304 relations: A Dictionary of Modern English Usage, Abalone, Abdopus, Abdopus aculeatus, Abyssal plain, Abyssal zone, Acetabulum (morphology), Action potential, ADAR, Aggregata, Ainu people, Akkorokamui, Alaska, Alexander of Tralles, Ama (diving), Ammonoidea, Amphioctopus marginatus, Amphitretidae, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Anesthesia, Animal, Animal testing, Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986, Aposematism, Aquatic respiration, Argonaut (animal), Argonautidae, Argonautoidea, Aristotle, Aristotle's biology, Arthropod, Autonomic nervous system, Autotomy, Basal (phylogenetics), Bathypolypus, Bathypolypus arcticus, Benthic zone, Bioluminescence, Biomimetics, Bivalvia, Blanket octopus, Blood pressure, Blue-ringed octopus, Brain-to-body mass ratio, Broodiness, California two-spot octopus, Callistoctopus macropus, Camouflage, Carboniferous, ..., Caribbean reef octopus, Carl Linnaeus, Cartilage, Cecum, Cephalopod, Cephalopod attack, Cephalopod beak, Cephalopod eye, Cephalopod fin, Cephalopod ink, Cephalopod limb, Cerebral hypoxia, Cestoda, Cetacea, Chemoreceptor, Chitin, Chiton, Chromatic aberration, Chromatophore, Circulatory system, Cirrate shell, Cirrina, Cirroctopus, Cirroteuthidae, Cirrus (biology), Cladogram, Clam, Class (biology), Cleavage (embryo), Clinocardium nuttallii, Coccidia, Coconut, Coelom, Coleoidea, Color vision, Common octopus, Compound (linguistics), Convergent evolution, Copepod, Copper, Coral reef, Cornea, Crab, Crassadoma, Creation myth, Crop (anatomy), Crustacean, Cuttlefish, Decapodiformes, Deep sea, Deimatic behaviour, Dicyemidae, Drosophila, Dumbbell, Echinoderm, Eel, Eledone, Eledone moschata, Encyclopedia of Life, Endosymbiont, Endothelium, Enteroctopodidae, European Union, Extraterrestrial intelligence, Fish trap, Fishery, Fishing vessel, Francesca Gherardi, Gamete, Gastrointestinal tract, Gastrulation, Georges Cuvier, Germinal disc, Giant Pacific octopus, Gonochorism, Gonopore, Gorgon, Greek mythology, Grimpoteuthis, Guernsey, Hectocotylus, Heinrich Müller (physiologist), Hemocyanin, Hemocyte (invertebrate immune system cell), Hepatopancreas, History of Animals, Hokusai, Hormone, Host (biology), Hydrothermal vent, Hypercorrection, Ian Fleming, Immune system, Incertae sedis, Incirrata, Ink sac, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Intelligence, Intertidal zone, Invertebrate, Iris (anatomy), Japetus Steenstrup, Jet propulsion, Keuppia, Knossos, Kraken, Lamella (surface anatomy), Latin, Life expectancy, Limpet, Linguistic description, Lizard, Long-term memory, Majoidea, Mantle (mollusc), Marine habitats, Maze, Mediterranean cuisine, Medusa, Megaleledonidae, Melanin, Mental image, Metamorphosis, Midden, Mimic octopus, Mimicry, Minoan civilization, Model organism, Mollusca, Monster, Muscular hydrostat, Naticidae, Nautiloid, Nematode, Nephridium, Nervous system, Neuron, Neurotoxin, New Latin, New Oxford American Dictionary, Nucleic acid sequence, Observational learning, Ocean, Octopodidae, Octopodoidea, Octopus aquaculture, Octopus cyanea, Octopus wolfi, Octopussy, Octopussy and The Living Daylights, Ocythoe tuberculata, Olfaction, Opsin, Order (biology), Osmoregulation, Ovary, Oxford English Dictionary, Palaeoctopus, Paralarva, Parental care, Pedant, Pelagic zone, Pennsylvanian (geology), Pericardium, Peristalsis, Phagocytosis, Pharyngula, Pharyngula (blog), Photophore, Photoreceptor protein, Pinniped, Plankton, Play (activity), Plural, Pneumatics, Pohlsepia, Polarization (waves), Polychaete, Primary transcript, Problem solving, Proprioception, Proteroctopus, Protist, Protocadherin, Pterois, Public aquarium, Pupil, PZ Myers, Radula, Reflex, Regeneration (biology), Retina, RNA, RNA editing, Robotics, Saliva, Scavenger, Science (journal), Sea otter, Seabed, Seabird, Seagrass, Senescence, Sense, Seven-arm octopus, Shark, Short-term memory, Shunga, Signalling theory, Silicone, Siphon (mollusc), Skink, Somatosensory system, Somatotopic arrangement, Southern blue-ringed octopus, Species, Spermatophore, Spindle (textiles), Squid, Staten Island, Statocyst, Stauroteuthis, Stereognosis, Stylet (anatomy), Styletoctopus, Symmetry in biology, Systema Naturae, Taste, Tension (physics), Tentacle, Tentacle erotica, Territory (animal), Testicle, Tetrodotoxin, The Dream of the Fisherman's Wife, Tide pool, Toilers of the Sea, Tool use by animals, Transparency and translucency, Trawling, Tree of Life Web Project, Ukiyo-e, Umbrella octopus, Vampire squid, Venae cavae, Venom, Vibrio lentus, Victor Hugo, Viscosity, Vulcanoctopus hydrothermalis, Whelk, William Elford Leach, Wired (magazine), Zooplankton. Expand index (254 more) » « Shrink index
A Dictionary of Modern English Usage (1926), by Henry Watson Fowler (1858–1933), is a style guide to British English usage, pronunciation, and writing.
