238 relations: Adhesive, Adsorption, Air pollution, Al-Balqa` Applied University, Algae, Alkene, Alum, Aluminium oxide, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Amman, Ammonia, Ammonium sulfate, API gravity, Argonne National Laboratory, Asphalt, Athabasca oil sands, Attarat Power Plant, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Autun, Bakken Formation, Basidiolichen, Biodegradation, Biomass, Brazil, Bureau of Land Management, Calcite, Cannel coal, Carbon, Carbon black, Carbon capture and storage, Carbon dioxide, Carbon disulfide, Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, Carbonate, Carbonate minerals, Celtic Britons, Cement, China University of Petroleum, Chlorite, Clay, Coal liquefaction, Cogeneration, Colony Shale Oil Project, Colorado, Colorado School of Mines, Combustibility and flammability, Combustion, Company, Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985, ..., Core Research Center, CRC Press, Deposition (geology), Deseret News, Diesel fuel, Distillation, District heating, Dolomite, Eagle Ford Group, Ecoregion, Egypt, Electricity generation, Elsevier, Encarta, Energy Information Administration, Energy Policy Act of 2005, Energy returned on energy invested, Environmental impact of the oil shale industry, Environmental impact statement, Environmentalism, Erosion, Estonia, ExxonMobil, Feldspar, Fertilizer, Fischer assay, Fossil, Fossil fuel power station, Fuel, Fushun process, Futures contract, Galoter process, Gasoline, Geological Society of London, Geoscientist (magazine), Germany, Globes, Golden, Colorado, Government Accountability Office, Granularity, Green River Formation, Greenhouse gas, Greenpeace, Groundwater pollution, Gulf Publishing Company, Herbaceous plant, Humic acid, Hydrocarbon, Hydrodesulfurization, Hydrogen, Illite, In situ, Industrial Revolution, International Energy Agency, Iron, Iron Age, Israel, Jet fuel, Jordan, Kerogen, Kerosene, Kiviter process, Kukersite, Lake, Land use, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Maturity (geology), Mercury (element), Messel pit, Mineral wool, Mitigation of peak oil, Molybdenum, Mongolia, Nahcolite, Natural gas, Natural Resources Defense Council, Negev, Nickel, Niobrara Formation, Nitrogen, Ocean, OECD, Oil & Gas Journal, Oil in place, Oil refinery, Oil reserves, Oil sands, Oil Shale (journal), Oil shale gas, Oil shale in Estonia, Open-pit mining, Organic compound, Organic-rich sedimentary rocks, Oxygen, Parachute, Colorado, Paris, Particulates, Peak oil, PennWell, Petrography, Petroleum, Petroleum reservoir, Petrology, Petrosix, Phenols, Picoline, Pierre Shale, Plant cuticle, Pollen, Power station, Pyridine, Pyrite, Pyrolysis, Quartz, Queensland, Queensland Energy Resources, Quinoline, RAND Corporation, Redox, Resin, Retort, Romania, Ronald Reagan, Room and pillar mining, Royal Dutch Shell, Russia, San Francisco Chronicle, Sapropel, Science (journal), Sedimentary rock, Shale, Shale gas, Shale oil, Shell in situ conversion process, Silicon dioxide, Sillamäe, Sodium carbonate, Solubility, Spore, Steam turbine, Stuart Oil Shale Project, Sulfur, Surface mining, Sweden, Synthetic crude, Synthetic Liquid Fuels Program, Tallinn University of Technology, Tanning (leather), Tasmanite, The New Yorker, Thermal decomposition, Tight oil, Ton, Torbanite, Unconventional oil, Underground mining (soft rock), United States, United States Department of Energy, United States Department of the Interior, United States dollar, United States Environmental Protection Agency, United States Geological Survey, United States House of Representatives, University of Kentucky, University of Southampton, University of Wollongong, Upgrader, Uranium, Utah, Vanadium, Vapor, Viru Keemia Grupp, Waste management, Water pollution, Water resources, Watt, West Texas Intermediate, Weymouth, Dorset, World energy consumption, World Energy Council, World Heritage site, World War I, World War II, Wyoming, Yield (chemistry), 1973 oil crisis, 1980s oil glut, 2,6-Lutidine. Expand index (188 more) » « Shrink index
An adhesive, also known as glue, cement, mucilage, or paste, is any substance applied to one surface, or both surfaces, of two separate items that binds them together and resists their separation.
Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions or molecules from a gas, liquid or dissolved solid to a surface.
Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.
Al-Balqa' Applied University (BAU) (Arabic جامعة البلقاء التطبيقية) is a government-supported university located in Salt, Jordan, was founded in 1997, a distinctive state university in the field of Bachelor and associate degree Applied Education, at the capacity of more than 21,000 student distributed into 10,000 at the bachelor's degree program and 11,000 at the associate degree program.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.
An alum is a type of chemical compound, usually a hydrated double sulfate salt of aluminium with the general formula, where X is a monovalent cation such as potassium or ammonium.
Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.
The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, and supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity.
The American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) is a professional organization for chemical engineers.
Amman (عمّان) is the capital and most populous city of Jordan, and the country's economic, political and cultural centre.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Ammonium sulfate (American English and international scientific usage; ammonium sulphate in British English); (NH4)2SO4, is an inorganic salt with a number of commercial uses.
The American Petroleum Institute gravity, or API gravity, is a measure of how heavy or light a petroleum liquid is compared to water: if its API gravity is greater than 10, it is lighter and floats on water; if less than 10, it is heavier and sinks.
Argonne National Laboratory is a science and engineering research national laboratory operated by the University of Chicago Argonne LLC for the United States Department of Energy located near Lemont, Illinois, outside Chicago.
Asphalt, also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.
The Athabasca oil sands (or tar sands) are large deposits of bitumen or extremely heavy crude oil, located in northeastern Alberta, Canada – roughly centred on the boomtown of Fort McMurray.
Attarat Power Plant is a planned oil shale-fueled power plant in the Attarat Um Ghudran area in Jordan.
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) founded in 1929 is Australia's national broadcaster, funded by the Australian Federal Government but specifically independent of Government and politics in the Commonwealth.
Autun is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department, France.
The Bakken Formation is a rock unit from the Late Devonian to Early Mississippian age occupying about of the subsurface of the Williston Basin, underlying parts of Montana, North Dakota, Saskatchewan and Manitoba.
Basidiolichens are lichenized members of the Basidiomycota, a much smaller group of lichens than the far more common ascolichens in the Ascomycota.
Biodegradation is the disintegration of materials by bacteria, fungi, or other biological means.
Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is an agency within the United States Department of the Interior that administers more than of public lands in the United States which constitutes one-eighth of the landmass of the country.
Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
Cannel coal or candle coal, is a type of bituminous coal, also classified as terrestrial type oil shale.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon black (subtypes are acetylene black, channel black, furnace black, lamp black and thermal black) is a material produced by the incomplete combustion of heavy petroleum products such as FCC tar, coal tar, ethylene cracking tar, with the addition of a small amount of vegetable oil.
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) (or carbon capture and sequestration or carbon control and sequestration) is the process of capturing waste carbon dioxide from large point sources, such as fossil fuel power plants, transporting it to a storage site, and depositing it where it will not enter the atmosphere, normally an underground geological formation.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon disulfide is a colorless volatile liquid with the formula CS2.
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, carbon fiber reinforced plastic or carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic (CFRP, CRP, CFRTP or often simply carbon fiber, carbon composite or even carbon), is an extremely strong and light fiber-reinforced plastic which contains carbon fibers.
In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of.
Carbonate minerals are those minerals containing the carbonate ion, CO32−.
