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Old English

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Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages. [1]

252 relations: Accusative case, Acute accent, Affricate consonant, Aldhelm, Alfred the Great, Alistair Campbell (academic), Allophone, Alveolar and postalveolar approximants, Alveolar consonant, An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, Analytic language, Angles, Anglic languages, Angling, Anglo-Frisian languages, Anglo-Norman language, Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Anglo-Saxon runes, Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain, Anglo-Saxons, Anno Domini, Approximant consonant, Ælfric of Eynsham, Æthelwold of Winchester, Back vowel, Bede, Beowulf, Brittonic languages, Cambridge University Press, Carolingian minuscule, Cædmon, Cædmon's Hymn, Celtic Christianity, Celtic language decline in England, Celtic languages, Christian Bernhard Tauchnitz, Christianisation of Anglo-Saxon England, Close vowel, Cnut the Great, Common Brittonic, Conjunction (grammar), Continuous and progressive aspects, Cornwall, Cumbria, Cumbric, Cynewulf, Danelaw, Dative case, Declension, Demonstrative, ..., Denmark, Dental and alveolar flaps, Dental consonant, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar lateral approximants, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar trills, Dependent clause, Determiner, Devon, Diacritic, Dialect, Dictionary of Old English, Digraph (orthography), Diphthong, Do-support, Donald Ringe, Double negative, Dual (grammatical number), E caudata, Earl, Early Modern English, Early Scots, Elder Futhark, England, England–Wales border, English grammar, English language, English orthography, English personal pronouns, English plurals, English possessive, Epic poetry, Eth, Exeter Book, Eyre & Spottiswoode, Fausto Cercignani, Finite verb, Fish hook, Fisherman, Fishing, Franks Casket, Frans Van Coetsem, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Future tense, Gemination, Genitive case, German language, Germanic languages, Germanic peoples, Germanic strong verb, Germanic weak verb, Glottal consonant, Go (verb), Grammatical aspect, Grammatical case, Grammatical conjugation, Grammatical gender, Grammatical mood, Grammatical number, Grammatical person, Grammatical tense, Great Britain, Harcourt (publisher), Heptarchy, Historical linguistics, Historical reenactment, History of the Scots language, Hrothgar, I-mutation, Imperative mood, Indefinite pronoun, Independent clause, Infinitive, Inflection, Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law, Instrumental case, Insular G, Insular script, International Phonetic Alphabet, Interrogative, Inversion (linguistics), J. R. R. Tolkien, John Richard Clark Hall, Jutes, Jutland, Kenning, Kentish dialect (Old English), Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Kent, Kingdom of Northumbria, Labial consonant, Langues d'oïl, Latin, Latin alphabet, Latin script, Lingua franca, Linguistic reconstruction, List of dialects of the English language, List of English words of Anglo-Saxon origin, List of generic forms in place names in Ireland and the United Kingdom, List of Germanic and Latinate equivalents in English, List of Wikipedias, Loanword, Locative case, Long s, Lord's Prayer, Lyfing (Archbishop of Canterbury), Macron (diacritic), Mercia, Mercian dialect, Mid vowel, Middle Ages, Middle English, Modern English, Modern Paganism, Mora (linguistics), Nasal consonant, Nasal vowel, Nominative case, Norman conquest of England, North Sea Germanic, Northumbrian dialect (Old English), Noun, Object (grammar), Old English grammar, Old English Latin alphabet, Old English literature, Old French, Old Frisian, Old Norse, Old Saxon, Open vowel, Otto Jespersen, Oxford University Press, Palatal consonant, Participle, Passive voice, Pastoral Care, Personal pronoun, Phone (phonetics), Phoneme, Phonemic orthography, Phonological history of English, Pilcrow, Pope Gregory I, Postalveolar consonant, Preposition and postposition, Pronoun, Pronunciation of English ⟨th⟩, Pronunciation of English ⟨wh⟩, Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Indo-European root, Ralph Elliott, Reich, Relative pronoun, River Tyne, Roman Britain, Roman conquest of Britain, Roundedness, Runes, Saxons, Scotland, Scots language, Shilling, Silent letter, Skjöldr, Sound change, Stanford University Press, Stop consonant, Subject (grammar), Subjunctive mood, Syllable, Syntax, Synthetic language, Thorkell the Tall, Thorn (letter), Thorn with stroke, Thurisaz, Tironian notes, Toponymy, Trill consonant, Uncial script, Uses of English verb forms, V2 word order, Velar consonant, Viking expansion, Vikings, Voice (phonetics), Vowel, Wales, Welsh language, Weregild, West Germanic languages, West Saxon dialect, Who (pronoun), Wiley-Blackwell, Winchester, Wolfram Euler, Word order, Wynn, Yogh, 9th century. Expand index (202 more) »

Accusative case

The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.

