155 relations: Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor, Alpha-1B adrenergic receptor, Alpha-2A adrenergic receptor, Alpha-2B adrenergic receptor, Alpha-2C adrenergic receptor, Amenorrhea, Amisulpride, Anticholinergic, Antiemetic, Antipsychotic, Anxiety, Area under the curve (pharmacokinetics), Aripiprazole, AstraZeneca, Atypical antipsychotic, Autism, Autopsy, Beta-1 adrenergic receptor, Beta-2 adrenergic receptor, Bipolar disorder, Bipolar I disorder, Blonanserin, Blood–brain barrier, Body mass index, Boxed warning, Brexpiprazole, British National Formulary, Carbamazepine, Cariprazine, Chemotherapy, Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, Ciprofloxacin, Clearance (pharmacology), Clozapine, Cmax (pharmacology), Committee on Safety of Medicines, Consumer protection, CYP1A2, CYP2D6, Cytochrome P450, Delusional parasitosis, Dementia, Dexamethasone, Diabetes mellitus, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diabetic ketoacidosis, Discovery (law), Dopamine, Dopamine receptor, Dopamine receptor D1, ..., Dopamine receptor D2, Dopamine receptor D3, Dopamine receptor D4, Dopamine receptor D5, Dysarthria, Dyskinesia, Dystonia, Early intervention in psychosis, Eating disorder, Eli Lilly and Company, Erectile dysfunction, Extrapyramidal symptoms, Extrapyramidal system, First pass effect, Fluoxetine, Fluvoxamine, Food and Drug Administration, Galactorrhea, Generalized anxiety disorder, Generic drug, Glucuronosyltransferase, Gynecomastia, Haloperidol, Histamine H1 receptor, Histamine H2 receptor, Histamine H3 receptor, Histamine H4 receptor, Hyperglycemia, Icarus Project, Insulin resistance, Intramuscular injection, Jack B. Weinstein, James Gottstein, Lithium, Melperone, Metabolic syndrome, Misdemeanor, Monoamine oxidase inhibitor, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, National Institute of Mental Health, Neural tube defect, NMDA receptor, Off-label use, Opioid receptor, Oral administration, Orthostatic hypotension, P-glycoprotein, Palonosetron, Panic disorder, Paradoxical reaction, Perospirone, Perspiration, Pharmacodynamics, Placebo, Poison control center, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Probenecid, Prodrome, Psychomotor agitation, Quetiapine, Record sealing, Risperidone, Ritonavir, Schizophrenia, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Serotonin, Sigma-1 receptor, Sigma-2 receptor, Spina bifida, Statistical significance, Stroke, Stuttering, Suicidal ideation, Tachycardia, Tardive dyskinesia, The New York Times, The Times, Tourette syndrome, Trade name, Tricyclic antidepressant, Triglyceride, Typical antipsychotic, United States, Valproate, WebMD, Weight gain, 5-HT receptor, 5-HT1A receptor, 5-HT1B receptor, 5-HT1D receptor, 5-HT1E receptor, 5-HT1F receptor, 5-HT2A receptor, 5-HT2B receptor, 5-HT2C receptor, 5-HT3 receptor, 5-HT5A receptor, 5-HT6 receptor, 5-HT7 receptor. Expand index (105 more) » « Shrink index
The alpha-1A adrenergic receptor (α1A adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRA1A, formerly known also as the alpha-1C adrenergic receptor, is an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.
The alpha-1B adrenergic receptor (α1B adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRA1B, is an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.
The alpha-2A adrenergic receptor (α2A adrenoceptor), also known as ADRA2A, is an α2 adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.
The alpha-2B adrenergic receptor (α2B adrenoceptor), is a G-protein coupled receptor.
The alpha-2C adrenergic receptor (α2C adrenoceptor), also known as ADRA2C, is an alpha-2 adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.
Amenorrhoea is the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age.
Amisulpride, sold under the brand name Solian among others, is an antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia.
An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.
An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea.
Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
In the field of pharmacokinetics, the area under the curve (AUC) is the definite integral in a plot of drug concentration in blood plasma vs.
