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An administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a commune is located.
Ukraine is divided into several levels of territorial entities.
The Albanians (Shqiptarët) are a European ethnic group that is predominantly native to Albania, Kosovo, western Macedonia, southern Serbia, southeastern Montenegro and northwestern Greece, who share a common ancestry, culture and language.
Aleksandr Mikhailovich Lyapunov (Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Ляпуно́в,; – November 3, 1918) was a Russian mathematician, mechanician and physicist.
Alexander I (Александр Павлович, Aleksandr Pavlovich; –) reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1801 and 1825.
Alexander II (p; 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881) was the Emperor of Russia from the 2nd March 1855 until his assassination on 13 March 1881.
Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (a) was a Russian poet, playwright, and novelist of the Romantic eraBasker, Michael.
Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov (Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Суво́ров, r Aleksandr Vasil‘evich Suvorov; or 1730 –) was a Russian military leader, considered a national hero.
Aliyah (עֲלִיָּה aliyah, "ascent") is the immigration of Jews from the diaspora to the Land of Israel (Eretz Israel in Hebrew).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Andriy Viktorovych Voronin (Андрій Вікторович Воронін; born 21 July 1979) is a Ukrainian professional football manager and a former player.
Anna Andreyevna Gorenkoa; Анна Андріївна Горенко, Anna Andriyivna Horenko (– 5 March 1966), better known by the pen name Anna Akhmatova (Анна Ахматова), was one of the most significant Russian poets of the 20th century.
Anti-fascism is opposition to fascist ideologies, groups and individuals.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
Antoni Protazy Potocki (11 September 1761 – 1801), aka Prot, was a Polish nobleman and an early entrepreneur.
April Fools' Day is an annual celebration in some European and Western countries commemorated on April 1 by playing practical jokes and spreading hoaxes.
Armand-Emmanuel Sophie Septimanie de Vignerot du Plessis, 5th Duke of Richelieu and Fronsac (25 September 176617 May 1822), was a prominent French statesman during the Bourbon Restoration.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular between 1890 and 1910.
An artifact, or artefact (see American and British English spelling differences), is something made or given shape by humans, such as a tool or a work of art, especially an object of archaeological interest.
Artur Kyshenko (Ukrainian: Артур Кишенко, born November 14, 1986) is a Ukrainian middleweight kickboxer, fighting out of Mike Passenier's Gym in Amsterdam, Netherlands.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
Avigdor Stematsky (1908–89) was a Russian-born Israeli painter.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
Azerbaijanis or Azeris (Azərbaycanlılar آذربایجانلیلار, Azərilər آذریلر), also known as Azerbaijani Turks (Azərbaycan türkləri آذربایجان تورکلری), are a Turkic ethnic group living mainly in the Iranian region of Azerbaijan and the sovereign (former Soviet) Republic of Azerbaijan.
Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov (Илья́ Ильи́ч Ме́чников, also written as Élie Metchnikoff; 15 July 1916) was a Russian zoologist best known for his pioneering research in immunology.
Łódź (לאדזש, Lodzh; also written as Lodz) is the third-largest city in Poland and an industrial hub.
Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.
Baltimore is the largest city in the U.S. state of Maryland, and the 30th-most populous city in the United States.
Barbie is a fashion doll manufactured by the American toy company Mattel, Inc. and launched in March 1959.
The Baroque Revival, also known as Neo-Baroque (or Second Empire architecture in France), was an architectural style of the late 19th century.
A barrack or barracks is a building or group of buildings built to house soldiers.
Baruch Agadati (ברוך אגדתי, also Baruch Kaushansky-Agadati; January 8, 1895 – January 18, 1976) was a Russian Empire-born Israeli classical ballet dancer, choreographer, painter, and film producer and director.
The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was the largest confrontation of World War II, in which Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia.
BC Odessa (баскетбольний клуб "Одеса") was a Ukrainian professional basketball club based in Odessa.
Belarusians (беларусы, biełarusy, or Byelorussians (from the Byelorussian SSR), are an East Slavic ethnic group who are native to modern-day Belarus and the immediate region. There are over 9.5 million people who proclaim Belarusian ethnicity worldwide, with the overwhelming majority residing either in Belarus or the adjacent countries where they are an autochthonous minority.
Benno Moiseiwitsch CBE (22 February 18909 April 1963) was a Russian/Ukrainian born British pianist.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Black Sea Shipping Company (Чорноморське морське пароплавство) is a Ukrainian shipping company based in Odessa.
Boris Goldstein (Busya Goldshtein) (25 of December 1922, Odessa - 8 of November 1987, Hanover, Germany) was a Soviet violinist whose career was greatly hindered by the political situation in the USSR.
Boryspil International Airport (Міжнародний аеропорт "Бориспіль") is an international airport in Boryspil, east of Kiev, the capital of Ukraine.
Bratislava (Preßburg or Pressburg, Pozsony) is the capital of Slovakia.
Brest (Брэст There is also the name "Berestye", but it is found only in the Old Russian language and Tarashkevich., Брест Brest, Берестя Berestia, בריסק Brisk), formerly Brest-Litoŭsk (Брэст-Лiтоўск) (Brest-on-the-Bug), is a city (population 340,141 in 2016) in Belarus at the border with Poland opposite the Polish city of Terespol, where the Bug and Mukhavets rivers meet.
Brighton Beach is an oceanside neighborhood in the southern portion of the New York City borough of Brooklyn, along the Coney Island peninsula.
Bronze is the most popular metal for cast metal sculptures; a cast bronze sculpture is often called simply a "bronze".
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with a census-estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Bulgarians (българи, Bǎlgari) are a South Slavic ethnic group who are native to Bulgaria and its neighboring regions.
A business magnate (formally industrialist) refers to an entrepreneur of great influence, importance, or standing in a particular enterprise or field of business.
In economics, the business sector or corporate sector - sometimes popularly called simply "business" - is "the part of the economy made up by companies".
A cable car is any of a variety of cable transportation systems relying on cables to pull vehicles along or lower them at a steady rate.
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.
Michelangelo Merisi (Michele Angelo Merigi or Amerighi) da Caravaggio (28 September 1571 – 18 July 1610) was an Italian painter active in Rome, Naples, Malta, and Sicily from the early 1590s to 1610.
Catherine II (Russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Yekaterina Alekseyevna; –), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader.
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
Charles R. "Buckets" Goldenberg (April 15, 1911, in Odessa, Ukraine, Russian Empire – April 16, 1986, in Glendale, Wisconsin) was an All-Pro National Football League (NFL) American football player.
All-Russian Extraordinary Commission (Всероссийская Чрезвычайная Комиссия), abbreviated as VChK (ВЧК, Ve-Che-Ka) and commonly known as Cheka, (from the initialism ChK) was the first of a succession of Soviet secret police organizations.
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.
The Chicago Tribune is a daily newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois, United States, owned by Tronc, Inc., formerly Tribune Publishing.
The Chernomorets Stadium is a football stadium built in 2011 in Odesa, Ukraine.
A city council, town council, town board, or board of aldermen is the legislative body that governs a city, town, municipality, or local government area.
City of regional significance is a city municipality that is designated as a separate district within its region (i.e. oblast, Crimea).
Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for a classical period, classical antiquity in the Western tradition, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate.
Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city (its "metropolis"), not from a territory-at-large.
Constanța (Κωνστάντζα or Κωνστάντια, Konstantia, Кюстенджа or Констанца, Köstence), historically known as Tomis (Τόμις), is the oldest continuously inhabited city in Romania.
A container port or container terminal is a facility where cargo containers are transshipped between different transport vehicles, for onward transportation.
Cosmopolitanism is the ideology that all human beings belong to a single community, based on a shared morality.
Cossacks (козаки́, translit, kozaky, казакi, kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok Pronunciations.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
The Crimean Khanate (Mongolian: Крымын ханлиг; Crimean Tatar / Ottoman Turkish: Къырым Ханлыгъы, Qırım Hanlığı, rtl or Къырым Юрту, Qırım Yurtu, rtl; Крымское ханство, Krymskoje hanstvo; Кримське ханство, Krymśke chanstvo; Chanat Krymski) was a Turkic vassal state of the Ottoman Empire from 1478 to 1774, the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde.
Crimean Tatar (Къырымтатарджа, Qırımtatarca; Къырымтатар тили, Qırımtatar tili), also called Crimean Turkish or simply Crimean, is a Kipchak Turkic language spoken in Crimea and the Crimean Tatar diasporas of Uzbekistan, Turkey, Romania and Bulgaria, as well as small communities in the United States and Canada.