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Acute accent

The acute accent (´) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.

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Affricate consonant

An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).

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Aldhelm

Aldhelm (c. 63925 May 709), Abbot of Malmesbury Abbey, Bishop of Sherborne, Latin poet and scholar of Anglo-Saxon literature, was born before the middle of the 7th century.

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Alfred the Great

Alfred the Great (Ælfrēd, Ælfrǣd, "elf counsel" or "wise elf"; 849 – 26 October 899) was King of Wessex from 871 to 899.

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Alistair Campbell (academic)

Alistair Campbell (12 December 1907 – 5 February 1974) was a British academic who was Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon, University of Oxford, and Fellow of Pembroke College, Oxford, from October 1963 until his death.

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Allophone

In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.

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Alveolar and postalveolar approximants

The alveolar approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.

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Alveolar consonant

Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.

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An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary

An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary is a dictionary of Old English, a language that is also known as Anglo-Saxon.

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Analytic language

In linguistic typology, an analytic language is a language that primarily conveys relationships between words in sentences by way of helper words (particles, prepositions, etc.) and word order, as opposed to utilizing inflections (changing the form of a word to convey its role in the sentence).

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Angles

The Angles (Angli) were one of the main Germanic peoples who settled in Great Britain in the post-Roman period.

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Anglic languages

The Anglic languages (also called the English languages or Insular Germanic languages) are a group of linguistic varieties including Old English and the languages descended from it.

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Angling

Angling is a method of fishing by means of an "angle" (fish hook).

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Anglo-Frisian languages

The Anglo-Frisian languages are the West Germanic languages which include Anglic (or English) and Frisian.

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Anglo-Norman language

Anglo-Norman, also known as Anglo-Norman French, is a variety of the Norman language that was used in England and, to a lesser extent, elsewhere in the British Isles during the Anglo-Norman period.

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Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of annals in Old English chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons.

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Anglo-Saxon runes

Anglo-Saxon runes are runes used by the early Anglo-Saxons as an alphabet in their writing.

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Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain

The Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain describes the process which changed the language and culture of most of what became England from Romano-British to Germanic.

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Anglo-Saxons

The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.

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Anno Domini

The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.

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Approximant consonant

Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.

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Ælfric of Eynsham

Ælfric of Eynsham (Ælfrīc; Alfricus, Elphricus) was an English abbot, as well as a consummate, prolific writer in Old English of hagiography, homilies, biblical commentaries, and other genres.

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Æthelwold of Winchester

Æthelwold of Winchester (904/9 – 984) was Bishop of Winchester from 963 to 984 and one of the leaders of the tenth-century monastic reform movement in Anglo-Saxon England.

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Back vowel

A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.

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Bede

Bede (italic; 672/3 – 26 May 735), also known as Saint Bede, Venerable Bede, and Bede the Venerable (Bēda Venerābilis), was an English Benedictine monk at the monastery of St.

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Beowulf

Beowulf is an Old English epic story consisting of 3,182 alliterative lines.

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Brittonic languages

The Brittonic, Brythonic or British Celtic languages (ieithoedd Brythonaidd/Prydeinig; yethow brythonek/predennek; yezhoù predenek) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family; the other is Goidelic.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Carolingian minuscule

Carolingian minuscule or Caroline minuscule is a script which developed as a calligraphic standard in Europe so that the Latin alphabet could be easily recognized by the literate class from one region to another.

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Cædmon

Cædmon (fl. c. AD 657–684) is the earliest English (Northumbrian) poet whose name is known.

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Cædmon's Hymn

Cædmon's "Hymn" is a short Old English poem originally composed by Cædmon, an illiterate cow-herder who was able to sing in honour of God the Creator, using words that he had never heard before.