Aripiprazole, sold under the brand name Abilify among others, is an atypical antipsychotic. It is recommended and primarily used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Other uses include as an add-on treatment in major depressive disorder, tic disorders, and irritability associated with autism. According to a Cochrane review, evidence for the oral form in schizophrenia is not sufficient to determine effects on general functioning. Additionally, because many people dropped out of the medication trials before they were completed, the overall strength of the conclusions is low. Side effects include neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a movement disorder known as tardive dyskinesia, and high blood sugar in those with diabetes. In the elderly there is an increased risk of death. It is thus not recommended for use in those with psychosis due to dementia. It is pregnancy category C in the United States and category C in Australia, meaning there is possible evidence of harm to the fetus. It is not recommended for women who are breastfeeding. It is unclear whether it is safe or effective in people less than 18 years old. It is a partial dopamine agonist. Aripiprazole was developed by Otsuka in Japan. In the United States, Otsuka America markets it jointly with Bristol-Myers Squibb. From April 2013 to March 2014, sales of Abilify amounted to almost $6.9 billion.
AstraZeneca plc is an Anglo–Swedish multinational pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical company.
The atypical antipsychotics (AAP; also known as second generation antipsychotics (SGAs)) are a group of antipsychotic drugs (antipsychotic drugs in general are also known as major tranquilizers and neuroleptics, although the latter is usually reserved for the typical antipsychotics) used to treat psychiatric conditions.
Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by troubles with social interaction and communication and by restricted and repetitive behavior.
An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a highly specialized surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes.
The beta-1 adrenergic receptor (β1 adrenoceptor), also known as ADRB1, is a beta-adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.
The beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β2 adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRB2, is a cell membrane-spanning beta-adrenergic receptor that interacts with (binds) epinephrine, a hormone and neurotransmitter (ligand synonym, adrenaline) whose signaling, via a downstream L-type calcium channel interaction, mediates physiologic responses such as smooth muscle relaxation and bronchodilation.
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
Bipolar I disorder (BD-I; pronounced "type one bipolar disorder") is a bipolar spectrum disorder characterized by the occurrence of at least one manic episode, with or without mixed or psychotic features.
Blonanserin, sold under the brand name Lonasen, is a relatively new atypical antipsychotic (approved by PMDA in January 2008) commercialized by Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma in Japan and Korea for the treatment of schizophrenia.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
The body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet index is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of an individual.
In the United States, a boxed warning (sometimes "black box warning", colloquially) is a type of warning that appears on the package insert for certain prescription drugs, so called because the U.S. Food and Drug Administration specifies that it is formatted with a 'box' or border around the text.
Brexpiprazole, sold under the brand name Rexulti, is an atypical antipsychotic.
The British National Formulary (BNF) is a United Kingdom (UK) pharmaceutical reference book that contains a wide spectrum of information and advice on prescribing and pharmacology, along with specific facts and details about many medicines available on the UK National Health Service (NHS).
Carbamazepine (CBZ), sold under the tradename Tegretol, among others, is a medication used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain.
Cariprazine, sold under the brand names Vraylar in the United States and Reagila in Europe, is an atypical antipsychotic which is used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar mania.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a common side-effect of many cancer treatments.
Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.
In pharmacology, the clearance is a pharmacokinetic measurement of the volume of plasma from which a substance is completely removed per unit time; the usual units are mL/min.
Clozapine, sold under the brand name Clozaril among others, is an atypical antipsychotic medication.
Cmax is the maximum (or peak) serum concentration that a drug achieves in a specified compartment or test area of the body after the drug has been administrated and before the administration of a second dose.
The Committee on Safety of Medicines (CSM) was an independent advisory committee that advised the UK Licensing Authority on the quality, efficacy and safety of medicines.
In regulatory jurisdictions that provide for this (a list including most or all developed countries with free market economies) consumer protection is a group of laws and organizations designed to ensure the rights of consumers, as well as fair trade, competition, and accurate information in the marketplace.
Cytochrome P450 1A2 (abbreviated CYP1A2), a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body.
Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2D6 gene.
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
Delusional parasitosis, also known as delusional infestation or Ekbom's syndrome, is a delusional disorder in which individuals incorrectly believe they are infested with parasites, insects, or bugs, whereas in reality no such infestation is present.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
Dexamethasone is a type of corticosteroid medication.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus.
Discovery, in the law of the United States and other countries, is a pre-trial procedure in a lawsuit in which each party, through the law of civil procedure, can obtain evidence from the other party or parties by means of discovery devices such as a request for answers to interrogatories, request for production of documents, request for admissions and depositions.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Dopamine receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are prominent in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS).
Dopamine receptor D1, also known as DRD1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD1 gene.
Dopamine receptor D2, also known as D2R, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the DRD2 gene.
Dopamine receptor D3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD3 gene.