Crimean Tatars or Crimeans (Crimean Tatar: Qırımtatarlar, qırımlar, Kırım Tatarları, Крымские Татары, крымцы, Кримськi Татари, кримцi) are a Turkic ethnic group that formed in the Crimean Peninsula during the 13th–17th centuries, primarily from the Turkic tribes that moved to the land now known as Crimea in Eastern Europe from the Asian steppes beginning in the 10th century, with contributions from the pre-Cuman population of Crimea.
The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.
The Cumans (Polovtsi) were a Turkic nomadic people comprising the western branch of the Cuman–Kipchak confederation.
A dacha (a) is a seasonal or year-round second home, often located in the exurbs of Russian and other post-Soviet cities.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
David Fyodorovich Oistrakh (– 24 October 1974), PAU, was a renowned Soviet classical violinist and violist.
Vulytsia Derybasivska (Дерібасiвська) or ulitsa Deribasovskaya (Дериба́совская) is a pedestrian walkway (street) in the heart of Odessa, Ukraine.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (a; 8 February 18342 February 1907 O.S. 27 January 183420 January 1907) was a Russian chemist and inventor.
Dmitry Salita (Дмитрий Салита; Дмитро Саліта; born April 4, 1982), born Dmitriy Aleksandrovich Lekhtman, is an American professional boxer, world title challenger, and promoter.
The Dnieper River, known in Russian as: Dnepr, and in Ukrainian as Dnipro is one of the major rivers of Europe, rising near Smolensk, Russia and flowing through Russia, Belarus and Ukraine to the Black Sea.
The Dniester or Dnister River is a river in Eastern Europe.
Dnipro (Дніпро), until May 2016 Dnipropetrovsk (Дніпропетро́вськ) also known as Dnepropetrovsk (Днепропетро́вск), is Ukraine's fourth largest city, with about one million inhabitants.
Dzerkalo Tyzhnia (Дзеркало тижня; Зеркало недели, Zerkalo Nedeli), usually referred to in English as the Mirror Weekly, is one of Ukraine’s most influential analytical newspapers published weekly in Kiev, the nation's capital.
Editing is the process of selecting and preparing written, visual, audible, and film media used to convey information.
Efim Petrovich Geller (Ефим Петрович Геллер, Юхим Петрович Геллер; 8 March 1925 – 17 November 1998) was a Soviet chess player and world-class grandmaster at his peak.
Ekaterina Borisovna Rubleva (Екатерина Борисовна Рублёва; born 10 October 1985) is a Russian former competitive ice dancer.
Elina Svitolina (Еліна Світоліна,; born 12 September 1994) is a Ukrainian professional tennis player.
Emil Grigoryevich Gilels (sometimes transliterated Hilels; Емі́ль Григо́рович Гі́лельс, Эми́ль Григо́рьевич Ги́лельс, Emiľ Grigorievič Gileľs; 19 October 1916 – 14 October 1985), HSL, PAU, was a Soviet pianist, widely regarded as one of the greatest pianists of the twentieth century.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
FIBA EuroBasket 2015 was the 39th annual edition of the EuroBasket championship that is organised by FIBA Europe.
Euromaidan (Євромайдан, Евромайдан,, literally "Euro Square") was a wave of demonstrations and civil unrest in Ukraine, which began on the night of 21 November 2013 with public protests in Maidan Nezalezhnosti ("Independence Square") in Kiev.
Evgeni Arkadievich Platov (Евгений Аркадьевич Платов; born August 7, 1967) is a Russian former competitive ice dancer.
To be in exile means to be away from one's home (i.e. city, state, or country), while either being explicitly refused permission to return or being threatened with imprisonment or death upon return.
A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.
Chornomorets Odesa is a Ukrainian professional football club based in Odesa.
FC Odesa was a professional Ukrainian football club based in Odesa.
Ferdinand Fellner (April 19,1847 – March 22, 1916) was an Austrian architect.
The Filatov Institute is a research institute and a large ophthalmology (eye) hospital in Odessa, Ukraine.
A fishing fleet is an aggregate of commercial fishing vessels.
A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.
Francesco Carlo Boffo (Cyrillic: Франц Карлович Боффо; 1796–1867) was a Swiss-Italian-born Neoclassical architect who designed more than 30 buildings in Odessa between 1818 and 1861, including the famous Potemkin Stairs.
Frank Cass (11 July 1930 – 9 August 2007) was a British publisher.
Frans Hals the Elder (– 26 August 1666) was a Dutch Golden Age painter, normally of portraits, who lived and worked in Haarlem.
Free economic zones (FEZ), free economic territories (FETs) or free zones (FZ) are a class of special economic zone (SEZ) designated by the trade and commerce administrations of various countries.
The French Army, officially the Ground Army (Armée de terre) (to distinguish it from the French Air Force, Armée de L'air or Air Army) is the land-based and largest component of the French Armed Forces.
The French (Français) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
A funicular is one of the modes of transport, along with a cable railway and an inclined elevator, which uses a cable traction for movement on a steep slope.
Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.
Gennadiy Leonidovich Trukhanov (Геннадий Леонидович Труханов; Генна́дій Леоні́дович Труха́нов, Hennadiy Leonidovych Trukhanov) is the mayor of Odessa.
Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.
Genrikh Samoilovich Lyushkov (Генрих Самойлович Люшков; 1900 – disappeared August 1945) was an officer in the Soviet secret police and its highest-ranking defector.
This article details the geographical distribution of Russian speakers.
George Gamow (March 4, 1904- August 19, 1968), born Georgiy Antonovich Gamov, was a Russian-American theoretical physicist and cosmologist.
The Georgians or Kartvelians (tr) are a nation and Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
The Golden Horde (Алтан Орд, Altan Ord; Золотая Орда, Zolotaya Orda; Алтын Урда, Altın Urda) was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria.
The Greek Plan or Greek Project is an early solution to the Eastern Question which was advanced by Catherine the Great in the early 1780s.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Gulf of Odessa, or Odessa Bay, is a part of the Black Sea between North Odessa Cape in North and Cape Velyky Fontan in South.
Hacı I Giray, Melek Haji Girai (بیر-حاجى كراى; Melek Hacı Geray, ملک خاجى كراى‎; died 1466) was the founder and the first ruler of the Crimean Khanate.
Haifa (חֵיפָה; حيفا) is the third-largest city in Israel – after Jerusalem and Tel Aviv– with a population of in.
The Hellenic Army (Ελληνικός Στρατός, Ellinikós Stratós, sometimes abbreviated as ΕΣ), formed in 1828, is the land force of Greece (with Hellenic being a synonym for Greek).
Heraklion (Ηράκλειο, Irákleio) is the largest city and the administrative capital of the island of Crete.
Hermann Gottlieb Helmer (13 July 1849 – 2 April 1919) was a German architect who mainly worked in Austria.
Hero City is a Soviet honorary title awarded for outstanding heroism during World War II (the Eastern Front is known in most countries of the former Soviet Union as The Great Patriotic War).
is a state international highway in Ukraine connecting the two largest cities: Kiev and Odessa.
is a Ukrainian international highway (M-highway) connecting Odessa to the Russian border east of Mariupol, where it connects to the Russian Highway.
The history of Poland from 1939 to 1945 encompasses primarily the period from the Invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany to the end of World War II.
Histria or Istros (Ἰστρίη, Thracian river god, Danube), was a Greek colony or polis (πόλις, city) near the mouths of the Danube (known as Ister in Ancient Greek), on the western coast of the Black Sea.
A horsecar, or horse-drawn tram, is an animal-powered (usually horse) tram or streetcar.
A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.
A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and mild to cool winters.
Humorina (Юморина, Yumorina) is an annual festival of humor held in Odessa, Ukraine on and around the April Fools' Day since 1973.
Iași (also referred to as Jassy or Iassy) is the second-largest city in Romania, after the national capital Bucharest, and the seat of Iași County.
Igor Ivanovich (or Ihor Ivanovych) Belanov (Ігор Іванович Беланов; born 25 September 1960) is a retired Soviet and Ukrainian footballer who played as an attacking midfielder or second striker.
Igor Davidovich Oistrakh (Ігор Давидович Ойстрах; И́горь Дави́дович О́йстрах; born April 27, 1931) is a Russian violinist.
Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm (a; 8 July 1895 – 12 April 1971) was a Soviet physicist who received the 1958 Nobel Prize in Physics, jointly with Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov and Ilya Mikhailovich Frank, for their 1934 discovery of Cherenkov radiation.