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Celtic Christianity

Celtic Christianity or Insular Christianity refers broadly to certain features of Christianity that were common, or held to be common, across the Celtic-speaking world during the Early Middle Ages.

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Celtic language decline in England

Celtic language-death in England refers primarily to the process by which speakers of Brittonic languages in what is now England switched to speaking English.

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Celtic languages

The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.

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Christian Bernhard Tauchnitz

Christian Bernhard Tauchnitz (August 25, 1816 – August 13, 1895) was a German publisher.

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Christianisation of Anglo-Saxon England

The Christianisation of Anglo-Saxon England was a process spanning the 7th century.

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Close vowel

A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.

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Cnut the Great

Cnut the GreatBolton, The Empire of Cnut the Great: Conquest and the Consolidation of Power in Northern Europe in the Early Eleventh Century (Leiden, 2009) (Cnut se Micela, Knútr inn ríki. Retrieved 21 January 2016. – 12 November 1035), also known as Canute—whose father was Sweyn Forkbeard (which gave him the patronym Sweynsson, Sveinsson)—was King of Denmark, England and Norway; together often referred to as the North Sea Empire.

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Common Brittonic

Common Brittonic was an ancient Celtic language spoken in Britain.

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Conjunction (grammar)

In grammar, a conjunction (abbreviated or) is a part of speech that connects words, phrases, or clauses that are called the conjuncts of the conjoining construction.

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Continuous and progressive aspects

The continuous and progressive aspects (abbreviated and) are grammatical aspects that express incomplete action ("to do") or state ("to be") in progress at a specific time: they are non-habitual, imperfective aspects.

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Cornwall

Cornwall (Kernow) is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom.

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Cumbria

Cumbria is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in North West England.

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Cumbric

Cumbric was a variety of the Common Brittonic language spoken during the Early Middle Ages in the Hen Ogledd or "Old North" in what is now Northern England and southern Lowland Scotland.

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Cynewulf

Cynewulf is one of twelve Old English poets known by name, and one of four whose work is known to survive today.

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Danelaw

The Danelaw (also known as the Danelagh; Dena lagu; Danelagen), as recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, is a historical name given to the part of England in which the laws of the Danes held sway and dominated those of the Anglo-Saxons.

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Dative case

The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".

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Declension

In linguistics, declension is the changing of the form of a word to express it with a non-standard meaning, by way of some inflection, that is by marking the word with some change in pronunciation or by other information.

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Demonstrative

Demonstratives (abbreviated) are words, such as this and that, used to indicate which entities are being referred to and to distinguish those entities from others.

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Denmark

Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.

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Dental and alveolar flaps

The alveolar tap or flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Dental consonant

A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.

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Dental, alveolar and postalveolar lateral approximants

The alveolar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.

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Dental, alveolar and postalveolar trills

The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages.

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Dependent clause

A dependent clause is a clause that provides a sentence element with additional information, but which cannot stand alone as a sentence.

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Determiner

A determiner, also called determinative (abbreviated), is a word, phrase, or affix that occurs together with a noun or noun phrase and serves to express the reference of that noun or noun phrase in the context.

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Devon

Devon, also known as Devonshire, which was formerly its common and official name, is a county of England, reaching from the Bristol Channel in the north to the English Channel in the south.

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Diacritic

A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.

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Dialect

The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.

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Dictionary of Old English

The Dictionary of Old English (DOE) is a dictionary of the Old English language, published by the Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Toronto, under the direction of Angus Cameron, Ashley Crandell Amos, and Antonette diPaolo Healey.

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Digraph (orthography)

A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.

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Diphthong

A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.

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Do-support

Do-support (or do-insertion), in English grammar, is the use of the auxiliary verb do, including its inflected forms does and did, to form negated clauses and questions as well as other constructions in which subject–auxiliary inversion is required.

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Donald Ringe

Donald "Don" Ringe is an American linguist and Indo-Europeanist.

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Double negative

A double negative is a grammatical construction occurring when two forms of negation are used in the same sentence.

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Dual (grammatical number)

Dual (abbreviated) is a grammatical number that some languages use in addition to singular and plural.

