225 relations: Aesop, Affricate consonant, Al-Andalus, Allophone, Angevin dialect, Angevin Empire, Anglo-Norman language, Anglo-Norman literature, Anglo-Normans, Anjou, Aquitaine, Areal feature, Ars nova, Article (grammar), Aspirated h, Assonance, Île-de-France, Back vowel, Bartsch's law, Belgium, Bernard Cerquiglini, Berrichon dialect, Bertrand de Bar-sur-Aube, Bibliothèque bleue, Breton lai, Breton language, Burgundian language (Oïl), Caen, Calais, Capetian dynasty, Central vowel, Champenois language, Channel Islands, Chanson de geste, Charlemagne, Charles Homer Haskins, Charles II of England, Charles the Bald, Chivalric romance, Classical Latin, Close vowel, Close-mid vowel, Conditional mood, Consonant voicing and devoicing, Council of Tours, Crusade cycle, Crusader states, Crusades, Decasyllable, Declension, ..., Dental consonant, Diaeresis (diacritic), Dijon, Diphthong, Doon de Mayence, Duchy, Duchy of Brittany, Duchy of Burgundy, Duchy of Lorraine, Duchy of Normandy, Early modern France, England, England in the High Middle Ages, English Channel, English language, English law, Epic poetry, Epigraphy, Fable, Fabliau, Final-obstruent devoicing, First Crusade, First declension, Fox, Frainc-Comtou dialect, France, France in the Middle Ages, Franco-Provençal language, Frankish language, Franks, French language, French Renaissance, French Renaissance literature, French Revolution, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Gallo language, Gallo-Italic languages, Gallo-Romance languages, Gaulish language, Geoffrey Chaucer, Girart de Roussillon, Girart de Vienne, Glottal consonant, Grammatical gender, Grammatical number, Guillaume de Machaut, Hagiography, Hiatus (linguistics), History of English, History of French, History of Ireland (1169–1536), House of Capet, Hugh Capet, Imperfect, Italian language, Italic languages, Jean Bodel, Kassel conversations, Kingdom of Cyprus, Kingdom of France, Kingdom of Jerusalem, Kingdom of Sicily, La Geste de Garin de Monglane, La Graufesenque, Labial consonant, Lai (poetic form), Laisse, Languages of France, Langues d'oïl, Late antiquity, Lateral consonant, Law French, Le Jeu d'Adam, Lenition, Liaison (French), Lille, List of literary cycles, Liturgical drama, Lord, Lorrain language, Lower Lorraine, Lyric poetry, Matter of Britain, Matter of France, Matter of Rome, Metaphony (Romance languages), Middle English, Middle French, Monophthong, Monophthongization, Motet, Mystery play, Namur, Nasal consonant, Nasal vowel, Nominative case, Norman conquest of England, Norman language, Normandy, Notre-Dame de Paris, Oaths of Strasbourg, Oblique case, Obstruent, Occitan language, Occitano-Romance languages, Old Dutch, Old Norman, Old Occitan, Old Spanish language, Open vowel, Open-mid vowel, Outremer, Palatal consonant, Palatalization (sound change), Philippe de Vitry, Phonological development, Picard language, Picardy, Pierre-Yves Lambert, Plautus, Pluperfect, Poitevin dialect, Poitiers, Portuguese language, Present tense, Preterite, Principality of Antioch, Provençal dialect, Provence, Regular and irregular verbs, Reichenau Glosses, Renaissance of the 12th century, Renaud de Montauban, Reynard, Rhyme, Roman de Fauvel, Roman de la Rose, Roman Gaul, Romance languages, Rondeau (forme fixe), Rouen, Saint Nicholas, Saint Stephen, Saintongeais dialect, Second declension, Sequence of Saint Eulalia, Simple past, Southern France, Spanish language, Spelling pronunciation, Stop consonant, Subjunctive mood, Syllable, Syllable weight, Territorial evolution of France, The Song of Roland, Third declension, Toulouse, Transphonologization, Trill consonant, Triphthong, Troubadour, Trouvère, Upper Burgundy, Velar consonant, Vowel breaking, Vulgar Latin, Wallonia, Walloon language, Welsh language, Western Roman Empire, Western Romance languages, William of Gellone, Ysopet. Expand index (175 more) » « Shrink index
Aesop (Αἴσωπος,; c. 620 – 564 BCE) was a Greek fabulist and storyteller credited with a number of fables now collectively known as Aesop's Fables.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
Angevin is the traditional langue d'oïl spoken in Anjou, a historic province in western France.