Abalone (or; via Spanish abulón, from Rumsen aulón) is a common name for any of a group of small to very large sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Haliotidae.
Abdopus is a genus of octopuses in the family Octopodidae.
Abdopus aculeatus is a small octopus species in the order Octopoda.
An abyssal plain is an underwater plain on the deep ocean floor, usually found at depths between and.
The abyssal zone or abyssopelagic zone is a layer of the pelagic zone of the ocean.
Acetabulum (plural acetabula) in invertebrate zoology is a saucer-shaped organ of attachment in some annelid worms (like leech) and flatworms.
In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.
Double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADAR gene (which stands for adenosine deaminase acting on RNA).
Aggregata is a genus of parasitic alveolates belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa.
The Ainu or the Aynu (Ainu アィヌ ''Aynu''; Japanese: アイヌ Ainu; Russian: Айны Ajny), in the historical Japanese texts the Ezo (蝦夷), are an indigenous people of Japan (Hokkaido, and formerly northeastern Honshu) and Russia (Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands, and formerly the Kamchatka Peninsula).
The is a gigantic octopus-like monster from Ainu folklore, which supposedly lurks in (Uchiura bay) in Hokkaido.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
Alexander (Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Τραλλιανός) of Tralles in Lydia (or Alexander Trallianus, c. 525 – c. 605) was one of the most eminent of the ancient physicians.
, uminchu (in Okinawan) or kaito (in the Izu Peninsula) are Japanese divers, famous for collecting pearls.
Ammonoids are an extinct group of marine mollusc animals in the subclass Ammonoidea of the class Cephalopoda.
Amphioctopus marginatus, also known as the coconut octopus and veined octopus, is a medium-sized cephalopod belonging to the genus Amphioctopus.
Amphitretidae is a family of mesopelagic octopods which contains three subfamilies, formerly classified as families in their own right.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry), anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek "without sensation") is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Animal testing, also known as animal experimentation, animal research and in vivo testing, is the use of non-human animals in experiments that seek to control the variables that affect the behavior or biological system under study.
The Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986, sometimes referred to as ASPA, is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (1986 c. 14) passed in 1986, which regulates the use of animals used for research in the UK.
Aposematism (from Greek ἀπό apo away, σῆμα sema sign) is a term coined by Edward Bagnall PoultonPoulton, 1890.
Aquatic respiration is the process whereby an aquatic animal obtains oxygen from water.
The argonauts (genus Argonauta, the only extant genus in the family Argonautidae) are a group of pelagic octopuses.
The Argonautidae are a family of cephalopods encompassing the modern paper nautiluses of the genus Argonauta along with several extinct genera of shelled octopods.
Argonautoidea is a superfamily of the suborder Incirrata containing all know argonautoids.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Aristotle's biology is the theory of biology, grounded in systematic observation and collection of data, mainly zoological, embodied in Aristotle's books on the science.
An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
Autotomy (from the Greek auto- "self-" and tome "severing", αὐτονομία) or self-amputation is the behaviour whereby an animal sheds or discards one or more of its own appendages, usually as a self-defense mechanism to elude a predator's grasp or to distract the predator and thereby allow escape.
In phylogenetics, basal is the direction of the base (or root) of a rooted phylogenetic tree or cladogram.
Bathypolypus is a genus of octopuses in the monotypic family Bathypolypodidae.
Bathypolypus arcticus, the North Atlantic octopus, deep sea octopus or spoonarm octopus is a small species of demersal octopus of the North Atlantic.