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E caudata

Part of a Latin book published in Rome in 1632. ''E caudata'' is used in the words '''Sacrę''', '''propagandę''', '''prædictę''', and '''grammaticę'''. Note that the spelling '''grammaticæ''', with ''æ'', is also used. The e caudata ("tailed e", from cauda "tail") is a modified form of the letter E that can be graphically represented as E with ogonek (ę) but has a distinct history of usage.

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Earl

An earl is a member of the nobility.

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Early Modern English

Early Modern English, Early New English (sometimes abbreviated to EModE, EMnE or EME) is the stage of the English language from the beginning of the Tudor period to the English Interregnum and Restoration, or from the transition from Middle English, in the late 15th century, to the transition to Modern English, in the mid-to-late 17th century.

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Early Scots

Early Scots was the emerging literary language of the Northern Middle English speaking parts of Scotland in the period before 1450.

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Elder Futhark

The Elder Futhark (also called Elder Fuþark, Older Futhark, Old Futhark or Germanic Futhark) is the oldest form of the runic alphabets.

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England

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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England–Wales border

The England–Wales border, sometimes the Wales–England border or the Anglo-Welsh border, is the border between England and Wales, two constituent countries of the United Kingdom.

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English grammar

English grammar is the way in which meanings are encoded into wordings in the English language.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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English orthography

English orthography is the system of writing conventions used to represent spoken English in written form that allows readers to connect spelling to sound to meaning.

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English personal pronouns

The personal pronouns in English take various forms according to number, person, case and natural gender.

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English plurals

English nouns are inflected for grammatical number, meaning that if they are of the countable type, they generally have different forms for singular and plural.

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English possessive

In English, possessive words or phrases exist for nouns and most pronouns, as well as some noun phrases.

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Epic poetry

An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.

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Eth

Eth (uppercase: Ð, lowercase: ð; also spelled edh or eð) is a letter used in Old English, Middle English, Icelandic, Faroese (in which it is called edd), and Elfdalian.

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Exeter Book

The Exeter Book, Exeter Cathedral Library MS 3501, also known as the Codex Exoniensis, is a tenth-century book or codex which is an anthology of Anglo-Saxon poetry.

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Eyre & Spottiswoode

Eyre & Spottiswoode, Ltd was the London-based printing firm that was the King's Printer, and subsequently, after April 1929, a publisher of the same name.

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Fausto Cercignani

Fausto Cercignani (born March 21, 1941) is an Italian scholar, essayist and poet.

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Finite verb

A finite verb is a form of a verb that has a subject (expressed or implied) and can function as the root of an independent clause; an independent clause can, in turn, stand alone as a complete sentence.

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Fish hook

A fish hook or fishhook is a device for catching fish either by impaling them in the mouth or, more rarely, by snagging the body of the fish.

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Fisherman

A fisherman or fisher is someone who captures fish and other animals from a body of water, or gathers shellfish.

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Fishing

Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish.

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Franks Casket

The Franks Casket (or the Auzon Casket) is a small Anglo-Saxon whale's bone (not "whalebone" in the sense of baleen) chest from the early 8th century, now in the British Museum.

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Frans Van Coetsem

Frans (Camille Cornelis) Van Coetsem (April 14, 1919 – February 11, 2002) was a Belgian (Flemish) linguist.

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Fricative consonant

Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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Front vowel

A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.

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Future tense

In grammar, a future tense (abbreviated) is a verb form that generally marks the event described by the verb as not having happened yet, but expected to happen in the future.

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Gemination

Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.

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Genitive case

In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Germanic languages

The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.

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Germanic peoples

The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.

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Germanic strong verb

In the Germanic languages, a strong verb is a verb that marks its past tense by means of changes to the stem vowel (ablaut).

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Germanic weak verb

In Germanic languages, weak verbs are by far the largest group of verbs, which are therefore often regarded as the norm (the regular verbs), but they are not historically the oldest or most original group.

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Glottal consonant

Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.

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Go (verb)

The verb go is an irregular verb in the English language (see English irregular verbs).

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Grammatical aspect

Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.

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Grammatical case

Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.

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Grammatical conjugation

In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (alteration of form according to rules of grammar).

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Grammatical gender

In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.

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Grammatical mood

In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.

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Grammatical number

In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").

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Grammatical person

Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person).

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Grammatical tense

In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.

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Great Britain

Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.