The dopamine receptor D4 is a dopamine D2-like G protein-coupled receptor encoded by the gene on chromosome 11 at 11p15.5.
Dopamine receptor D5, also known as D1BR, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD5 gene.
Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder resulting from neurological injury of the motor component of the motor-speech system and is characterized by poor articulation of phonemes.
Dyskinesia refers to a category of movement disorders that are characterized by involuntary muscle movements, including movements similar to tics or chorea and diminished voluntary movements.
Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder syndrome in which sustained or repetitive muscle contractions result in twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal fixed postures.
Early intervention in psychosis is a clinical approach to those experiencing symptoms of psychosis for the first time.
An eating disorder is a mental disorder defined by abnormal eating habits that negatively affect a person's physical or mental health.
Eli Lilly and Company is a global pharmaceutical company headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana, with offices in 18 countries.
Erectile dysfunction (ED), also known as impotence, is a type of sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual activity.
Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), also known as extrapyramidal side effects (EPSE), are drug-induced movement disorders that include acute and tardive symptoms.
In anatomy, the extrapyramidal system is a part of the motor system network causing involuntary actions.
The first pass effect (also known as first-pass metabolism or presystemic metabolism) is a phenomenon of drug metabolism whereby the concentration of a drug is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation.
Fluoxetine, also known by trade names Prozac and Sarafem, among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
Fluvoxamine, sold under the brand name Luvox among others, is a medication which is used primarily for the treatment of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), and is also used to treat major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders such as panic disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Galactorrhea (also spelled galactorrhoea) (galacto- + -rrhea) or lactorrhea (lacto- + -rrhea) is the spontaneous flow of milk from the breast, unassociated with childbirth or nursing.
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by excessive, uncontrollable and often irrational worry, that is, apprehensive expectation about events or activities.
A generic drug is a pharmaceutical drug that is equivalent to a brand-name product in dosage, strength, route of administration, quality, performance, and intended use, but does not carry the brand name.
Uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, UGT) is a cytosolic glycosyltransferase that catalyzes the transfer of the glucuronic acid component of UDP-glucuronic acid to a small hydrophobic molecule.
Gynecomastia is an endocrine system disorder in which a noncancerous increase in the size of male breast tissue occurs.
Haloperidol, marketed under the trade name Haldol among others, is a typical antipsychotic medication.
The H1 receptor is a histamine receptor belonging to the family of rhodopsin-like G-protein-coupled receptors.
H2 receptors are positively coupled to adenylate cyclase via Gs.
Histamine H3 receptors are expressed in the central nervous system and to a lesser extent the peripheral nervous system, where they act as autoreceptors in presynaptic histaminergic neurons, and also control histamine turnover by feedback inhibition of histamine synthesis and release.
The histamine H4 receptor is, like the other three histamine receptors, a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily.
Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar (also spelled hyperglycaemia or hyperglycæmia) is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma.
The Icarus Project is a media and activist endeavor broadly aligned to a Recovery approach, arguing that mental illness should be understood as an issue of social justice and that a person's mental state can improve through greater social support and collective liberation.
Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin.
Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into muscle.
Jack Bertrand Weinstein (born August 10, 1921) is a United States federal judge in the Eastern District of New York.
James Barry "Jim" Gottstein is an Alaska based lawyer who specializes in business matters and public land law, and is well known as an attorney advocate for people diagnosed with serious mental illness.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
Melperone (Bunil (PT), Buronil (AT, BE, CZ, DK, FL†, NL†, NO†, SE), Eunerpan (DE)) is an atypical antipsychotic of the butyrophenone chemical class, making it structurally related to the typical antipsychotic haloperidol.
Metabolic syndrome, sometimes known by other names, is a clustering of at least three of the five following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high serum triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels.
A misdemeanor (American English, spelled misdemeanour in British English) is any "lesser" criminal act in some common law legal systems.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that inhibit the activity of one or both monoamine oxidase enzymes: monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B).
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, or mAChRs, are acetylcholine receptors that form G protein-coupled receptor complexes in the cell membranes of certain neurons and other cells.
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1, also known as the cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 1, is a muscarinic receptor that in humans is encoded by the CHRM1 gene.
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2, also known as the cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2, is a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor that in humans is encoded by the CHRM2 gene.
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, also known as cholinergic/acetylcholine receptor M3, or the muscarinic 3, is a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor encoded by the human gene CHRM3.
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4, also known as the cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 4 (CHRM4), is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the CHRM4 gene.
The human muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5, encoded by the gene, is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily of integral membrane proteins.