The benthic zone is the ecological region at the lowest level of a body of water such as an ocean or a lake, including the sediment surface and some sub-surface layers.
Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism.
Biomimetics or biomimicry is the imitation of the models, systems, and elements of nature for the purpose of solving complex human problems.
Bivalvia, in previous centuries referred to as the Lamellibranchiata and Pelecypoda, is a class of marine and freshwater molluscs that have laterally compressed bodies enclosed by a shell consisting of two hinged parts.
Tremoctopus is a genus of pelagic cephalopods, containing four species that occupy surface to mid-waters in subtropical and tropical oceans.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
Blue-ringed octopuses, comprising the genus Hapalochlaena, are four highly venomous species of octopus that are found in tide pools and coral reefs in the Pacific and Indian oceans, from Japan to Australia.
Brain-to-body mass ratio, also known as the brain-to-body weight ratio, is the ratio of brain mass to body mass, which is hypothesized to be a rough estimate of the intelligence of an animal, although fairly inaccurate in many cases.
Broodiness is the action or behavioral tendency to sit on a clutch of eggs to incubate them, often requiring the non-expression of many other behaviors including feeding and drinking.
The California two-spot octopus (Octopus bimaculoides), often simply called a "bimac", is an octopus species native to many parts of the Pacific Ocean including the coast of California.
Callistoctopus macropus, also known as the Atlantic white-spotted octopus, white-spotted octopus,Norman, M.D. 2000.
Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see (crypsis), or by disguising them as something else (mimesis).
The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian Period, Mya.
The Caribbean reef octopus (Octopus briareus) is a coral reef marine animal.
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
Cartilage is a resilient and smooth elastic tissue, a rubber-like padding that covers and protects the ends of long bones at the joints, and is a structural component of the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes, the intervertebral discs, and many other body components.
The cecum or caecum (plural ceca; from the Latin caecus meaning blind) is an intraperitoneal pouch that is considered to be the beginning of the large intestine.
A cephalopod is any member of the molluscan class Cephalopoda (Greek plural κεφαλόποδα, kephalópoda; "head-feet") such as a squid, octopus or nautilus.
Various accounts of cephalopod attacks on humans have been reported since the 13th century.
All extant cephalopods have a two-part beak, or rostrum, situated in the buccal mass and surrounded by the muscular head appendages.
Cephalopods, as active marine predators, possess sensory organs specialized for use in aquatic conditions.
Cephalopod fins, sometimes known as wings,Young, R.E., M. Vecchione & K.M. Mangold (1999).
Cephalopod ink is a dark pigment released into water by most species of cephalopod, usually as an escape mechanism.
All cephalopods possess flexible limbs extending from their heads and surrounding their beaks.
Cerebral hypoxia is a form of hypoxia (reduced supply of oxygen), specifically involving the brain; when the brain is completely deprived of oxygen, it is called cerebral anoxia.
Cestoda is a class of parasitic worms in the flatworm (Platyhelminthes) phylum, commonly known as tapeworms.
Cetacea are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.
A chemoreceptor, also known as chemosensor, is a specialized sensory receptor cell which transduces (responds to) a chemical substance (endogenous or induced) and generates a biological signal.
Chitin (C8H13O5N)n, a long-chain polymer of ''N''-acetylglucosamine, is a derivative of glucose.
Chitons are marine molluscs of varying size in the class Polyplacophora, formerly known as Amphineura.
In optics, chromatic aberration (abbreviated CA; also called chromatic distortion and spherochromatism) is an effect resulting from dispersion in which there is a failure of a lens to focus all colors to the same convergence point.
Chromatophores are pigment-containing and light-reflecting cells, or groups of cells, found in a wide range of animals including amphibians, fish, reptiles, crustaceans and cephalopods.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Cirrate octopuses possess a well-developed internal shell that supports their muscular swimming fins.
Cirrina or Cirrata is a suborder and one of the two main divisions of octopuses.
Cirroctopus is a genus of four species of octopuses within the monotypic family Cirroctopodidae.
Cirroteuthidae is a family of cirrate octopuses comprising three species in two genera.
In biology, a cirrus, plural cirri,, (from the Latin cirrus meaning a curl-like tuft or fringe) is a long, thin structure in an animal similar to a tentacle but generally lacking the tentacle's strength, flexibility, thickness, and sensitivity.
A cladogram (from Greek clados "branch" and gramma "character") is a diagram used in cladistics to show relations among organisms.
Clam is a common name for several kinds of bivalve molluscs.
In biological classification, class (classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.
In embryology, cleavage is the division of cells in the early embryo.