The Angevin Empire (L'Empire Plantagenêt) is a collective exonym referring to the possessions of the Angevin kings of England, who also held lands in France, during the 12th and 13th centuries.
Anglo-Norman, also known as Anglo-Norman French, is a variety of the Norman language that was used in England and, to a lesser extent, elsewhere in the British Isles during the Anglo-Norman period.
Anglo-Norman literature is literature composed in the Anglo-Norman language developed during the period 1066–1204 when the Duchy of Normandy and England were united in the Anglo-Norman realm.
The Anglo-Normans were the medieval ruling class in England, composed mainly of a combination of ethnic Anglo-Saxons, Normans and French, following the Norman conquest.
Anjou (Andegavia) is a historical province of France straddling the lower Loire River.
Aquitaine (Aquitània; Akitania; Poitevin-Saintongeais: Aguiéne), archaic Guyenne/Guienne (Occitan: Guiana) was a traditional region of France, and was an administrative region of France until 1 January 2016.
In linguistics, areal features are elements shared by languages or dialects in a geographic area, particularly when the languages are not descended from a common ancestor language.
Ars nova (Latin for new art)Fallows, David.
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.
In French spelling, aspirated "h" (French: "h" aspiré) is an initial silent letter that represents a hiatus at a word boundary, between the word's first vowel and the preceding word's last vowel.
Assonance is a resemblance in the sounds of words or syllables either between their vowels (e.g., meat, bean) or between their consonants (e.g., keep, cape).
Île-de-France ("Island of France"), also known as the région parisienne ("Parisian Region"), is one of the 18 regions of France and includes the city of Paris.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
In historical linguistics, Bartsch's law or the Bartsch effect (loi de Bartsch or effet de Bartsch) is the name of a sound change that took place in the early history of the langues d'oïl, for example in the development of Old French.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Bernard Cerquiglini (born 8 April 1947 in Lyon, France), is a French linguist.
Berrichon is an Oïl language very closely related to French or a dialect of it traditionally spoken in the historical area of the French province of Berry.
Bertrand de Bar-sur-Aube (i.e. Bertrand from Bar-sur-Aube) (end of the 12th century – early 13th centuryHasenohr, 170.) was an Old French poet from the Champagne region of France who wrote a number of chansons de geste.
Bibliothèque bleue ("blue library" in French) is a type of ephemera and popular literature published in Early Modern France (between and), comparable to the English chapbook and the German Volksbuch.
A Breton lai, also known as a narrative lay or simply a lay, is a form of medieval French and English romance literature.
Breton (brezhoneg or in Morbihan) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany.
The Burgundian language, also known by French names Bourguignon-morvandiau, Bourguignon, and Morvandiau, is an Oïl language spoken in Burgundy and particularly in the Morvan area of the region.
Caen (Norman: Kaem) is a commune in northwestern France.
Calais (Calés; Kales) is a city and major ferry port in northern France in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture.
The Capetian dynasty, also known as the House of France, is a dynasty of Frankish origin, founded by Hugh Capet.
A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Champenois (champaignat) is a Romance language of the langues d'oïl language family spoken by a minority of people in Champagne and Île-de-France provinces in France, as well as in a handful of towns in southern Belgium (chiefly the municipality of Vresse-sur-Semois).
The Channel Islands (Norman: Îles d'la Manche; French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche) are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy.
The chanson de geste, Old French for "song of heroic deeds" (from gesta: Latin: "deeds, actions accomplished"), is a medieval narrative, a type of epic poem that appears at the dawn of French literature.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
Charles Homer Haskins (December 21, 1870 – May 14, 1937) was a history professor at Harvard University.
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.
Charles the Bald (13 June 823 – 6 October 877) was the King of West Francia (843–877), King of Italy (875–877) and Holy Roman Emperor (875–877, as Charles II).
As a literary genre of high culture, romance or chivalric romance is a type of prose and verse narrative that was popular in the aristocratic circles of High Medieval and Early Modern Europe.
Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
A close-mid vowel (also mid-close vowel, high-mid vowel, mid-high vowel or half-close vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
The conditional mood (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood used to express a proposition whose validity is dependent on some condition, possibly counterfactual.
In phonology, voicing (or sonorization) is a sound change where a voiceless consonant becomes voiced due to the influence of its phonological environment; shift in the opposite direction is referred to as devoicing or desonorization.
In the medieval Roman Catholic church there were several Councils of Tours, that city being an old seat of Christianity, and considered fairly centrally located in France.
The Crusade cycle is an Old French cycle of chansons de geste concerning the First Crusade and its aftermath.
The Crusader states, also known as Outremer, were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal Christian states created by Western European crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and the Holy Land, and during the Northern Crusades in the eastern Baltic area.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
Decasyllable (Italian: decasillabo, French: décasyllabe, Serbian: "десетерац","deseterac") is a poetic meter of ten syllables used in poetic traditions of syllabic verse.
In linguistics, declension is the changing of the form of a word to express it with a non-standard meaning, by way of some inflection, that is by marking the word with some change in pronunciation or by other information.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
The diaeresis (plural: diaereses), also spelled diæresis or dieresis and also known as the tréma (also: trema) or the umlaut, is a diacritical mark that consists of two dots placed over a letter, usually a vowel.
Dijon is a city in eastern:France, capital of the Côte-d'Or département and of the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
Doon de Mayence was a fictional hero of the Old French chansons de geste, who gives his name to the third cycle of the Charlemagne romances dealing with the feudal revolts.
A duchy is a country, territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess.
The Duchy of Brittany (Breton: Dugelezh Breizh, French: Duché de Bretagne) was a medieval feudal state that existed between approximately 939 and 1547.
The Duchy of Burgundy (Ducatus Burgundiae; Duché de Bourgogne) emerged in the 9th century as one of the successors of the ancient Kingdom of the Burgundians, which after its conquest in 532 had formed a constituent part of the Frankish Empire.
The Duchy of Lorraine (Lorraine; Lothringen), originally Upper Lorraine, was a duchy now included in the larger present-day region of Lorraine in northeastern France.
The Duchy of Normandy grew out of the 911 Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between King Charles III of West Francia and Rollo, leader of the Vikings.
The Kingdom of France in the early modern period, from the Renaissance (circa 1500–1550) to the Revolution (1789–1804), was a monarchy ruled by the House of Bourbon (a Capetian cadet branch).
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
England in the High Middle Ages includes the history of England between the Norman Conquest in 1066 and the death of King John, considered by some to be the last of the Angevin kings of England, in 1216.
The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
English law is the common law legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly criminal law and civil law, each branch having its own courts and procedures.
An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.
Epigraphy (ἐπιγραφή, "inscription") is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers.
Fable is a literary genre: a succinct fictional story, in prose or verse, that features animals, legendary creatures, plants, inanimate objects, or forces of nature that are anthropomorphized (given human qualities, such as the ability to speak human language) and that illustrates or leads to a particular moral lesson (a "moral"), which may at the end be added explicitly as a pithy maxim or saying.
A fabliau (plural fabliaux) is a comic, often anonymous tale written by jongleurs in northeast France between ca.
Final-obstruent devoicing or terminal devoicing is a systematic phonological process occurring in languages such as Catalan, German, Dutch, Breton, Russian, Turkish, and Wolof.
The First Crusade (1095–1099) was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to recapture the Holy Land, called for by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095.
The first declension is a category of declension that consists of mostly feminine nouns in Latin and Ancient Greek with the defining feature of a long ā (analysed as either a part of the stem or a case-ending).
Foxes are small-to-medium-sized, omnivorous mammals belonging to several genera of the family Canidae.