Ilya Ilf (Ilya Arnoldovich Feinsilberg) (Илья Арнольдович Файнзильберг, 1897–1937) and Evgeny or Yevgeni Petrov (Yevgeniy Petrovich Kataev/Katayev or Евгений Петрович Катаев, 1903–1942) were two Soviet prose authors of the 1920s and 1930s.
JSCB "IMEXBANK" (ІМЕКСБАНК) is one of the largest commercial banks in Ukraine and is based in the city of Odessa.
The Imperial Russian Army (Ру́сская импера́торская а́рмия) was the land armed force of the Russian Empire, active from around 1721 to the Russian Revolution of 1917.
The Interfax-Ukraine News Agency (Інтерфакс-Україна) is a Kiev-based Ukrainian news agency founded in 1992.
The International Republican Institute (IRI) describes itself as "a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization committed to advancing freedom and democracy worldwide by helping political parties to become more issue-based and responsive, assisting citizens to participate in government planning, and working to increase the role of marginalized groups in the political process – including women and youth.", loaded on October 10, 2015.
Ioannis (Yannis) Psycharis (Greek: Ιωάννης (Γιάννης) Ψυχάρης; French: Jean Psychari; 1854–1929) was a French philologist of Greek origin, author and promoter of Demotic Greek.
Isaac Emmanuilovich Babel (p; – 27 January 1940) was a Russian-language journalist, playwright, literary translator, historian and Bolshevik revolutionary.
Iskra (И́скра,, Spark) was a political newspaper of Russian socialist emigrants established as the official organ of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP).
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Count Ivan Vasilyevich Gudovich (Russian: Иван Васильевич Гудович; 1741–1820) was a Russian noble and military leader of Ukrainian descent.
Ivan Petrovich Martos (Иван Петрович Мартос; Іван Петрович Мартос; 1754 — 5 April 1835) was a Russian sculptor and art teacher of Ukrainian origin who helped awaken Russian interest in Neoclassical sculpture.
Ivan Mikhaylovich Sechenov (Ива́н Миха́йлович Се́ченов;, Tyoply Stan (now Sechenovo) near Simbirsk, Russia –, Moscow), was a Russian physiologist, named by Ivan Pavlov as "The Father of Russian physiology".
Izmail (translit. Izmayil; Измаил, translit. Izmail; Ismail; also referred to as Ismail; Izmaił, Исмаил) is a historic city on the Danube river in Odessa Oblast in south-western Ukraine.
Jacob Pavlovich Adler (born Yankev P. Adler; February 12, 1855 – April 1, 1926)IMDB biography was a Jewish actor and star of Yiddish theater, first in Odessa, and later in London and in New York City's Yiddish Theater District.
Jacob Weinberg (7 July 1879 – 2 November 1956) was a Russian-born Jewish composer and pianist who composed over 135 works for piano and other instruments.
Jeddah (sometimes spelled Jiddah or Jedda;; جدة, Hejazi pronunciation) is a city in the Hijaz Tihamah region on the coast of the Red Sea and is the major urban center of western Saudi Arabia. It is the largest city in Makkah Province, the largest seaport on the Red Sea, and with a population of about four million people, the second-largest city in Saudi Arabia after the capital city, Riyadh. Jeddah is Saudi Arabia's commercial capital. Jeddah is the principal gateway to Mecca and Medina, two of the holiest cities in Islam and popular tourist attractions. Economically, Jeddah is focusing on further developing capital investment in scientific and engineering leadership within Saudi Arabia, and the Middle East. Jeddah was independently ranked fourth in the Africa – Mid-East region in terms of innovation in 2009 in the Innovation Cities Index. Jeddah is one of Saudi Arabia's primary resort cities and was named a Beta world city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC). Given the city's close proximity to the Red Sea, fishing and seafood dominates the food culture unlike other parts of the country. In Arabic, the city's motto is "Jeddah Ghair," which translates to "Jeddah is different." The motto has been widely used among both locals as well as foreign visitors. The city had been previously perceived as the "most open" city in Saudi Arabia.
The world's core Jewish population was estimated at 14,511,000 in April 2018, up from 14.41 million in 2016.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Josep de Ribas y Boyons (6 June 1749 –), known in Spanish as José Pascual Domingo de Ribas y Boyons and in Russian as Iosif (Osip) Mikhailovich Deribas (Ио́сиф (О́сип) Миха́йлович Дериба́с), was a Neapolitan military officer in Russian service, who founded the city of Odessa.
The Journal of Medical Biography is a peer-reviewed academic journal established in 1993 covering the lives of people in or associated with medicine, including medical figures and well-known characters from history and their afflictions.
Khadjibey (Hacıbey) was a fortress and a haven by the Gulf of Odessa, in the location of the modern city of Odessa, Ukraine.
Khan خان/khan; is a title for a sovereign or a military ruler, used by Mongolians living to the north of China. Khan has equivalent meanings such as "commander", "leader", or "ruler", "king" and "chief". khans exist in South Asia, Middle East, Central Asia, Eastern Europe, East Africa and Turkey. The female alternatives are Khatun and Khanum. These titles or names are sometimes written as Khan/خان in Persian, Han, Kan, Hakan, Hanum, or Hatun (in Turkey) and as "xan", "xanım" (in Azerbaijan), and medieval Turkic tribes.
Kharkiv (Ха́рків), also known as Kharkov (Ха́рьков) from Russian, is the second-largest city in Ukraine.
Kherson is a city in southern Ukraine.
The Kherson Governorate (1802–1922) (Херсонская губерния, translit.: Khersonskaya guberniya; Херсонська губернія, translit.: Khersons`ka huberniya) or Government of Kherson was a guberniya, or administrative territorial unit, between the Dnieper and Dniester Rivers, of the Russian Empire.
The Khrushchev Thaw (or Khrushchev's Thaw; p or simply ottepel)William Taubman, Khrushchev: The Man and His Era, London: Free Press, 2004 refers to the period from the early 1950s to the early 1960s when repression and censorship in the Soviet Union were relaxed, and millions of Soviet political prisoners were released from Gulag labor camps due to Nikita Khrushchev's policies of de-Stalinization and peaceful coexistence with other nations.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
Klaipėda (Samogitian name: Klaipieda, Polish name: Kłajpeda, German name: Memel), is a city in Lithuania on the Baltic Sea coast.
Krasnodar (p) is a city and the administrative center of Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Kuban River, approximately northeast of the Black Sea port of Novorossiysk.
KVN (КВН, an abbreviation of Клуб весёлых и находчивых, Klub Vesyólykh i Nakhódchivykh or Ka-Ve-En, "Club of the Funny and Inventive People") is a Russian humour TV show and an international competition where teams (usually college students) compete by giving funny answers to questions and showing prepared sketches, that originated in the Soviet Union.
In Greek mythology, the Labyrinth (Greek: Λαβύρινθος labyrinthos) was an elaborate, confusing structure designed and built by the legendary artificer Daedalus for King Minos of Crete at Knossos.
A land mine is an explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it.
The term landslide or, less frequently, landslip, refers to several forms of mass wasting that include a wide range of ground movements, such as rockfalls, deep-seated slope failures, mudflows and debris flows.
Larnaca (Λάρνακα; Larnaka or İskele) is a city on the southern coast of Cyprus and the capital of the eponymous district.
León is the most populous city and municipality in the Mexican state of Guanajuato.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
Lenny Krayzelburg (born September 28, 1975, as Leonid Krayzelburg; Леонід Крайзельбург, Леонид Крайзельбург) is an American former backstroke swimmer, and Olympic gold medalist and former world record holder.
Leo Podolsky (May 25, 1891, Odessa, Ukraine – October 1, 1987, Los Angeles, California) was a classical pianist and educator.
Leone Ginzburg (4 April 1909 – 5 February 1944) was an Italian editor, writer, journalist and teacher, as well as an important anti-fascist political activist and a hero of the resistance movement.
Leonid Yosipovich Buryak (Леонід Йосипович Буряк; born 10 July 1953) is a Ukrainian football coach, and a former Olympic bronze-medal-winning player.
Leonid Isaakovich Mandelstam or Mandelshtam (Belarusian: Леанід Ісаакавіч Мандэльштам, a; 4 May 1879 – 27 November 1944) was a Soviet physicist of Belarusian-Jewish background.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
In special economic zones business and trades laws differ from the rest of the country.
A humorist (US; British humourist) is an intellectual who uses humor in writing or public speaking.
This is a list of authors who have written poetry in the Russian language.
This is a list of authors who have written works of prose and poetry in the Russian language.
Below is an incomplete list of writers, cartoonists and others known for their involvement in satire – humorous social criticism.
