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Index Oceanography

Oceanography (compound of the Greek words ὠκεανός meaning "ocean" and γράφω meaning "write"), also known as oceanology, is the study of the physical and biological aspects of the ocean. [1]

169 relations: Aegean Sea, Agulhas Current, Alkalinity, Anoxic event, Anoxic waters, Argo (oceanography), Aristotle, Astronomy, Atlantic Ocean, Atmosphere of Earth, Atoll, Auguste Piccard, Bathymetric chart, Bathyscaphe, Bathyscaphe Trieste, BBC, Benjamin Franklin, Biogeochemistry, Biogeography, Biology, Bruce C. Heezen, Calcium, Calcium carbonate, Cambridge University Press, Cape of Good Hope, Carbon cycle, Carbon dioxide, Carbonate compensation depth, Carbonic acid, Cartography, Challenger expedition, Charles Darwin, Charles Wyville Thomson, Chemical oceanography, Chemistry, Climate change, Climatology, Coast, Coastal erosion, Coastal geography, Coccolithophore, Columbia University, Coral, Coral reef, Coriolis force, CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, DSV Alvin, Earth science, Ecological forecasting, Ecosystem, ..., Edward Forbes, El Niño, Environmental science, Evaporation, Flux, Food chain, Foraminifera, Fridtjof Nansen, Geochemical cycle, Geography, Geology, Geophysical fluid dynamics, Geophysics, Glaciology, Global warming, Government of the United Kingdom, Greek language, Gulf Stream, Harry Hammond Hess, Heat flux, Human impact on the environment, Hydrography, Hydrology, Hypoxia (environmental), Indian Ocean, Internal tide, International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, International Hydrographic Organization, Isles of Scilly, Jack Corliss, James Clark Ross, James Cook, James Rennell, Johan Hjort, John Francon Williams, John Murray (oceanographer), Juan Ponce de León, Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory, Limnology, List of ocean circulation models, List of seas, List of submarine topographical features, Louis Antoine de Bougainville, Marine biology, Marine current power, Marine geology, Maritime archaeology, Matthew Fontaine Maury, Maurice Ewing, Meteorology, Methane clathrate, Metocean, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Monaco, National Oceanography Centre, Natural Environment Research Council, Natural history, Nature (journal), Naval architecture, Navigation, Ocean, Ocean acidification, Ocean chemistry, Ocean colonization, Ocean current, Ocean Drilling Program, Ocean heat content, Oceanography, Oceans Act of 2000, Offshore construction, Open University, Otto Krümmel, Oxford University Press, Pacific Ocean, Paleoceanography, PH, Physical oceanography, Physics, Plankton, Plate tectonics, Precipitation, Prentice Hall, Pteropoda, Reef, Rhodes Fairbridge, Robert Ballard, Robert FitzRoy, Routledge, Royal Navy, Royal Society, Salinity, Science (journal), Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Sea, Sea level, Sea level rise, Second voyage of HMS Beagle, Skeleton, Solar irradiance, Strabo, Temperature, Thermal expansion, Thermohaline circulation, Tide, United States Environmental Protection Agency, United States Naval Observatory, University of Edinburgh, University of Washington, USS Nautilus (SSN-571), Vega Science Trust, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Weathering, West (publisher), Western culture, Wind, Wind wave, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, World Ocean, World Ocean Circulation Experiment. Expand index (119 more) »

Aegean Sea

The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.

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Agulhas Current

The Agulhas Current is the western boundary current of the southwest Indian Ocean.

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Alkalinity is the capacity of water to resist changes in pH that would make the water more acidic.

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Anoxic event

Oceanic anoxic events or anoxic events (anoxia conditions) refer to intervals in the Earth's past where portions of oceans become depleted in oxygen (O2) at depths over a large geographic area.

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Anoxic waters

Anoxic waters are areas of sea water, fresh water, or groundwater that are depleted of dissolved oxygen and are a more severe condition of hypoxia.

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Argo (oceanography)

Argo is an international program that uses profiling floats to observe temperature, salinity, currents, and, recently, bio-optical properties in the Earth's oceans; it has been operational since the early 2000s.

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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.

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Atlantic Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.

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Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.

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An atoll, sometimes called a coral atoll, is a ring-shaped coral reef including a coral rim that encircles a lagoon partially or completely.