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Harcourt (publisher)

Harcourt was a United States publishing firm with a long history of publishing fiction and nonfiction for adults and children.

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Heptarchy

The Heptarchy is a collective name applied to the seven petty kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England from the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain in 5th century until their unification into the Kingdom of England in the early 10th century.

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Historical linguistics

Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time.

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Historical reenactment

Historical reenactment (or re-enactment) is an educational or entertainment activity in which people follow a plan to recreate aspects of a historical event or period.

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History of the Scots language

The history of the Scots language refers to how Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland developed into modern Scots.

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Hrothgar

Hrothgar (Hrōðgār; Hróarr) was a legendary Danish king living in the early 6th century.

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I-mutation

I-mutation (also known as umlaut, front mutation, i-umlaut, i/j-mutation or i/j-umlaut) is a type of sound change in which a back vowel is fronted or a front vowel is raised if the following syllable contains /i/, /ī/ or /j/ (a voiced palatal approximant, sometimes called yod, the sound of English in yes).

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Imperative mood

The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that forms a command or request.

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Indefinite pronoun

An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun that refers to non-specific beings, objects, or places.

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Independent clause

; An independent clause (or main clause) is a clause that can stand by itself as a simple sentence.

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Infinitive

Infinitive (abbreviated) is a grammatical term referring to certain verb forms existing in many languages, most often used as non-finite verbs.

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Inflection

In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.

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Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law

In historical linguistics, the Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law (also called the Anglo-Frisian or North Sea Germanic nasal spirant law) is a description of a phonological development that occurred in the Ingvaeonic dialects of the West Germanic languages.

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Instrumental case

The instrumental case (abbreviated or) is a grammatical case used to indicate that a noun is the instrument or means by or with which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action.

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Insular G

Insular G (font:Ᵹ ᵹ; image) is a form of the letter g used in Insular fonts somewhat resembling a tailed z or lowercase delta, used in Great Britain and Ireland.

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Insular script

Insular script was a medieval script system invented in Ireland that spread to Anglo-Saxon England and continental Europe under the influence of Irish Christianity.

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International Phonetic Alphabet

The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.

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Interrogative

Interrogative is a term used in grammar to refer to features that form questions.

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Inversion (linguistics)

In linguistics, inversion is any of several grammatical constructions where two expressions switch their canonical order of appearance, that is, they invert.

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J. R. R. Tolkien

John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, (Tolkien pronounced his surname, see his phonetic transcription published on the illustration in The Return of the Shadow: The History of The Lord of the Rings, Part One. Christopher Tolkien. London: Unwin Hyman, 1988. (The History of Middle-earth; 6). In General American the surname is also pronounced. This pronunciation no doubt arose by analogy with such words as toll and polka, or because speakers of General American realise as, while often hearing British as; thus or General American become the closest possible approximation to the Received Pronunciation for many American speakers. Wells, John. 1990. Longman pronunciation dictionary. Harlow: Longman, 3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English writer, poet, philologist, and university professor who is best known as the author of the classic high fantasy works The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, and The Silmarillion.

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John Richard Clark Hall

John Richard Clark Hall (1855 – 6 August 1931) was a scholar of Old English, notable for his work on Beowulf.

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Jutes

The Jutes, Iuti, or Iutæ were a Germanic people.

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Jutland

Jutland (Jylland; Jütland), also known as the Cimbric or Cimbrian Peninsula (Cimbricus Chersonesus; Den Kimbriske Halvø; Kimbrische Halbinsel), is a peninsula of Northern Europe that forms the continental portion of Denmark and part of northern Germany.

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Kenning

A kenning (Old Norse pronunciation:, Modern Icelandic pronunciation) is a type of circumlocution, in the form of a compound that employs figurative language in place of a more concrete single-word noun.

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Kentish dialect (Old English)

Kentish was a southern dialect of Old English spoken in the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Kent.

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Kingdom of England

The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.

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Kingdom of Kent

The Kingdom of the Kentish (Cantaware Rīce; Regnum Cantuariorum), today referred to as the Kingdom of Kent, was an early medieval kingdom in what is now South East England.

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Kingdom of Northumbria

The Kingdom of Northumbria (Norþanhymbra rīce) was a medieval Anglian kingdom in what is now northern England and south-east Scotland.