The Britons, also known as Celtic Britons or Ancient Britons, were Celtic people who inhabited Great Britain from the British Iron Age into the Middle Ages, at which point their culture and language diverged into the modern Welsh, Cornish and Bretons (among others).
A cement is a binder, a substance used for construction that sets, hardens and adheres to other materials, binding them together.
The China University of Petroleum is a university in China.
The chlorite ion, or chlorine dioxide anion, is.
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.
Coal liquefaction is a process of converting coal into liquid hydrocarbons: liquid fuels and petrochemicals.
Cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) is the use of a heat engine or power station to generate electricity and useful heat at the same time.
Colony Shale Oil Project was an oil shale development project at the Piceance Basin near Parachute Creek, Colorado.
Colorado is a state of the United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.
Colorado School of Mines, also referred to as "Mines", is a public teaching and research university in Golden, Colorado, devoted to engineering and applied science, with special expertise in the development and stewardship of the Earth's natural resources.
Flammable materials are those that ignite more easily than other materials, whereas those that are harder to ignite or burn less vigorously are combustible.
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
A company, abbreviated as co., is a legal entity made up of an association of people for carrying on a commercial or industrial enterprise.
The Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985 (or COBRA) is a law passed by the U.S. Congress on a reconciliation basis and signed by President Ronald Reagan that, among other things, mandates an insurance program which gives some employees the ability to continue health insurance coverage after leaving employment.
The Core Research Center is a facility run by the United States Geological Survey, located in "F" bay in building 810 on the Denver Federal Center campus.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
Deposition is the geological process in which sediments, soil and rocks are added to a landform or land mass.
The Deseret News is a newspaper published in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States.
Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.
Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.
District heating (also known as heat networks or teleheating) is a system for distributing heat generated in a centralized location for residential and commercial heating requirements such as space heating and water heating.
Dolomite is an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally The term is also used for a sedimentary carbonate rock composed mostly of the mineral dolomite.
The Eagle Ford Group (also called the Eagle Ford Shale) is a sedimentary rock formation deposited during the Cenomanian and Turonian ages of the Late Cretaceous over much of the modern-day state of Texas.
An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy.
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
Microsoft Encarta was a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation from 1993 to 2009.
The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System responsible for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, and public understanding of energy and its interaction with the economy and the environment.
The Energy Policy Act of 2005 is a bill passed by the United States Congress on July 29, 2005, and signed into law by President George W. Bush on August 8, 2005, at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico.
In physics, energy economics, and ecological energetics, energy returned on energy invested (EROEI or ERoEI); or energy return on investment (EROI), is the ratio of the amount of usable energy (the exergy) delivered from a particular energy resource to the amount of exergy used to obtain that energy resource.
Environmental impact of the oil shale industry includes the consideration of issues such as land use, waste management, and water and air pollution caused by the extraction and processing of oil shale.
An environmental impact statement (EIS), under United States environmental law, is a document required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for certain actions "significantly affecting the quality of the human environment".
Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad philosophy, ideology, and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the impact of changes to the environment on humans, animals, plants and non-living matter.
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
Exxon Mobil Corporation, doing business as ExxonMobil, is an American multinational oil and gas corporation headquartered in Irving, Texas.
Feldspars (KAlSi3O8 – NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8) are a group of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals that make up about 41% of the Earth's continental crust by weight.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
The Fischer assay is a standardized laboratory test for determining the oil yield from oil shale to be expected from a conventional shale oil extraction.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
A fossil fuel power station is a power station which burns a fossil fuel such as coal, natural gas, or petroleum to produce electricity.
A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work.
The Fushun process is an above-ground retorting technology for shale oil extraction.
In finance, a futures contract (more colloquially, futures) is a standardized forward contract, a legal agreement to buy or sell something at a predetermined price at a specified time in the future.
The Galoter process (also known as TSK, UTT, or SHC; its newest modifications are called Enefit and Petroter) is a shale oil extraction technology for a production of shale oil, a type of synthetic crude oil.