Franc-Comtois (Frainc-Comtou), or Jurassien, is an Oïl language spoken in the Franche-Comté region of France and in the Canton of Jura and Bernese Jura in Switzerland.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The Kingdom of France in the Middle Ages (roughly, from the 9th century to the middle of the 15th century) was marked by the fragmentation of the Carolingian Empire and West Francia (843–987); the expansion of royal control by the House of Capet (987–1328), including their struggles with the virtually independent principalities (duchies and counties, such as the Norman and Angevin regions) that had developed following the Viking invasions and through the piecemeal dismantling of the Carolingian Empire and the creation and extension of administrative/state control (notably under Philip II Augustus and Louis IX) in the 13th century; and the rise of the House of Valois (1328–1589), including the protracted dynastic crisis of the Hundred Years' War with the Kingdom of England (1337–1453) compounded by the catastrophic Black Death epidemic (1348), which laid the seeds for a more centralized and expanded state in the early modern period and the creation of a sense of French identity.
Frankish (reconstructed Frankish: *italic), Old Franconian or Old Frankish was the West Germanic language spoken by the Franks between the 4th and 8th century.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The French Renaissance was the cultural and artistic movement in France between the 15th and early 17th centuries.
French Renaissance literature is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in French (Middle French) from the French invasion of Italy in 1494 to 1600, or roughly the period from the reign of Charles VIII of France to the ascension of Henry IV of France to the throne.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
Gallo is a regional language of France.
The Gallo-Italian, Gallo-Italic, Gallo-Cisalpine or simply Cisalpine languages constitute the majority of the Romance languages of northern Italy.
The Gallo-Romance branch of the Romance languages includes sensu stricto the French language, the Occitan language, and the Franco-Provençal language (Arpitan).
Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Europe as late as the Roman Empire.
Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1343 – 25 October 1400), known as the Father of English literature, is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages.
Girart de Roussillon, also called Girard, Gérard II, Gyrart de Vienne, and Girart de Fraite, (c. 810–877/879?) was a Burgundian chief who became Count of Paris in 837, and embraced the cause of Lothair I against Charles the Bald.
Girart de Vienne is a late twelfth-century (c.1180Hasenohr, 547-548.) Old French chanson de geste by Bertrand de Bar-sur-Aube.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
Guillaume de Machaut (sometimes spelled Machault; c. 1300 – April 1377) was a medieval French poet and composer.
A hagiography is a biography of a saint or an ecclesiastical leader.
In phonology, hiatus or diaeresis refers to two vowel sounds occurring in adjacent syllables, with no intervening consonant.
English is a West Germanic language that originated from Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Britain in the mid 5th to 7th centuries AD by Anglo-Saxon settlers from what is now northwest Germany, west Denmark and the Netherlands, displacing the Celtic languages that previously predominated.
French is a Romance language (meaning that it is descended primarily from Vulgar Latin) that evolved out of the Gallo-Romance spoken in northern France.
The history of Ireland from 1169–1536 covers the period from the arrival of the Cambro-Normans to the reign of Henry VIII of England, who made himself King of Ireland.
The House of Capet or the Direct Capetians (Capétiens directs, Maison capétienne), also called the House of France (la maison de France), or simply the Capets, ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328.
Hugh CapetCapet is a byname of uncertain meaning distinguishing him from his father Hugh the Great.
The imperfect (abbreviated) is a verb form, found in various languages, which combines past tense (reference to a past time) and imperfective aspect (reference to a continuing or repeated event or state).
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
The Italic languages are a subfamily of the Indo-European language family, originally spoken by Italic peoples.
Jean Bodel (c. 1165 – c. 1210), was an Old French poet who wrote a number of chansons de geste as well as many fabliaux.
Kassel conversations (in German: Kasseler Gespräche) is the conventional name of an early medieval text preserved in a manuscript from c. 810.
The Kingdom of Cyprus was a Crusader state that existed between 1192 and 1489.
The Kingdom of France (Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe.
The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was a crusader state established in the Southern Levant by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099 after the First Crusade.
The Kingdom of Sicily (Regnum Siciliae, Regno di Sicilia, Regnu di Sicilia, Regne de Sicília, Reino de Sicilia) was a state that existed in the south of the Italian peninsula and for a time Africa from its founding by Roger II in 1130 until 1816.
La Geste de Garin de Monglane is the second cycle of the three great cycles of chansons de geste created in the early days of the genre.
La Graufesenque is an archaeological site 2 km from Millau, Aveyron, France, at the confluence of the rivers Tarn and Dourbie.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
A lai (or lay lyrique, "lyric lay", to distinguish it from a lai breton) is a lyrical, narrative poem written in octosyllabic couplets that often deals with tales of adventure and romance.