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Auguste Piccard

Auguste Antoine Piccard (28 January 1884 – 24 March 1962) was a Swiss physicist, inventor and explorer, known for his record-breaking helium-filled balloon flights, with which he studied Earth's upper atmosphere and cosmic rays, and for his invention of the first bathyscaphe, FNRS-2, with which he made a number of unmanned dives in 1948 to explore the ocean's depths.

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Bathymetric chart

A bathymetric chart is the submerged equivalent of an above-water topographic map.

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A bathyscaphe is a free-diving self-propelled deep-sea submersible, consisting of a crew cabin similar to a bathysphere, but suspended below a float rather than from a surface cable, as in the classic bathysphere design.

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Bathyscaphe Trieste

Trieste is a Swiss-designed, Italian-built deep-diving research bathyscaphe, which with its crew of two reached a record maximum depth of about, in the deepest known part of the Earth's oceans, the Challenger Deep, in the Mariana Trench near Guam in the Pacific.

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The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.

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Biogeochemistry is the scientific discipline that involves the study of the chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes and reactions that govern the composition of the natural environment (including the biosphere, the cryosphere, the hydrosphere, the pedosphere, the atmosphere, and the lithosphere).

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Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time.

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Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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Bruce C. Heezen

Bruce Charles Heezen (April 11, 1924 – June 21, 1977) was an American geologist.

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Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.

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Calcium carbonate

Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Cape of Good Hope

The Cape of Good Hope (Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop, Cabo da Boa Esperança) is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa.

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Carbon cycle

The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Carbonate compensation depth

Calcite compensation depth (CCD) is the depth in the oceans below which the rate of supply of calcite (calcium carbonate) lags behind the rate of solvation, such that no calcite is preserved.

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Carbonic acid

Carbonic acid is a chemical compound with the chemical formula H2CO3 (equivalently OC(OH)2).

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Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.

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Challenger expedition

The Challenger expedition of 1872–76 was a scientific exercise that made many discoveries to lay the foundation of oceanography.

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Charles Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.

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Charles Wyville Thomson

Sir Charles Wyville Thomson (5 March 1830 – 10 March 1882) was a Scottish natural historian and marine zoologist.

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Chemical oceanography

Chemical oceanography is the study of ocean chemistry: the behavior of the chemical elements within the Earth's oceans.

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Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.

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Climate change

Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).

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Climatology (from Greek κλίμα, klima, "place, zone"; and -λογία, -logia) or climate science is the scientific study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time.

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A coastline or a seashore is the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or a line that forms the boundary between the land and the ocean or a lake.

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Coastal erosion

Coastal erosion is the wearing away of material from a coastal profile including the removal of beach, sand dunes, or sediment by wave action, tidal currents, wave currents, drainage or high winds (see also beach evolution).

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Coastal geography

Coastal geography is the study of the constantly changing region between the ocean and the land, incorporating both the physical geography (i.e. coastal geomorphology, geology and oceanography) and the human geography (sociology and history) of the coast.

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A coccolithophore (or coccolithophorid, from the adjective) is a unicellular, eukaryotic phytoplankton (alga).

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Columbia University

Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.

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Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria.

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Coral reef

Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals.

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Coriolis force

In physics, the Coriolis force is an inertial force that acts on objects that are in motion relative to a rotating reference frame.

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CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere

CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere (O&A) is one of the current 8 Business Units (formerly: Flagships) of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Australia's largest government-supported science research agency.

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DSV Alvin

Alvin (DSV-2) is a manned deep-ocean research submersible owned by the United States Navy and operated by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

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Earth science

Earth science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of natural science related to the planet Earth.

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Ecological forecasting

Ecological forecasting uses knowledge of physics, ecology and physiology to predict how ecosystems will change in the future in response to environmental factors such as climate change.

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An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.

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Edward Forbes

Professor Edward Forbes FRS, FGS (12 February 1815 – 18 November 1854) was a Manx naturalist.

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El Niño

El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (commonly called ENSO) and is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific (between approximately the International Date Line and 120°W), including off the Pacific coast of South America.

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Environmental science

Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical, biological and information sciences (including ecology, biology, physics, chemistry, plant science, zoology, mineralogy, oceanology, limnology, soil science, geology and physical geography (geodesy), and atmospheric science) to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems.

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Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.

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Flux describes the quantity which passes through a surface or substance.

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Food chain

A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).

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Foraminifera (Latin for "hole bearers"; informally called "forams") are members of a phylum or class of amoeboid protists characterized by streaming granular ectoplasm for catching food and other uses; and commonly an external shell (called a "test") of diverse forms and materials.