Clinocardium nuttallii, common name Nuttall's cockle, basket cockle, or Heart cockle, is a species of large edible saltwater clam, a marine bivalve mollusc in the family Cardiidae, the cockles.
Coccidia (Coccidiasina) are a subclass of microscopic, spore-forming, single-celled obligate intracellular parasites belonging to the apicomplexan class Conoidasida.
The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the family Arecaceae (palm family) and the only species of the genus Cocos.
The coelom is the main body cavity in most animals and is positioned inside the body to surround and contain the digestive tract and other organs.
Subclass Coleoidea, or Dibranchiata, is the grouping of cephalopods containing all the various taxa popularly thought of as "soft-bodied" or "shell-less," i.e., octopus, squid and cuttlefish.
Color vision is the ability of an organism or machine to distinguish objects based on the wavelengths (or frequencies) of the light they reflect, emit, or transmit.
The common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) is a mollusc belonging to the class Cephalopoda.
In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem.
Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.
Copepods (meaning "oar-feet") are a group of small crustaceans found in the sea and nearly every freshwater habitat.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals.
The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.
Crabs are decapod crustaceans of the infraorder Brachyura, which typically have a very short projecting "tail" (abdomen) (translit.
Crassadoma is a genus of rock scallops, marine bivalve molluscs in the family Pectinidae.
A creation myth (or cosmogonic myth) is a symbolic narrative of how the world began and how people first came to inhabit it.
A crop (sometimes also called a croup or a craw, or ingluvies) is a thin-walled expanded portion of the alimentary tract used for the storage of food prior to digestion.
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
Cuttlefish or cuttles are marine animals of the order Sepiida. They belong to the class Cephalopoda, which also includes squid, octopuses, and nautiluses. Cuttlefish have a unique internal shell, the cuttlebone. Despite their name, cuttlefish are not fish but molluscs. Cuttlefish have large, W-shaped pupils, eight arms, and two tentacles furnished with denticulated suckers, with which they secure their prey. They generally range in size from, with the largest species, Sepia apama, reaching in mantle length and over in mass. Cuttlefish eat small molluscs, crabs, shrimp, fish, octopus, worms, and other cuttlefish. Their predators include dolphins, sharks, fish, seals, seabirds, and other cuttlefish. The average life expectancy of a cuttlefish is about one to two years. Recent studies indicate cuttlefish are among the most intelligent invertebrates. (television program) NOVA, PBS, April 3, 2007. Cuttlefish also have one of the largest brain-to-body size ratios of all invertebrates. The 'cuttle' in 'cuttlefish' comes from the Old English name for the species, cudele, which may be cognate with the Old Norse koddi ('cushion') and the Middle Low German Kudel ('rag'). The Greco-Roman world valued the cuttlefish as a source of the unique brown pigment the creature releases from its siphon when it is alarmed. The word for it in both Greek and Latin, sepia, now refers to the reddish-brown color sepia in English.
Decapodiformes is a superorder of Cephalopoda, which includes all species with ten limbs; the name derives from the Greek word meaning ten feet.
The deep sea or deep layer is the lowest layer in the ocean, existing below the thermocline and above the seabed, at a depth of 1000 fathoms (1800 m) or more.
Deimatic behaviour, threat display, or startle display in animals means any pattern of behaviour, such as suddenly displaying conspicuous eyespots, to scare off or momentarily distract a predator, thus giving the prey animal an opportunity to escape.
The Dicyemidae is a family of tiny parasites that live in the renal appendages of cephalopods.
Drosophila is a genus of flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are often called "small fruit flies" or (less frequently) pomace flies, vinegar flies, or wine flies, a reference to the characteristic of many species to linger around overripe or rotting fruit.
The dumbbell, a type of free weight, is a piece of equipment used in weight training.
Echinoderm is the common name given to any member of the phylum Echinodermata (from Ancient Greek, ἐχῖνος, echinos – "hedgehog" and δέρμα, derma – "skin") of marine animals.
An eel is any ray-finned fish belonging to the order Anguilliformes, which consists of four suborders, 20 families, 111 genera and about 800 species.
Eledone is a genus of octopuses forming the only genus in the family Eledonidae.
Eledone moschata, the musky octopus, is a species of octopus belonging to the family Octopodidae.
The Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) is a free, online collaborative encyclopedia intended to document all of the 1.9 million living species known to science.
An endosymbiont or endobiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism in a symbiotic relationship with the host body or cell, often but not always to mutual benefit.
Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
Enteroctopodidae is a small family of octopuses.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Extraterrestrial intelligence (often abbreviated ETI) refers to hypothetical intelligent extraterrestrial life.
A fish trap is a trap used for fishing.