A laisse is a type of stanza, of varying length, found in medieval French literature, specifically medieval French epic poetry (the chanson de geste), such as The Song of Roland.
Of the languages of France, the national language, French, is the only official language according to the second article of the French Constitution, and its standardized variant is by far the most widely spoken.
The langues d'oïl (French) or oïl languages (also in langues d'oui) are a dialect continuum that includes standard French and its closest autochthonous relatives historically spoken in the northern half of France, southern Belgium, and the Channel Islands.
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.
A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.
Law French is an archaic language originally based on Old Norman and Anglo-Norman, but increasingly influenced by Parisian French and, later, English.
Le Jeu d'Adam (Latin: Ordo representacionis Adae, English: The Play of Adam) is a twelfth-century liturgical drama written in the Anglo Norman dialect of Medieval French.
In linguistics, lenition is a kind of sound change that alters consonants, making them more sonorous.
Liaison is the pronunciation of a latent word-final consonant immediately before a following vowel sound.
Lille (Rijsel; Rysel) is a city at the northern tip of France, in French Flanders.
Literary cycles are groups of stories grouped around common figures, often (though not necessarily) based on mythical figures or loosely on historic ones.
Liturgical drama or religious drama, in its various Christian contexts, originates from the Mass itself, and usually presents a relatively complex ritual that includes theatrical elements.
Lord is an appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power over others acting like a master, a chief, or a ruler.
Lorrain is a dialect (often referred to as patois) spoken by a minority of people in Lorraine in France, small parts of Alsace and in Gaume in Belgium.
The Duchy of Lower Lorraine, or Lower Lotharingia (also referred to as Lothier or Lottier in titles), was a stem duchy established in 959, of the medieval Kingdom of Germany, which encompassed almost all of the modern Netherlands (including Friesland), central and eastern Belgium, Luxemburg, the northern part of the German Rhineland province and the eastern parts of France's Nord-Pas de Calais region.
Lyric poetry is a formal type of poetry which expresses personal emotions or feelings, typically spoken in the first person.
The Matter of Britain is the body of Medieval literature and legendary material associated with Great Britain, and sometimes Brittany, and the legendary kings and heroes associated with it, particularly King Arthur.
The Matter of France, also known as the Carolingian cycle, is a body of literature and legendary material associated with the history of France, in particular involving Charlemagne and his associates.
According to the medieval poet Jean Bodel, the Matter of Rome was the literary cycle made up of Greek and Roman mythology, together with episodes from the history of classical antiquity, focusing on military heroes like Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar.
In the Romance languages, metaphony was an early vowel mutation process that operated in all Romance languages to varying degrees, raising (or sometimes diphthongizing) certain stressed vowels in words with a final /i/ or /u/ or a directly following /j/.
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
Middle French (le moyen français) is a historical division of the French language that covers the period from the 14th to the early 17th centuries.
A monophthong (Greek monóphthongos from mónos "single" and phthóngos "sound") is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation.
Monophthongization is a sound change by which a diphthong becomes a monophthong, a type of vowel shift.
In western music, a motet is a mainly vocal musical composition, of highly diverse form and style, from the late medieval era to the present.
Mystery plays and miracle plays (they are distinguished as two different forms although the terms are often used interchangeably) are among the earliest formally developed plays in medieval Europe.
Namur (Dutch:, Nameur in Walloon) is a city and municipality in Wallonia, Belgium.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the nose as well as the mouth, such as the French vowel.
The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.
Notre-Dame de Paris (meaning "Our Lady of Paris"), also known as Notre-Dame Cathedral or simply Notre-Dame, is a medieval Catholic cathedral on the Île de la Cité in the fourth arrondissement of Paris, France.
The Oaths of Strasbourg (Sacramenta Argentariae; Les Serments de Strasbourg; Die Straßburger Eide) were mutual pledges of allegiance between Louis the German (†876), ruler of East Francia, and his half-brother Charles the Bald (†877), ruler of West Francia made on 12 February 842.
In grammar, an oblique (abbreviated; from casus obliquus) or objective case (abbr.) is a nominal case that is used when a noun phrase is the object of either a verb or a preposition.
An obstruent is a speech sound such as,, or that is formed by obstructing airflow.
Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
The Occitano-Romance or Gallo-Narbonnese (llengües occitanoromàniques, lengas occitanoromanicas) is a branch of the Romance language group that encompasses the Occitan language, the Catalan language, and the Aragonese language.
In linguistics, Old Dutch or Old Low Franconian is the set of Franconian dialects (i.e. dialects that evolved from Frankish) spoken in the Low Countries during the Early Middle Ages, from around the 5th to the 12th century.
Old Norman, also called Old Northern French or Old Norman French, was one of many langues d'oïl (Old French) dialects.
Old Occitan (Modern Occitan: occitan ancian, occità antic), also called Old Provençal, was the earliest form of the Occitano-Romance languages, as attested in writings dating from the eighth through the fourteenth centuries.
Old Spanish, also known as Old Castilian (castellano antiguo; romance castellano) or Medieval Spanish (español medieval), originally a colloquial Latin spoken in the provinces of the Roman Empire that provided the root for the early form of the Spanish language that was spoken on the Iberian Peninsula from the 10th century until roughly the beginning of the 15th century, before a consonantal readjustment gave rise to the evolution of modern Spanish.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
An open-mid vowel (also mid-open vowel, low-mid vowel, mid-low vowel or half-open vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Outremer (outre-mer, meaning "overseas") was a general name used for the Crusader states; it originated after victories of Europeans in the First Crusade and was applied to the County of Edessa, the Principality of Antioch, the County of Tripoli, and especially the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
In linguistics, palatalization is a sound change that either results in a palatal or palatalized consonant or a front vowel, or is triggered by one of them.
Philippe de Vitry (31 October 1291 – 9 June 1361) was a French composer, music theorist and poet.
Sound is at the beginning of language learning.
Picard is a langues d'oïl dialect spoken in the northernmost part of France and southern Belgium.
Picardy (Picardie) is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France.
Pierre-Yves Lambert, former student of the École Normale Supérieure, is a French teacher and linguist.
Titus Maccius Plautus (c. 254 – 184 BC), commonly known as Plautus, was a Roman playwright of the Old Latin period.
The pluperfect is a type of verb form, generally treated as one of the tenses in certain languages, used to refer to an action at a time earlier than a time in the past already referred to.
Poitevin (Poetevin) is a language spoken in Poitou, France.
Poitiers is a city on the Clain river in west-central France.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
The present tense (abbreviated or) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to locate a situation or event in present time.
The preterite (abbreviated or) is a grammatical tense or verb form serving to denote events that took place or were completed in the past.
The Principality of Antioch was one of the crusader states created during the First Crusade which included parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria.
Provençal (Provençau or Prouvençau) is a variety of Occitan spoken by a minority of people in southern France, mostly in Provence.
Provence (Provençal: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône River to the west to the Italian border to the east, and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south.
A regular verb is any verb whose conjugation follows the typical pattern, or one of the typical patterns, of the language to which it belongs.
The Reichenau Glosses were compiled in the 8th century in Picardy to help local monks understand archaic terms in the Vulgate, which had been written over three centuries prior.
The Renaissance of the 12th century was a period of many changes at the outset of the high Middle Ages.
Renaud de Montauban (also spelled Renaut, Renault, Italian: Rinaldo di Montalbano, Dutch: Reinout van Montalba(e)n) was a fictional hero and knight who was introduced to literature in a 12th-century Old French chanson de geste known as Les Quatre Fils Aymon ("The Four Sons of Aymon") (frequently referred to simply as Renaud de Montauban).
Reynard (Reinaert; Renard; Reineke or Reinicke; Renartus) is the main character in a literary cycle of allegorical Dutch, English, French and German fables.
A rhyme is a repetition of similar sounds (or the same sound) in two or more words, most often in the final syllables of lines in poems and songs.
The Roman de Fauvel is a 14th-century French allegorical verse romance of satirical bent, generally attributed to Gervais du Bus, a clerk at the French royal chancery.
Le Roman de la Rose (English: The Romance of the Rose) is a medieval French poem styled as an allegorical dream vision.
Roman Gaul refers to Gaul under provincial rule in the Roman Empire from the 1st century BC to the 5th century AD.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
A rondeau (plural rondeaux) is a form of medieval and Renaissance French poetry, as well as the corresponding musical chanson form.