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Fridtjof Nansen

Fridtjof Nansen (10 October 1861 – 13 May 1930) was a Norwegian explorer, scientist, diplomat, humanitarian, and Nobel Peace Prize laureate.

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Geochemical cycle

In Earth science, a geochemical cycle is the pathway that chemical elements take in the surface and crust of the Earth.

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Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.

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Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.

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Geophysical fluid dynamics

Geophysical fluid dynamics, in its broadest meaning, refers to the fluid dynamics of naturally occurring flows, such as lava flows, oceans, and planetary atmospheres, on Earth and other planets.

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Geophysics is a subject of natural science concerned with the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth and its surrounding space environment, and the use of quantitative methods for their analysis.

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Glaciology (from Latin: glacies, "frost, ice", and Ancient Greek: λόγος, logos, "subject matter"; literally "study of ice") is the scientific study of glaciers, or more generally ice and natural phenomena that involve ice.

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Global warming

Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.

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Government of the United Kingdom

The Government of the United Kingdom, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Gulf Stream

The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension the North Atlantic Drift, is a warm and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and stretches to the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean.

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Harry Hammond Hess

Harry Hammond Hess (May 24, 1906 – August 25, 1969) was a geologist and a United States Navy officer in World War II.

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Heat flux

Heat flux or thermal flux, sometimes also referred to as heat flux density or heat flow rate intensity is a flow of energy per unit of area per unit of time.

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Human impact on the environment

Human impact on the environment or anthropogenic impact on the environment includes changes to biophysical environments and ecosystems, biodiversity, and natural resources caused directly or indirectly by humans, including global warming, environmental degradation (such as ocean acidification), mass extinction and biodiversity loss, ecological crises, and ecological collapse.

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Hydrography is the branch of applied sciences which deals with the measurement and description of the physical features of oceans, seas, coastal areas, lakes and rivers, as well as with the prediction of their change over time, for the primary purpose of safety of navigation and in support of all other marine activities, including economic development, security and defence, scientific research, and environmental protection.

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Hydrology is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the water cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.

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Hypoxia (environmental)

Hypoxia refers to low oxygen conditions.

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Indian Ocean

The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).

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Internal tide

Internal tides are generated as the surface tides move stratified water up and down sloping topography, which produces a wave in the ocean interior.

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International Council for the Exploration of the Sea

The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES; Conseil International de l'Exploration de la Mer, CIEM) is the world’s oldest intergovernmental science organization.

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International Hydrographic Organization

The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is the inter-governmental organisation representing hydrography.

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Isles of Scilly

The Isles of Scilly (Syllan or Enesek Syllan) is an archipelago off the southwestern tip of Cornwall.

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Jack Corliss

John B. ("Jack") Corliss is a scientist who has worked in the fields of geology, oceanography, and the origins of life.

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James Clark Ross

Sir James Clark Ross (15 April 1800 – 3 April 1862) was a British naval officer and explorer remembered today for his exploration of the Arctic with his uncle Sir John Ross and Sir William Parry and, in particular, his own expedition to Antarctica.

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James Cook

Captain James Cook (7 November 1728Old style date: 27 October14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy.

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James Rennell

Major James Rennell, FRS FRSE FRGS (3 December 1742 – 29 March 1830) was an English geographer, historian and a pioneer of oceanography.

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Johan Hjort

Johan Hjort (18 February 1869, in Christiania – 7 October 1948, in Oslo) was a Norwegian fisheries scientist, marine zoologist, and oceanographer.

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John Francon Williams

John Francon Williams FRGS (1854 – 4 September 1911) was a Welsh journalist, writer, geographer, historian, cartographer and inventor, born in Llanllechid, Caernarvonshire.

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John Murray (oceanographer)

Sir John Murray KCB FRS FRSE FRSGS (3 March 1841 – 16 March 1914) was a pioneering British oceanographer, marine biologist and limnologist.

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Juan Ponce de León

Juan Ponce de León (1474 – July 1521) was a Spanish explorer and conquistador born in Santervás de Campos, Valladolid, Spain in 1474.

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Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory

The Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO) is a research unit of Columbia University located on a campus in Palisades, N.Y., north of Manhattan on the Hudson River.

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Limnology (from Greek λίμνη, limne, "lake" and λόγος, logos, "knowledge"), is the study of inland aquatic ecosystems.