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) is an executive non-departmental public body of the Department of Health in the United Kingdom, which publishes guidelines in four areas.
The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is one of 27 institutes and centers that make up the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a group of birth defects in which an opening in the spinal cord or brain remains from early in human development.
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells.
Off-label use is the use of pharmaceutical drugs for an unapproved indication or in an unapproved age group, dosage, or route of administration.
Opioid receptors are a group of inhibitory G protein-coupled receptors with opioids as ligands.
Orthostatic hypotension, also known as postural hypotension, occurs when a person's blood pressure falls when suddenly standing up from a lying or sitting position.
P-glycoprotein 1 (permeability glycoprotein, abbreviated as P-gp or Pgp) also known as multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) or ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 1 (ABCB1) or cluster of differentiation 243 (CD243) is an important protein of the cell membrane that pumps many foreign substances out of cells.
Palonosetron (INN, trade name Aloxi) is a 5-HT3 antagonist used in the prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV).
Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by reoccurring unexpected panic attacks.
A paradoxical reaction or paradoxical effect is an effect of medical treatment, usually a drug, opposite to the effect which would normally be expected.
Perospirone (Lullan) is an atypical antipsychotic of the azapirone family.
Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.
Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs).
A placebo is a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value.
A poison control center is a medical facility that is able to provide immediate, free, and expert treatment advice and assistance over the telephone in case of exposure to poisonous or hazardous substances.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.
Probenecid, also sold under the brandname Probalan, is a medication that increases uric acid excretion in the urine.
In medicine, a prodrome is an early sign or symptom (or set of signs and symptoms), which often indicate the onset of a disease before more diagnostically specific signs and symptoms develop.
Psychomotor agitation is a set of signs and symptoms that stem from mental tension and anxiety.
Quetiapine, marketed as Seroquel among other names, is an atypical antipsychotic used for the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder.
Record sealing is the practice of sealing or, in some cases, destroying court records that would otherwise be publicly accessible as public records.
Risperidone, sold under the trade name Risperdal among others, is an antipsychotic medication.
Ritonavir, sold under the trade name Norvir, is an antiretroviral medication used along with other medications to treat HIV/AIDS.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
The sigma-1 receptor (σ1R), one of two sigma receptor subtypes, is a chaperone protein at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that modulates calcium signaling through the IP3 receptor.
The sigma-2 receptor (σ2R) is a sigma receptor subtype that has been found highly expressed in malignant cancer cells, and is currently under investigation for its potential diagnostic and therapeutic uses.
Spina bifida is a birth defect where there is incomplete closing of the backbone and membranes around the spinal cord.
In statistical hypothesis testing, a result has statistical significance when it is very unlikely to have occurred given the null hypothesis.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Stuttering, also known as stammering, is a speech disorder in which the flow of speech is disrupted by involuntary repetitions and prolongations of sounds, syllables, words or phrases as well as involuntary silent pauses or blocks in which the person who stutters is unable to produce sounds. The term stuttering is most commonly associated with involuntary sound repetition, but it also encompasses the abnormal hesitation or pausing before speech, referred to by people who stutter as blocks, and the prolongation of certain sounds, usually vowels or semivowels. According to Watkins et al., stuttering is a disorder of "selection, initiation, and execution of motor sequences necessary for fluent speech production." For many people who stutter, repetition is the primary problem. The term "stuttering" covers a wide range of severity, encompassing barely perceptible impediments that are largely cosmetic to severe symptoms that effectively prevent oral communication. In the world, approximately four times as many men as women stutter, encompassing 70 million people worldwide, or about 1% of the world's population. The impact of stuttering on a person's functioning and emotional state can be severe. This may include fears of having to enunciate specific vowels or consonants, fears of being caught stuttering in social situations, self-imposed isolation, anxiety, stress, shame, being a possible target of bullying having to use word substitution and rearrange words in a sentence to hide stuttering, or a feeling of "loss of control" during speech. Stuttering is sometimes popularly seen as a symptom of anxiety, but there is actually no direct correlation in that direction (though as mentioned the inverse can be true, as social anxiety may actually develop in individuals as a result of their stuttering). Stuttering is generally not a problem with the physical production of speech sounds or putting thoughts into words. Acute nervousness and stress do not cause stuttering, but they can trigger stuttering in people who have the speech disorder, and living with a stigmatized disability can result in anxiety and high allostatic stress load (chronic nervousness and stress) that reduce the amount of acute stress necessary to trigger stuttering in any given person who stutters, exacerbating the problem in the manner of a positive feedback system; the name 'stuttered speech syndrome' has been proposed for this condition. Neither acute nor chronic stress, however, itself creates any predisposition to stuttering. The disorder is also variable, which means that in certain situations, such as talking on the telephone or in a large group, the stuttering might be more severe or less, depending on whether or not the stutterer is self-conscious about their stuttering. Stutterers often find that their stuttering fluctuates and that they have "good" days, "bad" days and "stutter-free" days. The times in which their stuttering fluctuates can be random. Although the exact etiology, or cause, of stuttering is unknown, both genetics and neurophysiology are thought to contribute. There are many treatments and speech therapy techniques available that may help decrease speech disfluency in some people who stutter to the point where an untrained ear cannot identify a problem; however, there is essentially no cure for the disorder at present. The severity of the person's stuttering would correspond to the amount of speech therapy needed to decrease disfluency. For severe stuttering, long-term therapy and hard work is required to decrease disfluency.