Officially, there are seven World Heritage Sites sites in Ukraine.
A literary magazine is a periodical devoted to literature in a broad sense.
Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 in 2017.
Count Louis Alexandre Andrault de Langeron (Алекса́ндр Фёдорович Ланжеро́н) (January 24, 1763 – July 16, 1831), born in Paris, was a French soldier in the service of, first, the Kingdom of France, and then the Russian Empire.
Lyudmila Mikhailovna Pavlichenko (12 July 191610 October 1974) was a Soviet sniper in the Red Army during World War II, credited with 309 kills.
The magnates of Poland and Lithuania were an aristocracy of nobility (szlachta) that existed in the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and, from the 1569 Union of Lublin, in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, until the Third Partition of Poland in 1795.
Major general (abbreviated MG, Maj. Gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries.
Maksim "Maks" Aleksandrovich Chmerkovskiy (Максим Олекса́ндрович Чмерковський, Максим Александрович Чмерковский,; born January 17, 1980) is a Ukrainian-American Latin–ballroom dance champion, choreographer, and instructor.
Margarita Iosifovna Aliger (a; – August 1, 1992) was a Soviet poet, translator, and journalist.
Maria Grinberg (Russian: Mария Израилевна Гринберг, Marija Israilevna Grinberg) (September 6, 1908 – July 14, 1978), was a Soviet pianist.
Mariupol (Маріу́поль, also Mariiupil; Мариу́поль; Marioupoli) is a city of regional significance in south eastern Ukraine, situated on the north coast of the Sea of Azov at the mouth of the Kalmius river, in the Pryazovia region.
Mark Grigorievich Krein (Марко Григорович Крейн, Марк Григо́рьевич Крейн; 3 April 1907 – 17 October 1989) was a Soviet Jewish mathematician, one of the major figures of the Soviet school of functional analysis.
Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, humorist, entrepreneur, publisher, and lecturer.
Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.
Marshal of the Soviet Union (Маршал Советского Союза) was the highest military rank of the Soviet Union, below Generalissimus of the Soviet Union.
Marshrutka (Russian: маршру́тка), from marshrutne taksi routed taxicab, is a form of public transportation such as a share taxi for the countries of CIS, the Baltic states, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Armenia, and Georgia.
Mashable is a digital media website founded by Pete Cashmore in 2005.
The Medal "For the Defence of Odessa" (Медаль «За оборону Одессы») was a World War II campaign medal of the Soviet Union established on December 22, 1942 by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR to reward the participants of the defence of the port city of Odessa from the armed forces of NAZI Germany.
The Medici lions are a pair of marble sculptures of lions, one of which is Roman, dating to the 2nd century AD, and the other a 16th-century pendant; both were by 1598 placed at the Villa Medici, Rome.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Mercedes-Benz is a global automobile marque and a division of the German company Daimler AG.
A merchant navy or merchant marine is the fleet of merchant vessels that are registered in a specific country.
Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.
Michael "Misha" Shmerkin (born 5 February 1970) is an Israeli former competitive figure skater.
Mickola Vorokhta (Микола Ворохта, born 18 July 1947 in Rakhiv, Ukraine) is a Ukrainian artist-painter who lives and works in Odessa.
Mikhail Mikhaylovich Zhvanetsky (Михаи́л Миха́йлович Жване́цкий) (born 6 March 1934, Odessa, Ukrainian SSR, Soviet Union) is a Soviet and Russian writer, satirist and performer best known for his shows targeting different aspects of the Soviet and post-Soviet everyday life.
The Minister of Defence of the Soviet Union refers to the head of the Ministry of Defence who was responsible for defence of the communist Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from 1917 to 1922 and the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991.
Minsk (Мінск,; Минск) is the capital and largest city of Belarus, situated on the Svislach and the Nyamiha Rivers.
Modern English (sometimes New English or NE as opposed to Middle English and Old English) is the form of the English language spoken since the Great Vowel Shift in England, which began in the late 14th century and was completed in roughly 1550.
Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική Γλώσσα "Neo-Hellenic", historically and colloquially also known as Ρωμαίικα "Romaic" or "Roman", and Γραικικά "Greek") refers to the dialects and varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era.
Moldavanka is a historical part of Odessa in the Odessa Oblast (province) of southern Ukraine, located jointly on Malinovskiy and Primorskiy city districts.
Moldavia (Moldova, or Țara Moldovei (in Romanian Latin alphabet), Цара Мѡлдовєй (in old Romanian Cyrillic alphabet) is a historical region and former principality in Central and Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester River. An initially independent and later autonomous state, it existed from the 14th century to 1859, when it united with Wallachia (Țara Românească) as the basis of the modern Romanian state; at various times, Moldavia included the regions of Bessarabia (with the Budjak), all of Bukovina and Hertza. The region of Pokuttya was also part of it for a period of time. The western half of Moldavia is now part of Romania, the eastern side belongs to the Republic of Moldova, and the northern and southeastern parts are territories of Ukraine.
Moldova (or sometimes), officially the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south (by way of the disputed territory of Transnistria).
Moldovans or Moldavians (in Moldovan/Romanian moldoveni; Moldovan Cyrillic: Молдовень) are the largest population group of the Republic of Moldova (75.1% of the population, as of 2014), and a significant minority in Ukraine and Russia.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
Nikolay Avilov (Микола Вікторович Авілов, Николай Викторович Авилов, born 6 August 1948) is a retired Soviet decathlete (Odessa) who competed at the 1968, 1972 and 1976 Olympics.
Mykolaiv (Микола́їв), also known as Nikolaev or Nikolayev (Никола́ев), is a city in southern Ukraine, the administrative center of the Mykolaiv Oblast.
Nachum Gutman (as he himself signed; alternate romanisation: Nahum Gutman; נחום גוטמן: October 15, 1898 – November 28, 1980) was an Israeli painter, sculptor, and author.
A narrow-gauge railway (narrow-gauge railroad in the US) is a railway with a track gauge narrower than the standard.
Nathan Mironovich Milstein (– December 21, 1992) was a Ukrainian-born American virtuoso violinist.
National Bank of Ukraine (Національний банк України) or NBU (НБУ) is the central bank of Ukraine – a government body responsible for unified state policy in the field of country's monetary circulation, including strengthening of national currency unit – hryvnia.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
National University "Odessa Maritime Academy" is a maritime college in Odessa, Ukraine.
A naval base, navy base, or military port is a military base, where warships and naval ships are docked when they have no mission at sea or want to restock.
A necropolis (pl. necropoleis) is a large, designed cemetery with elaborate tomb monuments.
Nicosia (Λευκωσία; Lefkoşa) is the largest city on the island of Cyprus.
Nikifor Grigoriev (Николай Алекса́ндрович Григо́рьев; c. 1885 – July 27, 1919), born Nychypir Servetnyk (Ничипір Серветник) in a small village of Zastavlia (now in the Nova Ushytsia Raion, Ukraine), was a paramilitary leader noted for numerous switching of sides during the civil war in Ukraine.
Nikolay Ivanovich Pirogov (–) was a prominent Russian scientist, medical doctor, pedagogue, public figure, and corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences (1847).
Nikolay Alekseevich Umov (Никола́й Алексе́евич У́мов; January 23, 1846 – January 15, 1915) was a Russian physicist and mathematician known for discovering the concept of Umov-Poynting vector and Umov effect.
Ningbo, formerly written Ningpo, is a sub-provincial city in northeast Zhejiang province in China. It comprises the urban districts of Ningbo proper, three satellite cities, and a number of rural counties including islands in Hangzhou Bay and the East China Sea. Its port, spread across several locations, is among the busiest in the world and the municipality possesses a separate state-planning status. As of the 2010 census, the entire administrated area had a population of 7.6 million, with 3.5 million in the six urban districts of Ningbo proper. To the north, Hangzhou Bay separates Ningbo from Shanghai; to the east lies Zhoushan in the East China Sea; on the west and south, Ningbo borders Shaoxing and Taizhou respectively.
The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del), abbreviated NKVD (НКВД), was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
Novorossiya (a; Noua Rusie), literally New Russia but sometimes called South Russia, is a historical term of the Russian Empire denoting a region north of the Black Sea (Now part of Ukraine).
An oblast is a type of administrative division of Belarus, Bulgaria, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Ukraine, and the former Soviet Union and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
An oblast (область), in English referred to as a region, refers to one of Ukraine's 24 primary administrative units.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
Odesa International Film Festival (Одéський міжнарóдний кінофестивáль) is an annual film festival held in the middle of the July in Odesa, Ukraine.