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List of ocean circulation models

This is a list of ocean circulation models, as used in physical oceanography.

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List of seas

This is a list of seas - large divisions of the World Ocean, including areas of water variously, gulfs, bights, bays, and straits.

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List of submarine topographical features

List of submarine topographical features, oceanic landforms and topographic elements.

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Louis Antoine de Bougainville

Louis-Antoine, Comte de Bougainville (12 November 1729 – 31 August 1811) was a French admiral and explorer.

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Marine biology

Marine biology is the scientific study of marine life, organisms in the sea.

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Marine current power

Marine current power is a form of marine energy obtained from harnessing of the kinetic energy of marine currents, such as the Gulf stream.

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Marine geology

Marine geology or geological oceanography is the study of the history and structure of the ocean floor.

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Maritime archaeology

Maritime archaeology (also known as marine archaeology) is a discipline within archaeology as a whole that specifically studies human interaction with the sea, lakes and rivers through the study of associated physical remains, be they vessels, shore side facilities, port-related structures, cargoes, human remains and submerged landscapes.

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Matthew Fontaine Maury

Matthew Fontaine Maury (January 14, 1806February 1, 1873) was an American astronomer, United States Navy officer, historian, oceanographer, meteorologist, cartographer, author, geologist, and educator.

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Maurice Ewing

William Maurice "Doc" Ewing (May 12, 1906 – May 4, 1974) was an American geophysicist and oceanographer.

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Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.

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Methane clathrate

Methane clathrate (CH4·5.75H2O) or (4CH4·23H2O), also called methane hydrate, hydromethane, methane ice, fire ice, natural gas hydrate, or gas hydrate, is a solid clathrate compound (more specifically, a clathrate hydrate) in which a large amount of methane is trapped within a crystal structure of water, forming a solid similar to ice.

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In offshore and coastal engineering, metocean refers to the syllabic abbreviation of meteorology and (physical) oceanography.

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Mid-Atlantic Ridge

The Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) is a mid-ocean ridge, a divergent tectonic plate or constructive plate boundary located along the floor of the Atlantic Ocean, and part of the longest mountain range in the world.

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Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco (Principauté de Monaco), is a sovereign city-state, country and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe.

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National Oceanography Centre

The National Oceanography Centre (NOC) is a marine science research and technology institution based on two sites in Southampton and Liverpool, United Kingdom.

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Natural Environment Research Council

The Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) is a British Research Council that supports research, training and knowledge transfer activities in the environmental sciences.

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Natural history

Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals, fungi and plants in their environment; leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Naval architecture

Naval architecture, or naval engineering, along with automotive engineering and aerospace engineering, is an engineering discipline branch of vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software and safety engineering as applied to the engineering design process, shipbuilding, maintenance, and operation of marine vessels and structures.

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Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.

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An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.

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Ocean acidification

Ocean acidification is the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by the uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

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Ocean chemistry

Ocean chemistry, also known as marine chemistry, is influenced by turbidity currents, sediments, pH levels, atmospheric constituents, metamorphic activity, and ecology.

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Ocean colonization

Ocean colonization or ocean colonisation is the theory and practice of permanent human settlement of oceans.

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Ocean current

An ocean current is a seasonal directed movement of sea water generated by forces acting upon this mean flow, such as wind, the Coriolis effect, breaking waves, cabbing, temperature and salinity differences, while tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the Sun and Moon.

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Ocean Drilling Program

The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) was an international cooperative effort to explore and study the composition and structure of the Earth's ocean basins.

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Ocean heat content

Oceanic heat content (OHC) is the heat stored in the ocean.

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Oceanography (compound of the Greek words ὠκεανός meaning "ocean" and γράφω meaning "write"), also known as oceanology, is the study of the physical and biological aspects of the ocean.

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Oceans Act of 2000

The Oceans Act of 2000 established the United States Commission on Ocean Policy, a working group tasked with the development of what would be known as the National Oceans Report. The objective of the report is to promote the following.

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Offshore construction

Offshore construction is the installation of structures and facilities in a marine environment, usually for the production and transmission of electricity, oil, gas and other resources.

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Open University

The Open University (OU) is a public distance learning and research university, and one of the biggest universities in the UK for undergraduate education.

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Otto Krümmel

Otto Krümmel (8 July 1854 in Exin, Province of Posen – 12 October 1912 in Cologne) was a German geographer influential in awakening public interest in oceanography.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Pacific Ocean

The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.