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Labial consonant

Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.

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Langues d'oïl

The langues d'oïl (French) or oïl languages (also in langues d'oui) are a dialect continuum that includes standard French and its closest autochthonous relatives historically spoken in the northern half of France, southern Belgium, and the Channel Islands.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Latin alphabet

The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.

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Latin script

Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.

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Lingua franca

A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.

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Linguistic reconstruction

Linguistic reconstruction is the practice of establishing the features of an unattested ancestor language of one or more given languages.

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List of dialects of the English language

This is an overview list of dialects of the English language.

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List of English words of Anglo-Saxon origin

Below is the list of English words of native origin, in other words, words inherited directly from the Anglo-Saxon, or Old English, stage of the language.

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List of generic forms in place names in Ireland and the United Kingdom

The study of place names is called toponymy; for a more detailed examination of this subject in relation to British place names, refer to Toponymy in Great Britain.

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List of Germanic and Latinate equivalents in English

This list contains Germanic elements of the English language which have a close corresponding Latinate form.

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List of Wikipedias

This is the list of the different language editions of Wikipedia; there are 301 Wikipedias of which 291 are active and 10 are not.

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Loanword

A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.

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Locative case

Locative (abbreviated) is a grammatical case which indicates a location.

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Long s

The long, medial, or descending s (ſ) is an archaic form of the lower case letter s. It replaced a single s, or the first in a double s, at the beginning or in the middle of a word (e.g. "ſinfulneſs" for "sinfulness" and "ſucceſsful" for "successful").

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Lord's Prayer

The Lord's Prayer (also called the Our Father, Pater Noster, or the Model Prayer) is a venerated Christian prayer which, according to the New Testament, Jesus taught as the way to pray: Two versions of this prayer are recorded in the gospels: a longer form within the Sermon on the Mount in the Gospel of Matthew, and a shorter form in the Gospel of Luke when "one of his disciples said to him, 'Lord, teach us to pray, as John taught his disciples.'" Lutheran theologian Harold Buls suggested that both were original, the Matthaen version spoken by Jesus early in his ministry in Galilee, and the Lucan version one year later, "very likely in Judea".

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Lyfing (Archbishop of Canterbury)

Lyfing (died 12 June 1020) was an Anglo-Saxon Bishop of Wells and Archbishop of Canterbury.

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Macron (diacritic)

A macron is a diacritical mark: it is a straight bar placed above a letter, usually a vowel.

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Mercia

Mercia (Miercna rīce) was one of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy.

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Mercian dialect

Mercian was a dialect spoken in the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Mercia (roughly speaking the Midlands of England, an area in which four kingdoms had been united under one monarchy).

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Mid vowel

A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Middle English

Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.

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Modern English

Modern English (sometimes New English or NE as opposed to Middle English and Old English) is the form of the English language spoken since the Great Vowel Shift in England, which began in the late 14th century and was completed in roughly 1550.

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Modern Paganism

Modern Paganism, also known as Contemporary Paganism and Neopaganism, is a collective term for new religious movements influenced by or claiming to be derived from the various historical pagan beliefs of pre-modern Europe, North Africa and the Near East.

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Mora (linguistics)

A mora (plural morae or moras; often symbolized μ) is a unit in phonology that determines syllable weight, which in some languages determines stress or timing.

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Nasal consonant

In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.

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Nasal vowel

A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the nose as well as the mouth, such as the French vowel.

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Nominative case

The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.

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Norman conquest of England

The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.

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North Sea Germanic

North Sea Germanic, also known as Ingvaeonic, is a postulated grouping of the northern West Germanic languages, consisting of Old Frisian, Old English and Old Saxon and their descendants.

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Northumbrian dialect (Old English)

Northumbrian was a dialect of Old English spoken in the Anglian Kingdom of Northumbria.

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Noun

A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.

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Object (grammar)

Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject.

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Old English grammar

The grammar of Old English is quite different from that of Modern English, predominantly by being much more inflected.

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Old English Latin alphabet

The Old English Latin alphabet—though it had no standard orthography—generally consisted of 24 letters, and was used for writing Old English from the 9th to the 12th centuries.