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
The Geological Society of London, known commonly as the Geological Society, is a learned society based in the United Kingdom.
Geoscientist is a monthly magazine produced for the Fellowship of the Geological Society of London.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Globes (גלובס) is a Hebrew-language daily evening financial newspaper, the largest and the oldest of its kind in Israel.
Golden is the Home Rule Municipality that is the county seat of Jefferson County, Colorado, United States.
The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is a legislative branch government agency that provides auditing, evaluation, and investigative services for the United States Congress.
Granularity (also called graininess), the condition of existing in grains or granules, refers to the extent to which a material or system is composed of distinguishable pieces or grains.
The Green River Formation is an Eocene geologic formation that records the sedimentation in a group of intermountain lakes in three basins along the present-day Green River in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
Greenpeace is a non-governmental environmental organization with offices in over 39 countries and with an international coordinating body in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Groundwater pollution (also called groundwater contamination) occurs when pollutants are released to the ground and make their way down into groundwater.
Gulf Publishing Company is an international publishing and events business dedicated to the hydrocarbon energy sector.
Herbaceous plants (in botanical use frequently simply herbs) are plants that have no persistent woody stem above ground.
Humic acids are the result of a severe chemical extraction from the soil organic matter, and recently their natural existence was jeopardized, since it is a product of the chemical procedure.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) is a catalytic chemical process widely used to remove sulfur (S) from natural gas and from refined petroleum products, such as gasoline or petrol, jet fuel, kerosene, diesel fuel, and fuel oils.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Illite is a group of closely related non-expanding clay minerals.
In situ (often not italicized in English) is a Latin phrase that translates literally to "on site" or "in position".
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
The International Energy Agency (IEA) (Agence internationale de l'énergie) is a Paris-based autonomous intergovernmental organization established in the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1974 in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Jet fuel, aviation turbine fuel (ATF), or avtur, is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in aircraft powered by gas-turbine engines.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Kerogen is a solid organic matter in sedimentary rocks.
Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum.
The Kiviter process is an above ground retorting technology for shale oil extraction.
Kukersite is a light-brown marine type oil shale of Ordovician age.
A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.
Land use involves the management and modification of natural environment or wilderness into built environment such as settlements and semi-natural habitats such as arable fields, pastures, and managed woods.
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is an American federal research facility in Livermore, California, United States, founded by the University of California, Berkeley in 1952.
In petroleum geology, the maturity of a rock is a measure of its state in terms of hydrocarbon generation.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
The Messel Pit (Grube Messel) is a disused quarry near the village of Messel, (Landkreis Darmstadt-Dieburg, Hesse) about southeast of Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
Mineral wool is a general name for fiber materials that are formed by spinning or drawing molten minerals (or "synthetic minerals" such as slag and ceramics).
The mitigation of peak oil is the attempt to delay the date and minimize the social and economic effects of peak oil by reducing the consumption of and reliance on petroleum.
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
Nahcolite is a soft, colourless or white carbonate mineral with the composition of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) also called thermokalite.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) is a United States-based, non-profit international environmental advocacy group, with its headquarters in New York City and offices in Washington, D.C.; San Francisco; Los Angeles; New Delhi, India; Chicago; Bozeman, Montana; and Beijing, China.
The Negev (הַנֶּגֶב, Tiberian vocalization:; النقب an-Naqab) is a desert and semidesert region of southern Israel.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
The Niobrara Formation, also called the Niobrara Chalk, is a geologic formation in North America that was deposited between 87 and 82 million years ago during the Coniacian, Santonian, and Campanian stages of the Late Cretaceous.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
The Oil & Gas Journal is a leading petroleum industry weekly publication with a worldwide coverage.
Oil in place (OIP) (not to be confused with original oil-in-place (OOIP)) is a specialist term in petroleum geology that refers to the total oil content of an oil reservoir.
Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.
Oil reserves denote the amount of crude oil that can be technically recovered at a cost that is financially feasible at the present price of oil.
