a subtype of chemocline caused by a strong, vertical salinity gradient within a body of water.
A hot Neptune or Hoptune is a type of giant planet with a mass similar to that of Uranus or Neptune orbiting close to its star, normally within less than 1 AU.
Hydrazine is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written), called diamidogen, archaically.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrodynamic escape refers to a thermal atmospheric escape mechanism that can lead to the escape of heavier atoms of a planetary atmosphere through numerous collisions with lighter atoms.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), sometimes called prussic acid, is a chemical compound with the chemical formula HCN.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
The hydrosphere (from Greek ὕδωρ hydōr, "water" and σφαῖρα sphaira, "sphere") is the combined mass of water found on, under, and above the surface of a planet, minor planet or natural satellite.
A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water issues.
Icarus is a scientific journal dedicated to the field of planetary science.
Ice is water frozen into a solid state.
An ice giant is a giant planet composed mainly of elements heavier than hydrogen and helium, such as oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur.
An ice planet is a theoretical type of exoplanet with an icy surface of volatiles such as water, ammonia, and methane.
Ice VII is a cubic crystalline form of ice.
Icy moons are a class of natural satellites with surfaces composed mostly of ice.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is the inter-governmental organisation representing hydrography.
The International Maritime Organization (IMO), known as the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) until 1982, is a specialised agency of the United Nations responsible for regulating shipping.
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; Union Internationale des Télécommunications (UIT)), originally the International Telegraph Union (Union Télégraphique Internationale), is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies.
The intertidal zone, also known as the foreshore and seashore and sometimes referred to as the littoral zone, is the area that is above water at low tide and under water at high tide (in other words, the area between tide marks).
Io (Jupiter I) is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of the planet Jupiter.
Jellyfish or sea jelly is the informal common name given to the medusa-phase of certain gelatinous members of the subphylum Medusozoa, a major part of the phylum Cnidaria.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
Kelps are large brown algae seaweeds that make up the order Laminariales.
Kepler-22b, also known by its Kepler object of interest designation KOI-087.01, is an extrasolar planet orbiting within the empirical habitable zone of the Sun-like star Kepler-22.
The lakes of Titan, Saturn's largest moon, are bodies of liquid ethane and methane that have been detected by the Cassini–Huygens space probe, and had been suspected long before.
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.
Liquid hydrogen (LH2 or LH2) is the liquid state of the element hydrogen.
The world's oceans have different names in different languages.
This is a list of bodies of water by salinity that is limited to natural bodies of water that have a stable salinity above 0.5%, at or below which water is considered fresh.
A gulf in geography is a large bay that is an arm of an ocean or sea.
Listed below are the largest lakes and seas on various worlds in the Solar System.
This is a list of seas - large divisions of the World Ocean, including areas of water variously, gulfs, bights, bays, and straits.
The littoral zone is the part of a sea, lake or river that is close to the shore.
Lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans.
Magma (from Ancient Greek μάγμα (mágma) meaning "thick unguent") is a mixture of molten or semi-molten rock, volatiles and solids that is found beneath the surface of the Earth, and is expected to exist on other terrestrial planets and some natural satellites.
A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water.
The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.
The Mariana Trench or Marianas Trench is the deepest part of the world's oceans.
Marine debris, also known as marine litter, is human-created waste that has deliberately or accidentally been released in a lake, sea, ocean or waterway.
Marine fungi are species of fungi that live in marine or estuarine environments.
Marine pollution occurs when harmful, or potentially harmful, effects result from the entry into the ocean of chemicals, particles, industrial, agricultural, and residential waste, noise, or the spread of invasive organisms.
In the deep ocean, marine snow is a continuous shower of mostly organic detritus falling from the upper layers of the water column.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
The Mars ocean hypothesis states that nearly a third of the surface of Mars was covered by an ocean of liquid water early in the planet’s geologic history.
The planet Mars has two permanent polar ice caps.