Generally, a fishery is an entity engaged in raising or harvesting fish which is determined by some authority to be a fishery.
A fishing vessel is a boat or ship used to catch fish in the sea, or on a lake or river.
Francesca Gherardi (12 November 1955 – 14 February 2013) was an Italian zoologist, ethologist, and ecologist.
A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Gastrulation is a phase early in the embryonic development of most animals, during which the single-layered blastula is reorganized into a multilayered structure known as the gastrula.
Jean Léopold Nicolas Frédéric, Baron Cuvier (23 August 1769 – 13 May 1832), known as Georges Cuvier, was a French naturalist and zoologist, sometimes referred to as the "founding father of paleontology".
Germinal disc may refer to.
The giant Pacific octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini), also known as the North Pacific giant octopus, is a large marine cephalopod belonging to the genus Enteroctopus.
In biology, gonochorism (Greek offspring + disperse) or unisexualism or gonochory describes the state of having just one of at least two distinct sexes in any one individual organism.
A gonopore, sometimes called a gonadopore, is a genital pore in many invertebrates.
In Greek mythology, a Gorgon (plural: Gorgons, Γοργών/Γοργώ Gorgon/Gorgo) is a female creature.
Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.
Grimpoteuthis is a genus of pelagic umbrella octopuses known as the dumbo octopuses.
Guernsey is an island in the English Channel off the coast of Normandy.
A hectocotylus (plural: hectocotyli) is one of the arms of male cephalopods that is specialized to store and transfer spermatophores to the female.
Heinrich Müller (17 December 1820 – 10 May 1864) was a German anatomist and professor at the University of Würzburg.
Hemocyanins (also spelled haemocyanins and abbreviated Hc) are proteins that transport oxygen throughout the bodies of some invertebrate animals.
A hemocyte is a cell that plays a role in the immune system of invertebrates.
The hepatopancreas, digestive gland or midgut gland is an organ of the digestive tract of arthropods and molluscs.
History of Animals (Τῶν περὶ τὰ ζῷα ἱστοριῶν, Ton peri ta zoia historion, "Inquiries on Animals"; Historia Animālium "History of Animals") is one of the major texts on biology by the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, who had studied at Plato's Academy in Athens.
was a Japanese artist, ukiyo-e painter and printmaker of the Edo period.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
In biology and medicine, a host is an organism that harbours a parasitic, a mutualistic, or a commensalist guest (symbiont), the guest typically being provided with nourishment and shelter.
A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water issues.
In linguistics or usage, hypercorrection is a non-standard usage that results from the over-application of a perceived rule of grammar or a usage prescription.
Ian Lancaster Fleming (28 May 1908 – 12 August 1964) was an English author, journalist and naval intelligence officer who is best known for his James Bond series of spy novels.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Incertae sedis (Latin for "of uncertain placement") is a term used for a taxonomic group where its broader relationships are unknown or undefined.
Incirrata (or Incirrina) is a suborder of the order Octopoda.
An ink sac is an anatomical feature that is found in many cephalopod mollusks used to produce the defensive cephalopod ink.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey.
Intelligence has been defined in many different ways to include the capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, and problem solving.
The intertidal zone, also known as the foreshore and seashore and sometimes referred to as the littoral zone, is the area that is above water at low tide and under water at high tide (in other words, the area between tide marks).
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.
In humans and most mammals and birds, the iris (plural: irides or irises) is a thin, circular structure in the eye, responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupil and thus the amount of light reaching the retina.
Johannes Japetus Smith Steenstrup (8 March 1813 – 20 June 1897) was a Danish zoologist, biologist, and professor.
Jet propulsion is thrust produced by passing a jet of matter (typically fluid) in the opposite direction to the direction of motion.
Keuppia is an extinct genus of octopus.
Knossos (also Cnossos, both pronounced; Κνωσός, Knōsós) is the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete and has been called Europe's oldest city.
The kraken is a legendary cephalopod-like sea monster of giant size that is said to dwell off the coasts of Norway and Greenland.
Lamellae on a gecko's foot. In surface anatomy, a lamella is a thin plate-like structure, often one amongst many lamellae very close to one another, with open space between.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
Limpets are aquatic snails with a shell that is broadly conical in shape and a strong, muscular foot.
In the study of language, description or descriptive linguistics is the work of objectively analyzing and describing how language is actually used (or how it was used in the past) by a group of people in a speech community.
Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains.
Long-term memory (LTM) is the stage of the Atkinson–Shiffrin memory model where informative knowledge is held indefinitely.
The Majoidea are a superfamily of crabs which includes the various spider crabs.