Oil sands, also known as tar sands or crude bitumen, or more technically bituminous sands, are a type of unconventional petroleum deposit.
Oil Shale is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in petrology, especially concerning oil shale.
Oil shale gas (also: retort gas or retorting gas) is a synthetic non-condensable gas mixture (syngas) produced by oil shale thermal processing (pyrolysis).
Oil shale (põlevkivi) is a strategic energy resource that constitutes about 4% of Estonia's gross domestic product.
Open-pit, open-cast or open cut mining is a surface mining technique of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organic-rich sedimentary rocks are a specific type of sedimentary rock that contains significant amounts (>3%) of organic carbon.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
The Town of Parachute is a Statutory Town in Garfield County, Colorado, United States.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Atmospheric aerosol particles, also known as atmospheric particulate matter, particulate matter (PM), particulates, or suspended particulate matter (SPM) are microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in Earth's atmosphere.
Peak oil is the theorized point in time when the maximum rate of extraction of petroleum is reached, after which it is expected to enter terminal decline.
PennWell Corporation is a family-owned, diversified business-to-business ded-tree press publisher founded in 1910 and based in Tulsa, Oklahoma.
Petrography is a branch of petrology that focuses on detailed descriptions of rocks.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
A petroleum reservoir or oil and gas reservoir is a subsurface pool of hydrocarbons contained in porous or fractured rock formations.
Petrology (from the Greek πέτρος, pétros, "rock" and λόγος, lógos, "subject matter", see -logy) is the branch of geology that studies rocks and the conditions under which they form.
Petrosix is the world’s largest surface oil shale pyrolysis retort with an diameter vertical shaft kiln, operational since 1992.
In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (—OH) bonded directly to an aromatic hydrocarbon group.
Picoline refers to three different methylpyridine isomers, all with the chemical formula C6H7N and a molar mass of 93.13 g mol−1.
The Pierre Shale is a geologic formation or series in the Upper Cretaceous which occurs east of the Rocky Mountains in the Great Plains, from Pembina Valley in Canada to New Mexico.
A plant cuticle is a protecting film covering the epidermis of leaves, young shoots and other aerial plant organs without periderm.
Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells).
A power station, also referred to as a power plant or powerhouse and sometimes generating station or generating plant, is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power.
Pyridine is a basic heterocyclic organic compound with the chemical formula C5H5N.
The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, also known as fool's gold, is an iron sulfide with the chemical formula FeS2 (iron(II) disulfide).
Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of materials at elevated temperatures in an inert atmosphere.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
Queensland (abbreviated as Qld) is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia.
Queensland Energy Resources Limited (QERL) is an Australian oil shale mining and shale oil extraction company with the headquarters in Brisbane.
Quinoline is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound with the chemical formula C9H7N.
RAND Corporation ("Research ANd Development") is an American nonprofit global policy think tank created in 1948 by Douglas Aircraft Company to offer research and analysis to the United States Armed Forces.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
In polymer chemistry and materials science, resin is a "solid or highly viscous substance" of plant or synthetic origin that is typically convertible into polymers.
In a chemistry laboratory, a retort is a glassware device used for distillation or dry distillation of substances.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
Room and pillar (variant of breast stoping), also called pillar and stall, is a mining system in which the mined material is extracted across a horizontal plane, creating horizontal arrays of rooms and pillars.
Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known as Shell, is a British–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The San Francisco Chronicle is a newspaper serving primarily the San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California.
Sapropel (a contraction of ancient Greek words sapros and pelos, meaning putrefaction and mud, respectively) is a term used in marine geology to describe dark-coloured sediments that are rich in organic matter.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.
Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite.
Shale gas is natural gas that is found trapped within shale formations.
Shale oil is an unconventional oil produced from oil shale rock fragments by pyrolysis, hydrogenation, or thermal dissolution.