Suicidal ideation, also known as suicidal thoughts, is thinking about or having an unusual preoccupation with suicide.
Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disorder that results in involuntary, repetitive body movements.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
Tourette syndrome (TS or simply Tourette's) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic.
A trade name, trading name, or business name is a pseudonym frequently used by companies to operate under a name different from their registered, legal name.
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications that are used primarily as antidepressants.
A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).
Typical antipsychotics are a class of antipsychotic drugs first developed in the 1950s and used to treat psychosis (in particular, schizophrenia).
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Valproate (VPA), and its valproic acid, sodium valproate, and valproate semisodium forms, are medications primarily used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder and to prevent migraine headaches.
WebMD is an American corporation known primarily as an online publisher of news and information pertaining to human health and well-being.
Weight gain is an increase in body weight.
5-hydroxytryptamine receptors or 5-HT receptors, or serotonin receptors, are a group of G protein-coupled receptor and ligand-gated ion channels found in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
The serotonin 1A receptor (or 5-HT1A receptor) is a subtype of serotonin receptor (5-HT receptor) that binds the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1B also known as the 5-HT1B receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR1B gene.
5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 1D, also known as HTR1D, is a 5-HT receptor, but also denotes the human gene encoding it.
5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) 1E receptor (5-HT1E) is a highly expressed human G-protein coupled receptor that belongs to the 5-HT1 receptor family (Gi-coupled serotonin receptor).
5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 1F, also known as HTR1F is a 5-HT1 receptor protein and also denotes the human gene encoding it.
The mammalian 5-HT2A receptor is a subtype of the 5-HT2 receptor that belongs to the serotonin receptor family and is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR).
5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor 2B (5-HT2B) also known as serotonin receptor 2B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR2B gene.
The 5-HT2C receptor is a subtype of 5-HT receptor that binds the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
The 5-HT3 receptor belongs to the Cys-loop superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) and therefore differs structurally and functionally from all other 5-HT receptors (5-hydroxytryptamine, or serotonin) receptors which are G protein-coupled receptors.
5-Hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 5A, also known as HTR5A, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR5A gene.
The 5HT6 receptor is a subtype of 5HT receptor that binds the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT).
The 5-HT7 receptor is a member of the GPCR superfamily of cell surface receptors and is activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) The 5-HT7 receptor is coupled to Gs (stimulates the production of the intracellular signaling molecule cAMP) and is expressed in a variety of human tissues, particularly in the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, and in various blood vessels.
ATC code N05AH03, ATCvet code QN05AH03, Alonzap, Amulsin, Anzap, Anzatric, Anzorin, Apisco, Bloonis, C17H20N4S, Cyprexa, Emzypine, Exzapine, Lanzapine, Lanzek, Lapozan, Lazapix, Lonopex, Nykob, Olanazapine, Olanazepine, Olandix, Olanpax, Olansek, Olanzalet, Olanzapin, Olanzapine pamoate hydrate, Olanzepine, Olazapine, Olazax, Olfrex, Olipazix, Olpinat, Onzapin, Ozapex, Ozaprin, Parnassan, Prexolan, Ranofren, Rexapin, Solazin, Syprexa, Torolan, Velotab, Wranelon, Xoltiva, Xytrex, ZYPREX, Zalasta, Zalepin, Zanprex, Zapilux, Ziprexa, Zolafren, Zopridoxin, Zylanza, Zypadhera, Zyphadera, Zyprex, Zyprexa, Zyprexa Intramuscular, Zyprexa Zydis.