A mechanical wave is a wave that is an oscillation of matter, and therefore transfers energy through a medium.
The mesopelagic (Greek μέσον, middle) (also known as the middle pelagic or twilight zone) is that part of the pelagic zone that extends from a depth of 200 to 1000 meters (~660 to 3300 feet) below the ocean surface.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
A mid-ocean ridge (MOR) is an underwater mountain system formed by plate tectonics.
Milky seas, also called mareel, is a luminous phenomenon in the ocean in which large areas of seawater (up to) appear to glow brightly enough at night to be seen by satellites orbiting Earth.
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
NASA Earth Observatory is an online publishing outlet for NASA which was created in 1999.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
A natural satellite or moon is, in the most common usage, an astronomical body that orbits a planet or minor planet (or sometimes another small Solar System body).
Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10.
Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System.
The neritic zone is the relatively shallow part of the ocean above the drop-off of the continental shelf, approximately in depth.
New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.
Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
is the Japanese name for edible seaweed (a "sea vegetable") species of the red algae genus Pyropia, including P. yezoensis and P. tenera.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
The Northern Mariana Islands, officially the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI; Sankattan Siha Na Islas Mariånas; Refaluwasch or Carolinian: Commonwealth Téél Falúw kka Efáng llól Marianas), is an insular area and commonwealth of the United States consisting of 15 islands in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.
An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.
Ocean acidification is the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by the uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
An ocean current is a seasonal directed movement of sea water generated by forces acting upon this mean flow, such as wind, the Coriolis effect, breaking waves, cabbing, temperature and salinity differences, while tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the Sun and Moon.
Ocean general circulation models (OGCMs) are a particular kind of general circulation model to describe physical and thermodynamical processes in oceans.
Ocean governance is the conduct of the policy, actions and affairs regarding the world's oceans.
An ocean planet, ocean world, water world, aquaplanet or panthalassic planet is a type of terrestrial planet that contains a substantial amount of water either at its surface or subsurface.
Ocean rowing is the sport of rowing across oceans.
Oceania is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia.
Oceanic trenches are topographic depressions of the sea floor, relatively narrow in width, but very long.
The oceanic zone is typically defined as the area of the ocean lying beyond the continental shelf, but operationally is often referred to as beginning where the water depths drop to below 200 meters (656 feet), seaward from the coast to the open ocean.
Oceanography (compound of the Greek words ὠκεανός meaning "ocean" and γράφω meaning "write"), also known as oceanology, is the study of the physical and biological aspects of the ocean.
Oceans (Océans) is a 2009 French nature documentary film directed, produced, co-written, and narrated by Jacques Perrin, with Jacques Cluzaud as co-director.
Oceanus (Ὠκεανός Ōkeanós), also known as Ogenus (Ὤγενος Ōgenos or Ὠγηνός Ōgēnos) or Ogen (Ὠγήν Ōgēn), was a divine figure in classical antiquity, believed by the ancient Greeks and Romans to be the divine personification of the sea, an enormous river encircling the world.
The octopus (or ~) is a soft-bodied, eight-armed mollusc of the order Octopoda.
Ogyges, also spelled Ogygos or Ogygus (Ὠγύγης or Ὤγυγος), is a primeval mythological ruler in ancient Greece, generally of Boeotia, but an alternative tradition makes him the first king of Attica.
The origin of water on Earth, or the reason that there is clearly more liquid water on Earth than on the other rocky planets of the Solar System, is not completely understood.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
The pelagic zone consists of the water column of the open ocean, and can be further divided into regions by depth.
The Pelecaniformes are an order of medium-sized and large waterbirds found worldwide.
Penguins (order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are a group of aquatic, flightless birds.
The Perseus Project (version 4 also known as "Perseus Hopper") is a digital library project of Tufts University, which is located in Medford and Somerville, near Boston, in the U.S. state of Massachusetts.
Phosphine (IUPAC name: phosphane) is the compound with the chemical formula PH3.