The Shell's in situ conversion process (Shell ICP) is an in situ shale oil extraction technology to convert kerogen in oil shale to shale oil.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Sillamäe (Силламяэ), known also in Germanized version as Sillamäggi or Sillamägi (Estonian for "Bridge Hill"), is a town in Ida-Viru County in the northern part of Estonia, on the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland.
Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals, and in the monohydrate form as crystal carbonate) is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions.
A steam turbine is a device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and uses it to do mechanical work on a rotating output shaft.
The Stuart Oil Shale Project is an oil shale development project in Yarwun near Gladstone, Queensland, Australia.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Surface mining, including strip mining, open-pit mining and mountaintop removal mining, is a broad category of mining in which soil and rock overlying the mineral deposit (the overburden) are removed, in contrast to underground mining, in which the overlying rock is left in place, and the mineral is removed through shafts or tunnels.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Synthetic crude is the output from a bitumen/extra heavy oil upgrader facility used in connection with oil sand production.
The Synthetic Liquid Fuels Program was a program run by the United States Bureau of Mines to create the technology to produce synthetic fuel from coal and oil shale.
Established in 1918, Tallinn University of Technology (TTÜ; Tallinna Tehnikaülikool, abbreviated TTÜ) is the only technical university in Estonia.
Tanned leather in Marrakesh Tanning is the process of treating skins and hides of animals to produce leather.
Tasmanite is a sedimentary rock type almost entirely consisting of the prasinophyte alga Tasmanites.
The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.
Thermal decomposition, or thermolysis, is a chemical decomposition caused by heat.
Tight oil (also known as shale oil, shale-hosted oil or light tight oil, abbreviated LTO) is light crude oil contained in petroleum-bearing formations of low permeability, often shale or tight sandstone.
The ton is a unit of measure.
Torbanite, also known as boghead coal, is a variety of fine-grained black oil shale.
Unconventional oil is petroleum produced or extracted using techniques other than the conventional (oil well) method.
Underground soft rock mining is a group of underground mining techniques used to extract coal, oil shale, potash and other minerals or geological materials from sedimentary ("soft") rocks.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.
The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is the United States federal executive department of the U.S. government responsible for the management and conservation of most federal lands and natural resources, and the administration of programs relating to Native Americans, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, territorial affairs, and insular areas of the United States.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.
The University of Kentucky (UK) is a public co-educational university in Lexington, Kentucky.
The University of Southampton (abbreviated as Soton in post-nominal letters) is a research university located in Southampton, England.
The University of Wollongong (abbreviated as UOW) is an Australian public research university located in the coastal city of Wollongong, New South Wales, approximately 80 kilometres south of Sydney.
An upgrader is a facility that upgrades bitumen (extra heavy oil) into synthetic crude oil.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Utah is a state in the western United States.
Vanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23.
In physics a vapor (American) or vapour (British and Canadian) is a substance in the gas phase at a temperature lower than its critical temperature,R.
Viru Keemia Grupp (VKG) is an Estonian holding group of oil shale industry, power generation, and public utility companies.
Waste management or waste disposal are all the activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal.
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities.
Water resources are natural resources of water that are potentially useful.
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.
West Texas Intermediate (WTI), also known as Texas light sweet, is a grade of crude oil used as a benchmark in oil pricing.
Weymouth is a seaside town in Dorset, England, situated on a sheltered bay at the mouth of the River Wey on the English Channel coast.
World energy consumption is the total energy used by the entire human civilization.
The World Energy Council is a global and inclusive forum for thought-leadership and tangible engagement with headquarters in London.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wyoming is a state in the mountain region of the western United States.
In chemistry, yield, also referred to as reaction yield, is the amount of product obtained in a chemical reaction.
The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo.
The 1980s oil glut was a serious surplus of crude oil caused by falling demand following the 1970s energy crisis.
2,6-Lutidine is a natural heterocyclic aromatic organic compound with the formula (CH3)2C5H3N.