The mantle (also known by the Latin word pallium meaning mantle, robe or cloak, adjective pallial) is a significant part of the anatomy of molluscs: it is the dorsal body wall which covers the visceral mass and usually protrudes in the form of flaps well beyond the visceral mass itself.
The marine environment supplies many kinds of habitats that support marine life.
A maze is a path or collection of paths, typically from an entrance to a goal.
Mediterranean cuisine is the foods and methods of preparation by people of the Mediterranean Basin region.
In Greek mythology, Medusa (Μέδουσα "guardian, protectress") was a monster, a Gorgon, generally described as a winged human female with living venomous snakes in place of hair.
Megaleledonidae is a family of octopuses in the superfamily Octopodoidea.
Melanin (from μέλας melas, "black, dark") is a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organisms.
A mental image or mental picture is the representation in a person's mind of the physical world outside that person.
Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation.
A midden (also kitchen midden or shell heap) is an old dump for domestic waste which may consist of animal bone, human excrement, botanical material, mollusc shells, sherds, lithics (especially debitage), and other artifacts and ecofacts associated with past human occupation.
The mimic octopus (Thaumoctopus mimicus) is an Indo-Pacific species of octopus capable of impersonating other local species.
In evolutionary biology, mimicry is a similarity of one organism, usually an animal, to another that has evolved because the resemblance is selectively favoured by the behaviour of a shared signal receiver that can respond to both.
The Minoan civilization was an Aegean Bronze Age civilization on the island of Crete and other Aegean Islands which flourished from about 2600 to 1600 BC, before a late period of decline, finally ending around 1100.
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
A monster is a creature which produces fear or physical harm by its appearance or its actions.
A muscular hydrostat is a biological structure found in animals.
Naticidae, common name the moon snails or necklace shells, is a family of minute to large-sized predatory sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the clade Littorinimorpha.
Nautiloids are a large and diverse group of marine cephalopods (Mollusca) belonging to the subclass Nautiloidea that began in the Late Cambrian and are represented today by the living Nautilus and Allonautilus.
The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).
The nephridium (plural nephridia) is an invertebrate organ which occurs in pairs and performs a function similar to the vertebrate kidney.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neurotoxins are toxins that are poisonous or destructive to nerve tissue (causing neurotoxicity).
New Latin (also called Neo-Latin or Modern Latin) was a revival in the use of Latin in original, scholarly, and scientific works between c. 1375 and c. 1900.
The New Oxford university American Dictionary (NOAD) is a single-volume dictionary of American English compiled by American editors at the Oxford University Press.
A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.
Observational learning is learning that occurs through observing the behavior of others.
An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.
The Octopodidae comprise the family containing the majority of known octopus species.
Octopodoidea is a superfamily of the suborder Incirrata containing all octopods except for the argonauts (Alloposidae, Argonautidae, Ocythoidae and Tremoctopodidae) and the vampire squid.
The development of octopus aquaculture, the farming of octopus, is being driven by strong market demands in the Mediterranean and in South American and Asian countries.
Octopus cyanea, also known as the big blue octopus or day octopus, is an octopus in the family Octopodidae.
Octopus wolfi, the star-sucker pygmy octopus, is the smallest known octopus.
Octopussy is a 1983 British spy film, the thirteenth in the ''James Bond'' series produced by Eon Productions, and the sixth to star Roger Moore as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond.
Octopussy and The Living Daylights (sometimes published as Octopussy) is the fourteenth and final James Bond book written by Ian Fleming in the Bond series.
Ocythoe tuberculata, also known as the tuberculate pelagic octopus or football octopus, is a pelagic octopus.
Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell.
Opsins are a group of proteins, made light-sensitive, via the chromophore retinal found in photoreceptor cells of the retina.
In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.
Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of an organism's body fluids, detected by osmoreceptors, to maintain the homeostasis of the organism's water content; that is, it maintains the fluid balance and the concentration of electrolytes (salts in solution) to keep the fluids from becoming too diluted or concentrated.
The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Palaeoctopus newboldi is an extinct basal octopod that lived in the Late Cretaceous, approximately 89 to 71 million years ago.
Paralarvae (singular: paralarva) are young cephalopods in the planktonic stages between hatchling and subadult.
Parental care is a behavioural and evolutionary strategy adopted by some animals, making a parental investment into the evolutionary fitness of their offspring.
A pedant is a person who is excessively concerned with formalism, accuracy, and precision, or one who makes an ostentatious and arrogant show of learning.
The pelagic zone consists of the water column of the open ocean, and can be further divided into regions by depth.
The Pennsylvanian (also known as Upper Carboniferous or Late Carboniferous) is, in the ICS geologic timescale, the younger of two subperiods (or upper of two subsystems) of the Carboniferous Period.