The photic zone, euphotic zone (Greek for "well lit": εὖ "well" + φῶς "light"), or sunlight or (sunlit) zone is the uppermost layer of water in a lake or ocean that is exposed to intense sunlight.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.
Physical oceanography is the study of physical conditions and physical processes within the ocean, especially the motions and physical properties of ocean waters.
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
The planetary core consists of the innermost layer(s) of a planet; which may be composed of solid and liquid layers.
In planetary science, planetary differentiation is the process of separating out different constituents of a planetary body as a consequence of their physical or chemical behaviour, where the body develops into compositionally distinct layers; the denser materials of a planet sink to the center, while less dense materials rise to the surface, generally in a magma ocean.
Planetary geology, alternatively known as astrogeology or exogeology, is a planetary science discipline concerned with the geology of the celestial bodies such as the planets and their moons, asteroids, comets, and meteorites.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Pluto (minor planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune.
The polar regions, also called the frigid zones, of Earth are the regions of the planet that surround its geographical poles (the North and South Poles), lying within the polar circles.
Polar seas is a collective term for the Arctic Ocean (about 4-5 percent of Earth's oceans) and the southern part of the Southern Ocean (south of Antarctic Convergence, about 10 percent of Earth's oceans).
Porpoises are a group of fully aquatic marine mammals that are sometimes referred to as mereswine, all of which are classified under the family Phocoenidae, parvorder Odontoceti (toothed whales).
A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.
Proto-Indo-European religion is the belief system adhered to by the Proto-Indo-Europeans.
Pyropia is a genus of red algae in the Bangiaceae family.
Quasiperiodicity is the property of a system that displays irregular periodicity.
Ranko Matasović (born 14 May 1968) is a Croatian linguist, Indo-Europeanist and Celticist.
The red algae, or Rhodophyta, are one of the oldest groups of eukaryotic algae.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
Romanization of Greek is the transliteration (letter-mapping) or transcription (sound-mapping) of text from the Greek alphabet into the Latin alphabet.
A runaway greenhouse effect is a process in which a net positive feedback between surface temperature and atmospheric opacity increases the strength of the greenhouse effect on a planet until its oceans boil away.
Saline water (more commonly known as salt water) is water that contains a high concentration of dissolved salts (mainly NaCl).
Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.
A sea is a large body of salt water that is surrounded in whole or in part by land.
Sea ice arises as seawater freezes.
The role of the sea in culture has been important for centuries, as people experience the sea in contradictory ways: as powerful but serene, beautiful but dangerous.
Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.
A sea level rise is an increase in global mean sea level as a result of an increase in the volume of water in the world’s oceans.
Sea salt is a less refined salt that is produced by the evaporation of seawater.
In oceanography, a sea state is the general condition of the free surface on a large body of water—with respect to wind waves and swell—at a certain location and moment.
Sea surface temperature (SST) is the water temperature close to the ocean's surface.
Sea turtles (superfamily Chelonioidea), sometimes called marine turtles, are reptiles of the order Testudines.
Sea urchins or urchins are typically spiny, globular animals, echinoderms in the class Echinoidea.
Seabirds (also known as marine birds) are birds that are adapted to life within the marine environment.
Seagrasses are flowering plants (angiosperms) belonging to four families (Posidoniaceae, Zosteraceae, Hydrocharitaceae and Cymodoceaceae), all in the order Alismatales (in the class of monocotyledons), which grow in marine, fully saline environments.
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.
The "Seven Seas" (as in the idiom "sail the Seven Seas") is an ancient phrase for all of the world's oceans.
Sharks are a group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head.
A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep waterways, carrying passengers or goods, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, research and fishing.
The term shrimp is used to refer to some decapod crustaceans, although the exact animals covered can vary.
A shutdown or slowdown of the thermohaline circulation is an effect of global warming on a major ocean circulation.