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Old English literature

Old English literature or Anglo-Saxon literature, encompasses literature written in Old English, in Anglo-Saxon England from the 7th century to the decades after the Norman Conquest of 1066.

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Old French

Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.

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Old Frisian

Old Frisian is a West Germanic language spoken between the 8th and 16th centuries in the area between the Rhine and Weser on the European North Sea coast.

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Old Norse

Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.

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Old Saxon

Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German, was a Germanic language and the earliest recorded form of Low German (spoken nowadays in Northern Germany, the northeastern Netherlands, southern Denmark, the Americas and parts of Eastern Europe).

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Open vowel

An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.

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Otto Jespersen

Jens Otto Harry Jespersen or Otto Jespersen (16 July 1860 – 30 April 1943) was a Danish linguist who specialized in the grammar of the English language.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Palatal consonant

Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).

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Participle

A participle is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.

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Passive voice

Passive voice is a grammatical voice common in many languages.

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Pastoral Care

Liber Regulae Pastoralis or Regula Pastoralis (The Book of the Pastoral Rule, commonly known in English as Pastoral Care, a translation of the alternative Latin title Cura Pastoralis) is a treatise on the responsibilities of the clergy written by Pope Gregory I around the year 590, shortly after his papal inauguration.

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Personal pronoun

Personal pronouns are pronouns that are associated primarily with a particular grammatical person – first person (as I), second person (as you), or third person (as he, she, it, they).

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Phone (phonetics)

In phonetics and linguistics, a phone is any distinct speech sound or gesture, regardless of whether the exact sound is critical to the meanings of words.

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Phoneme

A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.

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Phonemic orthography

In linguistics, a phonemic orthography is an orthography (system for writing a language) in which the graphemes (written symbols) correspond to the phonemes (significant spoken sounds) of the language.

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Phonological history of English

The phonological history of English describes the changing phonology of the English language over time, starting from its roots in proto-Germanic to diverse changes in different dialects of modern English.

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Pilcrow

The pilcrow (¶), also called the paragraph mark, paragraph sign, paraph, alinea (Latin: a lineā, "off the line"), or blind P, is a typographical character for individual paragraphs.

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Pope Gregory I

Pope Saint Gregory I (Gregorius I; – 12 March 604), commonly known as Saint Gregory the Great, Gregory had come to be known as 'the Great' by the late ninth century, a title which is still applied to him.

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Postalveolar consonant

Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.

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Preposition and postposition

Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).

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Pronoun

In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (abbreviated) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.

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Pronunciation of English ⟨th⟩

In English, the digraph th represents in most cases one of two different phonemes: the voiced dental fricative (as in this) and the voiceless dental fricative (thing).

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Pronunciation of English ⟨wh⟩

The pronunciation of the wh in English has changed over time, and still varies today between different regions and accents.

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Proto-Germanic language

Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Proto-Indo-European root

The roots of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) are basic parts of words that carry a lexical meaning, so-called morphemes.

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Ralph Elliott

Ralph Warren Victor Elliott, AM (born Rudolf W. H. V. Ehrenberg; 14 August 1921 – 24 June 2012) was a German-born Australian professor of English, and a runologist.

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Reich

Reich is a German word literally meaning "realm".

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Relative pronoun

A relative pronoun marks a relative clause; it has the same referent in the main clause of a sentence that the relative modifies.

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River Tyne

The River Tyne is a river in North East England and its length (excluding tributaries) is.

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Roman Britain

Roman Britain (Britannia or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") was the area of the island of Great Britain that was governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 410 AD.

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Roman conquest of Britain

The Roman conquest of Britain was a gradual process, beginning effectively in AD 43 under Emperor Claudius, whose general Aulus Plautius served as first governor of Roman Britain (Britannia).

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Roundedness

In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel.

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Runes

Runes are the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialised purposes thereafter.

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Saxons

The Saxons (Saxones, Sachsen, Seaxe, Sahson, Sassen, Saksen) were a Germanic people whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, Saxonia) near the North Sea coast of what is now Germany.

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Scotland

Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

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Scots language

Scots is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots).

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Shilling

The shilling is a unit of currency formerly used in Austria, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, United States, and other British Commonwealth countries.

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Silent letter

In an alphabetic writing system, a silent letter is a letter that, in a particular word, does not correspond to any sound in the word's pronunciation.