The pericardium is a double-walled sac containing the heart and the roots of the great vessels.
Peristalsis is a radially symmetrical contraction and relaxation of muscles that propagates in a wave down a tube, in an anterograde direction.
In cell biology, phagocytosis is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome.
The pharyngula is a stage in the embryonic development of vertebrates.
Pharyngula, a blog founded and written by PZ Myers, is hosted on ScienceBlogs (2005–2011, in full, and 2011–present, in part) and on FreeThoughtBlogs (2011–present).
A photophore is a glandular organ that appears as luminous spots on various marine animals, including fish and cephalopods.
Photoreceptor proteins are light-sensitive proteins involved in the sensing and response to light in a variety of organisms.
Pinnipeds, commonly known as seals, are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals.
Plankton (singular plankter) are the diverse collection of organisms that live in large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current.
In psychology and ethology, play is a range of voluntary, intrinsically motivated activities normally associated with recreational pleasure and enjoyment.
The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.
Pneumatics (From Greek: πνεύμα) is a branch of engineering that makes use of gas or pressurized air.
Pohlsepia mazonensis is the earliest described octopod, originating from the late carboniferous period.
Polarization (also polarisation) is a property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations.
The Polychaeta, also known as the bristle worms or polychaetes, are a paraphyletic class of annelid worms, generally marine.
A primary transcript is the single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) product synthesized by transcription of DNA, and processed to yield various mature RNA products such as mRNAs, tRNAs, and rRNAs.
Problem solving consists of using generic or ad hoc methods, in an orderly manner, to find solutions to problems.
Proprioception, from Latin proprius, meaning "one's own", "individual", and capio, capere, to take or grasp, is the sense of the relative position of one's own parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement.
Proteroctopus ribeti was a primitive octopod that lived in the Middle Jurassic, approximately 164 million years ago.
A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.
Protocadherins (Pcdhs) are the largest mammalian subgroup of the cadherin superfamily of homophilic cell-adhesion proteins.
Pterois is a genus of venomous marine fish, commonly known as lionfish, native to the Indo-Pacific.
A public aquarium (plural: public aquaria or public aquariums) is the aquatic counterpart of a zoo, which houses living aquatic animal and plant specimens for public viewing.
The pupil is a hole located in the center of the iris of the eye that allows light to strike the retina.
Paul Zachary "PZ" Myers (born March 9, 1957) is an American biologist who founded and writes the Pharyngula science-blog.
The radula (plural radulae or radulas) is an anatomical structure that is used by mollusks for feeding, sometimes compared to a tongue.
A reflex, or reflex action, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus.
In biology, regeneration is the process of renewal, restoration, and growth that makes genomes, cells, organisms, and ecosystems resilient to natural fluctuations or events that cause disturbance or damage.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
RNA editing is a molecular process through which some cells can make discrete changes to specific nucleotide sequences within an RNA molecule after it has been generated by RNA polymerase.
Robotics is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and science that includes mechanical engineering, electronics engineering, computer science, and others.
Saliva is a watery substance formed in the mouths of animals, secreted by the salivary glands.
Scavenging is both a carnivorous and a herbivorous feeding behavior in which the scavenger feeds on dead animal and plant material present in its habitat.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a marine mammal native to the coasts of the northern and eastern North Pacific Ocean.
The seabed (also known as the seafloor, sea floor, or ocean floor) is the bottom of the ocean.
Seabirds (also known as marine birds) are birds that are adapted to life within the marine environment.
Seagrasses are flowering plants (angiosperms) belonging to four families (Posidoniaceae, Zosteraceae, Hydrocharitaceae and Cymodoceaceae), all in the order Alismatales (in the class of monocotyledons), which grow in marine, fully saline environments.
Senescence or biological ageing is the gradual deterioration of function characteristic of most complex lifeforms, arguably found in all biological kingdoms, that on the level of the organism increases mortality after maturation.
A sense is a physiological capacity of organisms that provides data for perception.
The seven-arm octopus (Haliphron atlanticus) is one of the two largest known species of octopus; based on scientific records, it has a maximum estimated total length of and mass of.
Sharks are a group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head.
Short-term memory (or "primary" or "active memory") is the capacity for holding, but not manipulating, a small amount of information in mind in an active, readily available state for a short period of time.
is a Japanese term for erotic art.
Within evolutionary biology, signalling theory is a body of theoretical work examining communication between individuals, both within species and across species.
Silicones, also known as polysiloxanes, are polymers that include any inert, synthetic compound made up of repeating units of siloxane, which is a chain of alternating silicon atoms and oxygen atoms, combined with carbon, hydrogen, and sometimes other elements.