The Odessa Archaeological Museum is one of the oldest archaeological museums in Ukraine.
Odesa Art Museum (Одеський художній музей) is one of the principal art galleries of the city of Odesa.
The Odessa Bolshevik uprising (Одеське січневе збройне повстання) was a Bolshevik-led uprising of workers and sailors allied with approaching Red Guards forces of Soviet Russia.
The Odessa Catacombs are a labyrinth-like network of tunnels (subterranean cavities) located under the city of Odessa and its outskirts in Ukraine, that are mostly (over 90%) the result of stone mining, particularly coquina.
The Odessa City garden (Міський сад) is located in town centre of Odessa, Ukraine, at the Deribasivska Street.
Odessa Film Studio (Одеська кіностудія художніх фільмів) is the first film studio established in Ukraine (Odessa).
The Odessa Funicular (Одеський фунікулер; Одесский фуникулёр), serves the Ukrainian city of Odessa.
Odessa International Airport (Міжнародний аеропорт «Одеса») is an international airport of Odessa, the third largest city of Ukraine, located southwest from its city centre.
The Odessa Museum of Regional History is a historical museum in Odessa, Ukraine.
Odessa Museum of Western and Eastern Art is a museum of Fine Arts on Pushkin street in Odessa, Ukraine.
Odessa University of Economics (ONEU, Одеський національний економічний університет) is one of the leading and oldest Economics Universities of Ukraine.
The Odessa National Medical University is a government university in the city of Odessa, Ukraine.
Odessa National Polytechnic University (Одеський національний політехнічний університет) is a Ukrainian public institution of higher education and research in Odessa.
The Odessa Numismatics Museum (Одеський музей нумізматики, translit., Одесский музей нумизматики, translit.) is a currency museum in Ukraine.
Odessa Oblast (Одеська область, Odes’ka oblast’, Одесская область, Odesskaya oblast’) is an oblast or province of southwestern Ukraine located along the northern coast of the Black Sea, consisting of the eastern part of the historical region of Novorossiya, and the southern part of the historical region of Bessarabia (also known as Budjak), the latter being a former oblast incorporated into the Odessa Oblast, in 1954.
The Odessa National Academic Theatre of Opera and Ballet (Одеський національний академічний театр опери та балету) is the oldest theatre in Odessa, Ukraine.
Odessa Passage is a passage and a hotel on Deribasivska Street in the centre of Odessa.
A series of pogroms against Jews in the city of Odessa, then part of the Russian Empire, took place during the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Odessa Pushkin Museum is a museum dedicated to the Russian poet Alexander Pushkin in Odessa, Ukraine.
Odessa (Одеса-Головна, Одесса-Главная) is the main train station in Odessa in southern Ukraine.
The Odessa Soviet Republic (OSR; Одеська Радянська Республіка; Одесская Советская Республика) was a short-lived Soviet republic formed on from parts of the Kherson and Bessarabia Governorates of the former Russian Empire.
Odesa I. I. Mechnikov National University (Одеський національний університет імені І. І. Мечникова, Одесский национальный университет имени И. И. Мечникова), located in Odessa, Ukraine, is one of the country's major universities, named after the scientist Élie Metchnikoff (who studied immunology, microbiology, and evolutionary embryology), a Nobel prizewinner in 1908.
Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.
Oksana Baiul (born November 16, 1977) is a Ukrainian former competitive figure skater.
Oksana (Pasha) Vladimirovna Grishuk (Оксана (Паша) Владимировна Грищук; born March 17, 1972) is a Russian former competitive ice dancer.
Pontic Olbia (Ὀλβία Ποντική, Ольвія) or simply Olbia is an archaeological site of an ancient Greek city on the shore of the Southern Bug estuary (Hypanis or Ὕπανις) in Ukraine, near village of Parutyne.
Olena Ihorivna Vitrychenko (Олена Ігорівна Вітриченко, Елена Игоревна Витриченко; born 25 November 1976), also known as Elena Vitrichenko, is an Individual Ukrainian Rhythmic Gymnast.
Olexander Smakula (Олександр Теодорович Смакула, Александр Теодорович Смакула) (1900 in Dobrovody, Austria–Hungary, today Ukraine – 17 May 1983 in Auburn, Massachusetts, USA), also described in English as Alexander Smakula, was a Ukrainian physicist known for the invention of anti-reflective lens coatings based on optical interference.
Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine and surgery (both methods are used) that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyeball and orbit.
Awards and decorations of the Soviet Union are decorations from the former Soviet Union that recognised achievements and personal accomplishments, both military and civilian.
Orthodoxy (from Greek ὀρθοδοξία orthodoxía "right opinion") is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion.
The Ottoman dynasty (Osmanlı Hanedanı) was made up of the members of the imperial House of Osman (خاندان آل عثمان Ḫānedān-ı Āl-ı ʿOsmān), also known as the Ottomans (Osmanlılar).
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Ottoman Syria refers to the parts of modern-day Syria or of Greater Syria which were subjected to Ottoman rule, anytime between the Ottoman conquests on the Mamluk Sultanate in the early 16th century and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire in 1922.
Oulu (Uleåborg) is a city and municipality of inhabitants in the region of Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland.
A panorama (formed from Greek πᾶν "all" + ὅραμα "sight") is any wide-angle view or representation of a physical space, whether in painting, drawing, photography, film, seismic images or a three-dimensional model.
A partisan is a member of an irregular military force formed to oppose control of an area by a foreign power or by an army of occupation by some kind of insurgent activity.
Patricia Herlihy is an American historian and author specializing in Russian and Soviet history.
The Pechenegs or Patzinaks were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Oghuz branch of Turkic language family.
Performance art is a performance presented to an audience within a fine art context, traditionally interdisciplinary.
Pierre Mignard or Pierre Mignard I (17 November 1612 – 30 May 1695), called "Mignard le Romain" to distinguish him from his brother Nicolas Mignard, was a French painter known for his religious and mythological scenes and portraits.
Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods or material through a pipe.
Piraeus (Πειραιάς Pireás, Πειραιεύς, Peiraieús) is a port city in the region of Attica, Greece.
Prince (Reichsfürst) Platon Alexandrovich Zubov (Платон Александрович Зубов) was the last of Catherine the Great's favourites and the most powerful man in the Russian Empire during the last years of her reign.
The term pogrom has multiple meanings, ascribed most often to the deliberate persecution of an ethnic or religious group either approved or condoned by the local authorities.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo.
Port of Chornomorsk, or Sea Port of Chornomorsk (Ukrainian: Морський порт Чорноморськ, Morskyi port Chornomorsk) is a port in the city of Chornomorsk, Ukraine.
The Port of Odessa or Odessa Sea Port (Одеський морський порт, Odes'kyi morskyi port) — located near Odessa — is the largest Ukrainian seaport and one of the largest ports in the Black Sea basin, with a total annual traffic capacity of 40 million tonnes (15 million tonnes dry bulk and 25 million tonnes liquid bulk).
The post-Soviet states, also collectively known as the former Soviet Union (FSU) or former Soviet Republics, are the states that emerged and re-emerged from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup in 1991, with Russia internationally recognised as the successor state to the Soviet Union after the Cold War.
The Potemkin Stairs, or Potemkin Steps (Потьомкінські сходи, Potj'omkins'ky Skhody, Потёмкинская лестница, Potyomkinskaya Lestnitsa), is a giant stairway in Odessa, Ukraine.
Prodrazvyorstka (p, short for развёрстка, food apportionment) was a Bolshevik policy and campaign of confiscation of grain and other agricultural products from the peasants at nominal fixed prices according to specified quotas (the noun razvyorstka,, and the verb razverstat' refer to the partition of the requested total amount as obligations from the suppliers).
Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, or mass transit) is transport of passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public, typically managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, and that charge a posted fee for each trip.
Pyatigorsk (Пятиго́рск) is a city in Stavropol Krai located on the Podkumok River, about from the town of Mineralnye Vody where there is an international airport and about from Kislovodsk.
Pyotr Solomonovich Stolyarsky (Пётр Соломонович Столярский, Петро Соломонович Столярський), (29 April 1944) was a Soviet violinist and eminent pedagogue, honored as People's Artist of UkSSR (Ukrainian SSR) (1939).
Qingdao (also spelled Tsingtao) is a city in eastern Shandong Province on the east coast of China.
Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.
Rada is the term for "parliament" or "assembly" or some other "council" in several Slavic languages.
A raion (also rayon) is a type of administrative unit of several post-Soviet states (such as part of an oblast).