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Skjöldr

Skjöldr (Latinized as Skioldus, sometimes Anglicized as Skjold or Skiold) was among the first legendary Danish kings.

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Sound change

Sound change includes any processes of language change that affect pronunciation (phonetic change) or sound system structures (phonological change).

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Stanford University Press

The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.

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Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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Subject (grammar)

The subject in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John was hit by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, in this case 'John'.

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Subjunctive mood

The subjunctive is a grammatical mood (that is, a way of speaking that allows people to express their attitude toward what they are saying) found in many languages.

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Syllable

A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.

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Syntax

In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.

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Synthetic language

In linguistic typology, a synthetic language is a language with a high morpheme-per-word ratio, as opposed to a low morpheme-per-word ratio in what is described as an analytic language.

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Thorkell the Tall

Thorkell the Tall, also known as Thorkell the High in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (Old Norse: Þorke(ti)ll inn hávi; Torkjell Høge; Swedish; Torkel Höge: Torkild den Høje), was a prominent member of the Jomsviking order and a notable lord.

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Thorn (letter)

Thorn or þorn (Þ, þ) is a letter in the Old English, Gothic, Old Norse and modern Icelandic alphabets, as well as some dialects of Middle English.

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Thorn with stroke

(minuscule: ꝥ), or Þ (thorn) with stroke was a scribal abbreviation common in the Middle Ages.

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Thurisaz

The rune is called Thurs (Old Norse Þurs "giant", from a reconstructed Common Germanic Þurisaz) in the Icelandic and Norwegian rune poems.

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Tironian notes

Tironian notes (notae Tironianae; or Tironian shorthand) is a system of shorthand invented by Tiro (94 4 BC), Marcus Tullius Cicero's slave and personal secretary, and later his freedman.

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Toponymy

Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.

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Trill consonant

In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.

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Uncial script

Uncial is a majusculeGlaister, Geoffrey Ashall.

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Uses of English verb forms

This article describes the uses of various verb forms in modern standard English language.

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V2 word order

In syntax, verb-second (V2) word order places the finite verb of a clause or sentence in second position with a single major constituent preceding it, which functions as the clause topic.

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Velar consonant

Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).

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Viking expansion

Viking expansion is the process by which the Vikings sailed most of the North Atlantic, reaching south to North Africa and east to Russia, Constantinople and the Middle East as looters, traders, colonists and mercenaries.

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Vikings

Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.

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Voice (phonetics)

Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).

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Vowel

A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.

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Wales

Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.

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Welsh language

Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.

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Weregild

Weregild (also spelled wergild, wergeld (in archaic/historical usage of English), weregeld, etc.), also known as man price, was a value placed on every being and piece of property, for example in the Frankish Salic Code.

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West Germanic languages

The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages).

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West Saxon dialect

West Saxon was one of four distinct dialects of Old English.

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Who (pronoun)

The pronoun who, in English, is an interrogative pronoun and a relative pronoun, used chiefly to refer to humans.

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Wiley-Blackwell

Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.

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Winchester

Winchester is a city and the county town of Hampshire, England.

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Wolfram Euler

Wolfram Euler (born 5 May 1950) is a German historical linguist and Indo-Europeanist.

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Word order

In linguistics, word order typology is the study of the order of the syntactic constituents of a language, and how different languages can employ different orders.

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Wynn

Ƿynn (Ƿ ƿ) (also spelled wen, ƿynn, or ƿen) is a letter of the Old English alphabet, where it is used to represent the sound.

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Yogh

The letter yogh (ȝogh) (Ȝ ȝ; Middle English: ȝogh) was used in Middle English and Older Scots, representing y and various velar phonemes.

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9th century

The 9th century is the period from 801 to 900 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era.

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AEnglisc, Anglian dialect, Anglian dialects, Anglian language, Anglisc, Anglo Saxon language, Anglo-Saxon Language, Anglo-Saxon language, Archaic English, Dialects of Old English, Eald Englisc, Eald englisc, Englisc, Englisc language, ISO 639:ang, Late Old English, OE language, Old Anglosaxon, Old English (ca. 450-1100), Old English Language, Old English dialects, Old English language, Old English language (ca. 450-1100), Old English orthography, Old english, Old english language, Old english vernacular, Ænglisc.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_English

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