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Paleoceanography is the study of the history of the oceans in the geologic past with regard to circulation, chemistry, biology, geology and patterns of sedimentation and biological productivity.

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In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.

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Physical oceanography

Physical oceanography is the study of physical conditions and physical processes within the ocean, especially the motions and physical properties of ocean waters.

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Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Plankton (singular plankter) are the diverse collection of organisms that live in large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current.

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Plate tectonics

Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.

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In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.

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Prentice Hall

Prentice Hall is a major educational publisher owned by Pearson plc.

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Pteropoda (common name pteropods, from the Greek meaning "wing-foot") are specialized free-swimming pelagic sea snails and sea slugs, marine opisthobranch gastropods.

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A reef is a bar of rock, sand, coral or similar material, lying beneath the surface of water.

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Rhodes Fairbridge

Rhodes Whitmore Fairbridge (21 May 1914 – 8 November 2006) was an Australian geologist and expert on climate change.

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Robert Ballard

Robert Duane Ballard (born June 30, 1942) is a retired United States Navy officer and a professor of oceanography at the University of Rhode Island who is most noted for his work in underwater archaeology: maritime archaeology and archaeology of shipwrecks.

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Robert FitzRoy

Vice-Admiral Robert FitzRoy RN (5 July 1805 – 30 April 1865) was an English officer of the Royal Navy and a scientist.

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Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Royal Navy

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.

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Royal Society

The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.

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Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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Scripps Institution of Oceanography

The Scripps Institution of Oceanography (sometimes referred to as SIO, Scripps Oceanography, or Scripps) in La Jolla, California, founded in 1903, is one of the oldest and largest centers for ocean and Earth science research, public service, undergraduate and graduate training in the world.

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A sea is a large body of salt water that is surrounded in whole or in part by land.

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Sea level

Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.

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Sea level rise

A sea level rise is an increase in global mean sea level as a result of an increase in the volume of water in the world’s oceans.

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Second voyage of HMS Beagle

The second voyage of HMS Beagle, from 27 December 1831 to 2 October 1836, was the second survey expedition of HMS ''Beagle'', under captain Robert FitzRoy who had taken over command of the ship on its first voyage after the previous captain committed suicide.

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The skeleton is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism.

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Solar irradiance

Solar irradiance is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument.

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Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.

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Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

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Thermal expansion

Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature.

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Thermohaline circulation

Thermohaline circulation (THC) is a part of the large-scale ocean circulation that is driven by global density gradients created by surface heat and freshwater fluxes.

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Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of Earth.

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United States Environmental Protection Agency

The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.

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United States Naval Observatory

The United States Naval Observatory (USNO) is one of the oldest scientific agencies in the United States, with a primary mission to produce Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) for the United States Navy and the United States Department of Defense.

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University of Edinburgh

The University of Edinburgh (abbreviated as Edin. in post-nominals), founded in 1582, is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's ancient universities.

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University of Washington

The University of Washington (commonly referred to as UW, simply Washington, or informally U-Dub) is a public research university in Seattle, Washington.

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USS Nautilus (SSN-571)

USS Nautilus (SSN-571) was the world's first operational nuclear-powered submarine and the first submarine to complete a submerged transit of the North Pole on 3rd August 1958.

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Vega Science Trust

The Vega Science Trust was a not-for-profit organisation which provided a platform from which scientists can communicate directly with the public on science by using moving image, sound and other related means.

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Virginia Institute of Marine Science

The Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) is one of the largest marine research and education centers in the United States.

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Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water, and biological organisms.

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West (publisher)

West (also known by its original name, West Publishing) is a business owned by Thomson Reuters that publishes legal, business, and regulatory information in print, and on electronic services such as Westlaw.

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Western culture

Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.

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Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale.

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Wind wave

In fluid dynamics, wind waves, or wind-generated waves, are surface waves that occur on the free surface of bodies of water (like oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, canals, puddles or ponds).

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Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI, acronym pronounced) is a private, nonprofit research and higher education facility dedicated to the study of all aspects of marine science and engineering and to the education of marine researchers.

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World Ocean

The World Ocean or Global Ocean (colloquially the sea or the ocean) is the interconnected system of Earth's oceanic waters, and comprises the bulk of the hydrosphere, covering (70.8%) of Earth's surface, with a total volume of.

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World Ocean Circulation Experiment

The World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) was a component of the international World Climate Research Program, and aimed to establish the role of the World Ocean in the Earth's climate system.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oceanography

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