Regensburg (Castra-Regina;; Řezno; Ratisbonne; older English: Ratisbon; Bavarian: Rengschburg or Rengschburch) is a city in south-east Germany, at the confluence of the Danube, Naab and Regen rivers.
Renaissance architecture is the European architecture of the period between the early 14th and early 17th centuries in different regions, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture.
A resort (North American English) is an isolated place, self-contained commercial establishment that tries to provide most of a vacationer's wants, such as food, drink, lodging, sports, entertainment, and shopping, on the premises.
Rococo, less commonly roccoco, or "Late Baroque", was an exuberantly decorative 18th-century European style which was the final expression of the baroque movement.
Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky (Родио́н Я́ковлевич Малино́вский; – 31 March 1967) was a Soviet military commander in World War II, Marshal of the Soviet Union, and Defense Minister of the Soviet Union in the late 1950s and 1960s.
Roman Shlemovich Pelts (born August 11, 1937) is a Ukrainian-Canadian chess master, born in Odessa.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Following the outbreak of World War II on 1 September 1939, the Kingdom of Romania under King Carol II officially adopted a position of neutrality.
The Romanians (români or—historically, but now a seldom-used regionalism—rumâni; dated exonym: Vlachs) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to Romania, that share a common Romanian culture, ancestry, and speak the Romanian language, the most widespread spoken Eastern Romance language which is descended from the Latin language. According to the 2011 Romanian census, just under 89% of Romania's citizens identified themselves as ethnic Romanians. In one interpretation of the census results in Moldova, the Moldovans are counted as Romanians, which would mean that the latter form part of the majority in that country as well.Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook By David Levinson, Published 1998 – Greenwood Publishing Group.At the time of the 1989 census, Moldova's total population was 4,335,400. The largest nationality in the republic, ethnic Romanians, numbered 2,795,000 persons, accounting for 64.5 percent of the population. Source:: "however it is one interpretation of census data results. The subject of Moldovan vs Romanian ethnicity touches upon the sensitive topic of", page 108 sqq. Romanians are also an ethnic minority in several nearby countries situated in Central, respectively Eastern Europe, particularly in Hungary, Czech Republic, Ukraine (including Moldovans), Serbia, and Bulgaria. Today, estimates of the number of Romanian people worldwide vary from 26 to 30 million according to various sources, evidently depending on the definition of the term 'Romanian', Romanians native to Romania and Republic of Moldova and their afferent diasporas, native speakers of Romanian, as well as other Eastern Romance-speaking groups considered by most scholars as a constituent part of the broader Romanian people, specifically Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, Istro-Romanians, and Vlachs in Serbia (including medieval Vlachs), in Croatia, in Bulgaria, or in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Rosh HaAyin (רֹאשׁ הָעַיִן, lit. Fountainhead; روش هاعين) is a city in the Central District of Israel.
Rostov-on-Don (p) is a port city and the administrative center of Rostov Oblast and the Southern Federal District of Russia.
RT (formerly Russia Today) is a Russian international television network funded by the Russian government.
The Russian battleship Potemkin (translit, "Prince Potemkin of Taurida") was a pre-dreadnought battleship built for the Imperial Russian Navy's Black Sea Fleet.
The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Russian literature refers to the literature of Russia and its émigrés and to the Russian-language literature of several independent nations once a part of what was historically Rus', the Russian Empire or the Soviet Union.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
The Russo–Turkish War of 1787–1792 involved an unsuccessful attempt by the Ottoman Empire to regain lands lost to the Russian Empire in the course of the previous Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774).
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Sanjaks (سنجاق, modern: Sancak) were administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire.
Sarkis Ordyan (Սարգիս Օրդյան; December 20, 1918 – 2003) was a Ukrainian-Armenian painter.
The French Second Empire (Second Empire) was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.
The title secretary of state or state secretary is commonly used for senior or mid-level posts in governments around the world.
Selman Abraham Waksman (July 22, 1888 – August 16, 1973) was a Ukrainian-born, Jewish-American inventor, biochemist and microbiologist whose research into organic substances—largely into organisms that live in soil—and their decomposition promoted the discovery of streptomycin and several other antibiotics.
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.
The Semperoper is the opera house of the Sächsische Staatsoper Dresden (Saxon State Opera) and the concert hall of the Staatskapelle Dresden (Saxon State Orchestra).
Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein (p; 11 February 1948) was a Soviet film director and film theorist, a pioneer in the theory and practice of montage.
The Seventh-Kilometer Market (Промрынок 7ой километр, Promrynok 7oi Kilometr; Ринок «Сьомий кілометр», Rynok Syomyi Kilometr), informally known as Tolchok Толчок, or Tolkuchka толкучка (Russian for shove, shoving), is an outdoor market outside of Odessa, Ukraine.
Shannon Lee Miller Falconetti (born March 10, 1977) is an American former artistic gymnast.
Central Park of Culture and Recreation of Taras Shevchenko is a park in Odessa.
Shura Cherkassky (Александр (Шура) Исаакович Черкасский; 7 October 190927 December 1995) was an American classical pianist known for his performances of the romantic repertoire.
Sidney George Reilly MC (– 5 November 1925), commonly known as the "Ace of Spies," was a Russian-born adventurer and secret agent employed by Scotland Yard's Special Branch and later by the British Secret Service Bureau, the precursor to the modern British Secret Intelligence Service (MI6/SIS).
The Siege of Leningrad (also known as the Leningrad Blockade (Блокада Ленинграда, transliteration: Blokada Leningrada) and the 900-Day Siege) was a prolonged military blockade undertaken from the south by the Army Group North of Nazi Germany and the Finnish Army in the north, against Leningrad, historically and currently known as Saint Petersburg, in the Eastern Front theatre of World War II.
The Siege of Odessa, known to the Soviets as the Defence of Odessa, lasted from 8 August until 16 October 1941, during the early phase of Operation Barbarossa, the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II.
The Siege of Sevastopol also known as the Defence of Sevastopol (Оборона Севастополя, transliteration: Oborona Sevastopolya) or the Battle of Sevastopol (German: Schlacht um Sewastopol) was a military battle that took place on the Eastern Front of the Second World War.
Silistra (Силистра Dârstor) is a port city in northeastern Bulgaria.
The Eyalet of Silistra or Silistria (ایالت سیلیستره; Eyālet-i Silistre), later known as Özü Eyalet (ایالت اوزی; Eyālet-i Özi) meaning Province of Ochakiv was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire along the Black Sea littoral and south bank of the Danube River in southeastern Europe.
Simon Barere (Симон Барер; – 2 April 1951) was a renowned Russian pianist.
Simon Wiesenthal (31 December 190820 September 2005) was a Jewish Austrian Holocaust survivor, Nazi hunter, and writer.
Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
The Slavic Review is a major peer-reviewed academic journal publishing scholarly studies, book and film reviews, and review essays in all disciplines concerned with Russia, Central Eurasia, and Eastern and Central Europe.
Smuggling is the illegal transportation of objects, substances, information or people, such as out of a house or buildings, into a prison, or across an international border, in violation of applicable laws or other regulations.
A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.
Socialist realism is a style of idealized realistic art that was developed in the Soviet Union and was imposed as the official style in that country between 1932 and 1988, as well as in other socialist countries after World War II.
Sofia (Со́фия, tr.) is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria.
The Southern Bug, also called Southern Buh (Південний Буг, Pivdennyi Buh; Южный Буг, Yuzhny Bug), and sometimes Boh River, is a navigable river located in Ukraine.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spaniards are a Latin European ethnic group and nation.