A siphon is an anatomical structure which is part of the body of aquatic molluscs in three classes: Gastropoda, Bivalvia and Cephalopoda (members of these classes include saltwater and freshwater snails, clams, octopus, squid and relatives).
Skinks are lizards belonging to the family Scincidae and the infraorder Scincomorpha.
The somatosensory system is a part of the sensory nervous system.
Somatotopy is the point-for-point correspondence of an area of the body to a specific point on the central nervous system.
The southern blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochlaena maculosa) is one of three (or perhaps four) highly venomous species of blue-ringed octopuses.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
A spermatophore or sperm ampulla is a capsule or mass containing spermatozoa created by males of various animal species, especially salamanders and arthropods, and transferred in entirety to the female's ovipore during reproduction.
A spindle is a straight spike usually made from wood used for spinning, twisting fibers such as wool, flax, hemp, cotton into yarn.
Squid are cephalopods of the two orders Myopsida and Oegopsida, which were formerly regarded as two suborders of the order Teuthida, however recent research shows Teuthida to be paraphyletic.
Staten Island is the southernmost and westernmost of the five boroughs of New York City in the U.S. state of New York.
The statocyst is a balance sensory receptor present in some aquatic invertebrates, including molluscs, bivalves, cnidarians, ctenophorans, echinoderms, cephalopods, and crustaceans.
Stauroteuthis is a genus of deepwater octopus, a cephalopod mollusk.
Stereognosis (also known as haptic perception or tactile gnosis) is the ability to perceive and recognize the form of an object in the absence of visual and auditory information, by using tactile information to provide cues from texture, size, spatial properties, and temperature, etc.
A stylet is a hard, sharp, anatomical structure found in some invertebrates.
Styletoctopus is an extinct genus of octopus.
Symmetry in biology is the balanced distribution of duplicate body parts or shapes within the body of an organism.
(originally in Latin written with the ligature æ) is one of the major works of the Swedish botanist, zoologist and physician Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) and introduced the Linnaean taxonomy.
Taste, gustatory perception, or gustation is one of the five traditional senses that belongs to the gustatory system.
In physics, tension may be described as the pulling force transmitted axially by the means of a string, cable, chain, or similar one-dimensional continuous object, or by each end of a rod, truss member, or similar three-dimensional object; tension might also be described as the action-reaction pair of forces acting at each end of said elements.
In zoology, a tentacle is a flexible, mobile, elongated organ present in some species of animals, most of them invertebrates.
is found in some horror or hentai titles, with tentacled creatures (usually fictional monsters) having sexual intercourse with predominantly females.
In ethology, territory is the sociographical area that an animal of a particular species consistently defends against conspecifics (or, occasionally, animals of other species).
The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin.
, also known as Girl Diver and Octopuses, Diver and Two Octopuses, etc., is a woodblock-printed design by the Japanese artist Hokusai.
Tide pools or rock pools are shallow pools of seawater that form on the rocky intertidal shore.
Toilers of the Sea (Les Travailleurs de la mer) is a novel by Victor Hugo published in 1866.
Tool use by animals is a phenomenon in which an animal uses any kind of tool in order to achieve a goal such as acquiring food and water, grooming, defense, recreation or construction.
In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered.
Trawling is a method of fishing that involves pulling a fishing net through the water behind one or more boats.
The Tree of Life Web Project is an Internet project providing information about the diversity and phylogeny of life on Earth.
Ukiyo-e is a genre of Japanese art which flourished from the 17th through 19th centuries.
Umbrella octopuses (family Opisthoteuthidae) are a group of pelagic octopuses.
The vampire squid (Vampyroteuthis infernalis, lit. "vampire squid from Hell") is a small cephalopod found throughout temperate and tropical oceans in extreme deep sea conditions.
The venae cavae (from the Latin for "hollow veins", singular "vena cava") are two large veins (venous trunks) that return deoxygenated blood from the body into the heart.
Venomous Animals Venom is a form of toxin secreted by an animal for the purpose of causing harm to another.
Vibrio lentus is a species of gram-negative bacterium which is found in marine environments.
Victor Marie Hugo (26 February 1802 – 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, and dramatist of the Romantic movement.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
Vulcanoctopus hydrothermalis is a small benthic octopus endemic to hydrothermal vents.
Whelk is a common name that is applied to various kinds of sea snail.
William Elford Leach, MD, FRS (2 February 1791 – 25 August 1836) was an English zoologist and marine biologist.
Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics.
Zooplankton are heterotrophic (sometimes detritivorous) plankton.
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