Silane is an inorganic compound with chemical formula, SiH4, making it a group 14 hydride.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
The South China Sea is a marginal sea that is part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from the Karimata and Malacca Straits to the Strait of Taiwan of around.
The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean or the Austral Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean, generally taken to be south of 60° S latitude and encircling Antarctica.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer"), are a basal Metazoa clade as sister of the Diploblasts.
Squid are cephalopods of the two orders Myopsida and Oegopsida, which were formerly regarded as two suborders of the order Teuthida, however recent research shows Teuthida to be paraphyletic.
Starfish or sea stars are star-shaped echinoderms belonging to the class Asteroidea.
For a pure wave motion in fluid dynamics, the Stokes drift velocity is the average velocity when following a specific fluid parcel as it travels with the fluid flow.
A strait is a naturally formed, narrow, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water.
The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
A supercritical fluid (SCF) is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point, where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist.
A swell, in the context of an ocean, sea or lake, is a series of mechanical waves that propagate along the interface between water and air and so they are often referred to as surface gravity waves.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
A terrestrial planet, telluric planet, or rocky planet is a planet that is composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals.
A thermocline (also known as the thermal layer or the metalimnion in lakes) is a thin but distinct layer in a large body of fluid (e.g. water, such as an ocean or lake) or air (such as an atmosphere) in which temperature changes more rapidly with depth than it does in the layers above or below.
Thermohaline circulation (THC) is a part of the large-scale ocean circulation that is driven by global density gradients created by surface heat and freshwater fluxes.
Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of Earth.
Titan is the largest moon of Saturn.
In Greek mythology, the Titans (Greek: Τιτάν, Titán, Τiτᾶνες, Titânes) and Titanesses (or Titanides; Greek: Τιτανίς, Titanís, Τιτανίδες, Titanídes) were members of the second generation of divine beings, descending from the primordial deities and preceding the Olympians.
A trans-Neptunian object (TNO, also written transneptunian object) is any minor planet in the Solar System that orbits the Sun at a greater average distance (semi-major axis) than Neptune, 30 astronomical units (AU).
Triton is the largest natural satellite of the planet Neptune, and the first Neptunian moon to be discovered.
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.
The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.
The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), also called the Law of the Sea Convention or the Law of the Sea treaty, is the international agreement that resulted from the third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III), which took place between 1973 and 1982.
The University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa (also known as U.H. Mānoa, the University of Hawaiʻi, or simply U.H.) is a public co-educational research university as well as the flagship campus of the University of Hawaiʻi system.
The University of Puerto Rico at Arecibo (UPRA or UPR-Arecibo) is a state university located in the city of Arecibo, Puerto Rico, and part of the eleven campuses that compose the University of Puerto Rico system.
Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
The water cycle, also known as the hydrological cycle or the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth.
Water is distributed across earth.
In physics, a wave is a disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space, with little or no associated mass transport.
Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degree to which it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy.
Whales are a widely distributed and diverse group of fully aquatic placental marine mammals.
Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale.
In fluid dynamics, wind waves, or wind-generated waves, are surface waves that occur on the free surface of bodies of water (like oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, canals, puddles or ponds).
Windward is the direction upwind from the point of reference, alternatively the direction from which the wind is coming.
The World Ocean or Global Ocean (colloquially the sea or the ocean) is the interconnected system of Earth's oceanic waters, and comprises the bulk of the hydrosphere, covering (70.8%) of Earth's surface, with a total volume of.
The World Ocean Atlas (WOA) is a data product of the Ocean Climate Laboratory of the National Oceanographic Data Center (U.S.). The WOA consists of a climatology of fields of in situ ocean properties for the World Ocean.
World Oceans Day takes place every 8 June.
90377 Sedna is a large minor planet in the outer reaches of the Solar System that was,, at a distance of about 86 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun, about three times as far as Neptune.
90482 Orcus, provisional designation, is a trans-Neptunian object from the Kuiper belt with a large moon, Vanth.
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