Split (see other names) is the second-largest city of Croatia and the largest city of the region of Dalmatia. It lies on the eastern shore of the Adriatic Sea and is spread over a central peninsula and its surroundings. An intraregional transport hub and popular tourist destination, the city is linked to the Adriatic islands and the Apennine peninsula. Home to Diocletian's Palace, built for the Roman emperor in 305 CE, the city was founded as the Greek colony of Aspálathos (Aσπάλαθος) in the 3rd or 2nd century BC. It became a prominent settlement around 650 CE when it succeeded the ancient capital of the Roman province of Dalmatia, Salona. After the Sack of Salona by the Avars and Slavs, the fortified Palace of Diocletian was settled by the Roman refugees. Split became a Byzantine city, to later gradually drift into the sphere of the Republic of Venice and the Kingdom of Croatia, with the Byzantines retaining nominal suzerainty. For much of the High and Late Middle Ages, Split enjoyed autonomy as a free city, caught in the middle of a struggle between Venice and the King of Hungary for control over the Dalmatian cities. Venice eventually prevailed and during the early modern period Split remained a Venetian city, a heavily fortified outpost surrounded by Ottoman territory. Its hinterland was won from the Ottomans in the Morean War of 1699, and in 1797, as Venice fell to Napoleon, the Treaty of Campo Formio rendered the city to the Habsburg Monarchy. In 1805, the Peace of Pressburg added it to the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy and in 1806 it was included in the French Empire, becoming part of the Illyrian Provinces in 1809. After being occupied in 1813, it was eventually granted to the Austrian Empire following the Congress of Vienna, where the city remained a part of the Austrian Kingdom of Dalmatia until the fall of Austria-Hungary in 1918 and the formation of Yugoslavia. In World War II, the city was annexed by Italy, then liberated by the Partisans after the Italian capitulation in 1943. It was then re-occupied by Germany, which granted it to its puppet Independent State of Croatia. The city was liberated again by the Partisans in 1944, and was included in the post-war Socialist Yugoslavia, as part of its republic of Croatia. In 1991, Croatia seceded from Yugoslavia amid the Croatian War of Independence.
Stella Adler (February 10, 1901 – December 21, 1992) was an American actress and acting teacher.
Svetlana Ivanovna "Esfir" Dolzhenko-Krachevskaya (Светлана Ивановна "Эсфирь" Долженко-Крачевская) (born November 23, 1944) is a Soviet athlete who competed mainly in the shot put.
Sviatoslav Teofilovich Richter (svʲjətɐsˈlaf tʲɪɐˈfʲiləvʲɪtɕ ˈrʲixtər; – August 1, 1997) was a Soviet pianist of Russian-German origin, who is generally regarded as one of the greatest pianists of the 20th century.
Szeged (see also other alternative names) is the third largest city of Hungary, the largest city and regional centre of the Southern Great Plain and the county seat of Csongrád county.
Tallinn (or,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia.
Taras Hryhorovych Shevchenko (–) was a Ukrainian poet, writer, artist, public and political figure, as well as folklorist and ethnographer.
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
Tatiana Gutsu (Тетяна Костянтинівна Ґуцу, Тatiana Guţu; born September 5, 1976, in Odessa, Ukrainian SSR) is a former artistic gymnast from the Soviet Union and the winner of the all-around title at the 1992 Summer Olympics.
Tavria-V (Таврія-В) is a chain of fifty eight shopping centers in Odessa, Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi, Izmail, Illichivsk, Mykolaiv, Khmelnytskyi, Kharkiv, Kyiv, Kherson.
Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The Innocents Abroad, or The New Pilgrims' Progress is a travel book by American author Mark Twain published in 1869 which humorously chronicles what Twain called his "Great Pleasure Excursion" on board the chartered vessel Quaker City (formerly) through Europe and the Holy Land with a group of American travelers in 1867.
The Moscow Times is an English-language weekly newspaper published in Moscow, with a circulation of 55,000 copies.
The Museum of the Jewish People at Beit Hatfutsot is located in Tel Aviv, Israel, at the center of the Tel Aviv University campus in Ramat Aviv.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Odessa Tales (Russian: Одесские рассказы) is a collection of short stories by Isaac Babel, situated in Odessa in the last days of the Russian empire and the Russian Revolution.
The Ukrainian Week (Український Тиждень, Тиждень.ua) is an illustrated weekly magazine covering politics, economics and the arts and aimed at the socially engaged Ukrainian-language reader.
Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη, Thessaloníki), also familiarly known as Thessalonica, Salonica, or Salonika is the second-largest city in Greece, with over 1 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, and the capital of Greek Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace.
Ukraine used to attract more than 20 million foreign citizens every year (23 million in 2012).
A tourist attraction is a place of interest where tourists visit, typically for its inherent or exhibited natural or cultural value, historical significance, natural or built beauty, offering leisure and amusement.
The Transnistria Governorate (Guvernământul Transnistriei) was a Romanian-administered territory between Dniester and Southern Bug (Buh), conquered by the Axis Powers from the Soviet Union during Operation Barbarossa and occupied from 19 August 1941 to 29 January 1944.
A transport hub (also transport interchange) is a place where passengers and cargo are exchanged between vehicles or between transport modes.
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on 3 March 1918 between the new Bolshevik government of Soviet Russia and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire), that ended Russia's participation in World War I. The treaty was signed at Brest-Litovsk (Brześć Litewski; since 1945 Brest), after two months of negotiations.
The Treaty of Jassy, signed at Jassy (Iași) in Moldavia (presently in Romania), was a pact between the Russian and Ottoman Empires ending the Russo-Turkish War of 1787–92 and confirming Russia's increasing dominance in the Black Sea.
The Triple Entente (from French entente "friendship, understanding, agreement") refers to the understanding linking the Russian Empire, the French Third Republic, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente on 31 August 1907.
A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram Joyce, J.; King, J. S.; and Newman, A. G. (1986). British Trolleybus Systems, pp. 9, 12. London: Ian Allan Publishing.. or trolleyDunbar, Charles S. (1967). Buses, Trolleys & Trams. Paul Hamlyn Ltd. (UK). Republished 2004 with or 9780753709702.) is an electric bus that draws power from overhead wires (generally suspended from roadside posts) using spring-loaded trolley poles.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.
Tyras (Τύρας) was an ancient Greek city on the northern coast of the Black Sea.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Ukraine International Airlines PJSC, often shortended to UIA (Авіакомпанія Міжнародні Авіалінії України, Aviakompaniya Mizhnarodni Avialiniyi Ukrayiny), is the flag carrier and the largest airline of Ukraine, with its head office in Kiev with its main hub at Boryspil International Airport outside Kiev.
The Ukrainian Basketball League was the professional basketball division in Ukraine in 2008–09 season alongside the country's top pro basketball league, the Ukrainian Men's Basketball SuperLeague.
The Ukrainian Naval Forces (Військово-Морські Сили України, ВМСУ, Viys’kovo-Mors’ki Syly Ukrayiny, VMSU) is the navy of Ukraine and part of the Armed Forces of Ukraine.
The Ukrainian People's Republic, or Ukrainian National Republic (abbreviated to УНР), was a predecessor of modern Ukraine declared on 10 June 1917 following the Russian Revolution.
The Ukrainian Premier League ("Прем'єр-ліга") or UPL is the highest division of Ukrainian annual football championship.
Ukrainian Railways (Укрзалізниця, Ukrzaliznytsia) is a state owned enterprise of rail transport in Ukraine, a monopoly that controls vast majority of the railroad transportation in the country with a combined total tracks length of over 23,000 km, making it the 14th largest in the world.
The Ukrainian–Soviet War (Українсько-радянська війна) is the term commonly used in post-Soviet Ukraine for the events taking place between 1917–21, nowadays regarded essentially as a war between the Ukrainian People's Republic and the Bolsheviks.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
Valencia, officially València, on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre.
Valentin Aleksandrovich "Val" Chmerkovskiy (Валентин Олекса́ндрович Чмерковський; born March 24, 1986) is a Ukrainian-American professional dancer, best known for his appearances on the U.S. version of Dancing with the Stars, which he won twice.
Valentin Petrovich Glushko (Валенти́н Петро́вич Глушко́, Valentin Petrovich Glushko; Валентин Петрович Глушко, Valentyn Petrovych Hlushko; born 2 September 1908 – 10 January 1989), was a Soviet engineer, and designer of rocket engines during the Soviet/American Space Race.
Valentin Petrovich Kataev (Валентин Петрович Катаев; also spelled Katayev or Kataiev; – 12 April 1986) was a Russian and Soviet novelist and playwright who managed to create penetrating works discussing post-revolutionary social conditions without running afoul of the demands of official Soviet style.
Valeria Valeryevna Lukyanova (Вале́рія Вале́ріївна Лук'я́нова; Валерия Валерьевна Лукьянова; born on August 23, 1985) is a Ukrainian model and entertainer, famous for her resemblance to a Barbie doll.
Valparaíso is a major city, seaport, and educational center in the commune of Valparaíso, Chile.
Van (Van; Վան; Wan; فان; Εύα, Eua) is a city in eastern Turkey's Van Province, located on the eastern shore of Lake Van.
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia.
Varna (Варна, Varna) is the third-largest city in Bulgaria and the largest city and seaside resort on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast.
Vera Mikhailovna Inber, born Shpenzer, Ве́ра Миха́йловна И́нбер (July 10, 1890, Odessa, Russian Empire – November 11, 1972, Moscow, Soviet Union) was a Russian-Soviet poet and writer.
Viacheslav "Slava" Kravtsov (В’ячеслав Кравцов; born August 25, 1987) is a Ukrainian professional basketball player for Eskişehir Basket of the Turkish Basketball Super League (BSL).
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Viktor Izrailyovych Kanevskyi (Віктор Ізраїльович Каневський, Виктор Израилевич Каневский; born 3 October 1936 in Kiev, in the Ukrainian SSR of the Soviet Union) is a retired Ukrainian and Soviet football player and coach.
Viktor Vasyliovych Petrenko (Віктор Васильович Петренко; born 27 June 1969) is a Ukrainian former competitive figure skater who represented the Soviet Union, the Unified Team, and Ukraine during his career.
Vitaliy Pushkar (Пушкар Віталій Олексійович; born May 9, 1987 in Kishineu, Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic – in present-day Moldova) is a Ukrainian rally driver, Ukrainian rally vice-champion, European rally champion in ERC Production Cup category, and The Boar ProRacing team driver.
Vladimir von Pachmann or Pachman (27 July 18486 January 1933) was a pianist of Russian-German ethnicity, especially noted for performing the works of Chopin, and also for his eccentric on-stage style.
Vladimir Petrovich Filatov (Владимир Филaтoв, 15 February 1875 in Mikhaylovka, Penza Governorate, Russian Empire – 30 October 1956 in Odessa, Ukrainian SSR) was a Russian and Ukrainian ophthalmologist and surgeon best known for his development of tissue therapy.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Vladimir Portnoy (June 9, 1931 – February 19, 1984) was a Soviet gymnast.
VoivodeAlso spelled "voievod", "woiwode", "voivod", "voyvode", "vojvoda", or "woiwod" (Old Slavic, literally "war-leader" or "warlord") is an Eastern European title that originally denoted the principal commander of a military force.
The Vorontsov Lighthouse (Воронцовський маяк, Воронцовский маяк) is a famous red-and-white, 27.2 metre landmark in the Black Sea port of Odessa, Ukraine.
The Vorontsov Palace (Воронцовський палац; Воронцовский дворец) is a 19th-century palace and colonnade in Odessa, Ukraine, at the end of the Primorsky Boulevard pedestrian walkway.
Sir Waldemar Mordechai Wolff Haffkine, CIE (Мордехай-Вольф Хавкин) (15 March 1860 – 26 October 1930) was a bacteriologist from the Russian Empire whose career was blighted in Russia because he refused to convert from Judaism to Russian Orthodox Christianity.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
The White movement (p) and its military arm the White Army (Бѣлая Армія/Белая Армия, Belaya Armiya), also known as the White Guard (Бѣлая Гвардія/Белая Гвардия, Belaya Gvardiya), the White Guardsmen (Белогвардейцы, Belogvardeytsi) or simply the Whites (Белые, Beliye), was a loose confederation of Anti-Communist forces that fought the Bolsheviks, also known as the Reds, in the Russian Civil War (1917–1922/3) and, to a lesser extent, continued operating as militarized associations both outside and within Russian borders until roughly the Second World War.
Wikimapia is a privately owned open-content collaborative mapping project, that utilizes an interactive "clickable" web map with a geographically-referenced wiki system, with the aim to mark and describe all geographical objects in the world.
The Wild Fields (Дике Поле Dyke Pole, Дикое Поле, Dikoye Polye, Dzikie pola, Dykra, Loca deserta, sive campi deserti inhabitati, also translated as "the Wilderness") is a historical term used in the Polish–Lithuanian documents of the 16th to 18th centuries to refer to the Pontic steppe of Ukraine, located north of the Black Sea and Azov Sea.
William Melville (25 April 1850 – 1 February 1918) was an Irish law enforcement officer and the first chief of the British Secret Service Bureau.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yad Vashem (יָד וַשֵׁם; literally, "a monument and a name") is Israel's official memorial to the victims of the Holocaust.
Yakov Zheleznyak (born 10 April 1941) is a former Soviet sport shooter and Olympic champion.
Yakov Naumovich Pokhis (Яков Наумович Похис; born 24 January 1951), better known as Yakov Smirnoff, is a Soviet-born Ukrainian-American comedian, actor and writer.
Yakov Izrailevich Zak (Яків Ізраїлович Зак), (Яков Израилевич Зак), Jiakov Israilevič Sak; Odessa, – Moscow, 28 June 1976) was a Soviet pianist and teacher of Jewish extraction. Born in Odessa, Zak studied piano at the Odessa Conservatory with Maria Starkhova, took classes on special harmony with Mykola Vilinsky, and later studied with Heinrich Neuhaus in Moscow, graduating in 1935. Having made his debut in 1935, he rose to prominence when he won First Prize and the Mazurka Prize at the International Frederick Chopin Piano Competition in 1937. From 1935 Zak taught at the Moscow Conservatory, becoming a professor in 1947 and being granted a chair in 1965. His pupils include Irina Zaritskaya, Nikolai Petrov, Evgeny Mogilevsky, Lubov Timofeyeva, Valery Afanassiev, Ludmila Knezkova-Hussey and Youri Egorov. In 1966 Yakov Zak was made People's Artist of the USSR.
Yedisan (also Jedisan or Edisan) is a historical territory of the northern coast of Black Sea that appeared sometime in the 17th and 18th centuries as part of the Ottoman Silistra (see Silistra Eyalet) and was named after one of Nogai Hordes.
Yerevan (Երևան, sometimes spelled Erevan) is the capital and largest city of Armenia as well as one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.
Yevhen Valentinovich Lapinsky, also Yevgeny Lapinsky, (Євген Валентинович Лапинський, 23 March 1942 – 29 September 1999) was an Ukrainian former volleyball player who competed for the Soviet Union in the 1968 Summer Olympics and in the 1972 Summer Olympics.
Yiddish theatre consists of plays written and performed primarily by Jews in Yiddish, the language of the Central European Ashkenazi Jewish community.
, literally "Port to the side" or "Beside the port", is the second largest city in Japan by population, after Tokyo, and the most populous municipality of Japan.
Yulia Ryabchinskaya (21 January 1947 - 13 January 1973) was a canoeist from Ukraine and Olympic champion.
Yuriy Bilonoh (Юрій Білоног, also romanized as Yuriy Bilonog; born March 9, 1974) is a Ukrainian shot putter.
Yury Karlovich Olesha (Ю́рий Ка́рлович Оле́ша, – May 10, 1960) was a Russian and Soviet novelist.
Yuzhne (Ю́жне, formerly: Южний, Yuzhny, translated as "southern" n. adj.) is a port city in Odessa Oblast (province) of south-western Ukraine.
Zakhar Bron (Заха́р Ну́химович Брон; born 17 December 1947, in Oral, Kazakhstan) is a Russian violinist and violin pedagogue of Jewish descent.
Ze'ev Jabotinsky, MBE (זאב ז'בוטינסקי, Ze'ev Zhabotinski; זאב זשאבאטינסקי; born Vladimir Yevgenyevich Zhabotinsky, Влади́мир Евге́ньевич Жаботи́нский; 5 (17) October 1880, Odessa – 4 August 1940, Hunter, New York), was a Russian Jewish Revisionist Zionist leader, author, poet, orator, soldier and founder of the Jewish Self-Defense Organization in Odessa.
Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת Tsiyyonut after Zion) is the national movement of the Jewish people that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel (roughly corresponding to Canaan, the Holy Land, or the region of Palestine).
The Odessa massacre is the name given to the mass murder of Jewish population of Odessa and surrounding towns in the Transnistria Governorate during the autumn of 1941 and winter of 1942 while under Romanian control.
The 1992 Summer Olympic Games (Spanish: Juegos Olímpicos de Verano de 1992; Catalan: Jocs Olímpics d'estiu de 1992), officially known as the Games of the XXV Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event celebrated in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain in 1992.
Clashes between Euromaidan and anti-Maidan demonstrators erupted in the southern Ukrainian port city of Odessa during January 2014, during the lead-up to the late February revolution.
From the end of February 2014, demonstrations by pro-Russian and anti-government groups took place in major cities across the eastern and southern regions of Ukraine, in the aftermath of the Euromaidan movement and the 2014 Ukrainian revolution.
Chadzibejus, Chadžibėjus, City of Odessa, Eni-Dunia, Hacibey, History of Odessa, Odesa, Odesa, Ukraine, Odessa City Council, Odessa, Russia, Odessa, USSR, Odessa, Ukraine, Odessa, Ukrainian SSR, Sister cities of Odessa, UN/LOCODE:UAODS, Одеса, Одесса.