Rouen (Frankish: Rodomo; Rotomagus, Rothomagus) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France.
Saint Nicholas (Ἅγιος Νικόλαος,, Sanctus Nicolaus; 15 March 270 – 6 December 343), also called Nikolaos of Myra or Nicholas of Bari, was Bishop of Myra, in Asia Minor (modern-day Demre, Turkey), and is a historic Christian saint.
Stephen (Στέφανος Stéphanos, meaning "wreath, crown" and by extension "reward, honor", often given as a title rather than as a name), (c. AD 5 – c. AD 34) traditionally venerated as the protomartyr or first martyr of Christianity,, St.
Saintongeais (saintonjhais) is a dialect of Poitevin spoken halfway down the western coast of France in the former provinces of Saintonge, Aunis and Angoumois, all of which have been incorporated into the current departments of Charente and Charente-Maritime as well as in parts of their neighbouring departments of Gironde and a town in Dordogne.
The second declension is a category of nouns in Latin and Greek with similar case formation.
The Sequence of Saint Eulalia, also known as the Canticle of Saint Eulalia (Séquence/Cantilène de sainte Eulalie) is the earliest surviving piece of French hagiography and one of the earliest extant texts in the vernacular langues d'oïl (Old French).
The simple past, past simple or past indefinite, sometimes called the preterite, is the basic form of the past tense in Modern English.
Southern France or the South of France, colloquially known as le Midi, is a defined geographical area consisting of the regions of France that border the Atlantic Ocean south of the Marais Poitevin, Spain, the Mediterranean, and Italy.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
A spelling pronunciation is the pronunciation of a word according to its spelling, at odds with a standard or traditional pronunciation.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
The subjunctive is a grammatical mood (that is, a way of speaking that allows people to express their attitude toward what they are saying) found in many languages.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
In linguistics, syllable weight is the concept that syllables pattern together according to the number and/or duration of segments in the rime.
This article describes the process by which the territorial extent of metropolitan France came to be as it is since 1947.
The Song of Roland (La Chanson de Roland) is an epic poem (Chanson de geste) based on the Battle of Roncevaux Pass in 778, during the reign of Charlemagne.
The third declension is a category of nouns in Latin and Greek with broadly similar case formation — diverse stems, but similar endings.
Toulouse (Tolosa, Tolosa) is the capital of the French department of Haute-Garonne and of the region of Occitanie.
In historical linguistics, transphonologization is a type of sound change whereby a phonemic contrast that used to involve a certain feature X evolves in such a way that the contrast is preserved, yet becomes associated with a different feature Y. For example, a language contrasting two words */sat/ vs.
In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.
In phonetics, a triphthong (from Greek τρίφθογγος, "triphthongos", literally "with three sounds," or "with three tones") is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement of the articulator from one vowel quality to another that passes over a third.
A troubadour (trobador, archaically: -->) was a composer and performer of Old Occitan lyric poetry during the High Middle Ages (1100–1350).
Trouvère, sometimes spelled trouveur, is the Northern French (langue d'oïl) form of the langue d'oc (Occitan) word trobador.
The Kingdom of Upper Burgundy was a Frankish dominion established in 888 by the Welf king Rudolph I of Burgundy on the territory of former Middle Francia.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
In historical linguistics, vowel breaking, vowel fracture, or diphthongization is the change of a monophthong into a diphthong or triphthong.
Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin (as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire.
Wallonia (Wallonie, Wallonie(n), Wallonië, Walonreye, Wallounien) is a region of Belgium.
Walloon (Walon in Walloon) is a Romance language that is spoken in much of Wallonia in Belgium, in some villages of Northern France (near Givet) and in the northeast part of WisconsinUniversité du Wisconsin: collection de documents sur l'immigration wallonne au Wisconsin, enregistrements de témoignages oraux en anglais et wallon, 1976 until the mid 20th century and in some parts of Canada.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.
Western Romance languages are one of the two subdivisions of a proposed subdivision of the Romance languages based on the La Spezia–Rimini line.
William of Gellone (755 – 28 May 812 or 814 AD), sometimes called William of Orange, was the second Duke of Toulouse from 790 until 811.
Ysopet ("Little Aesop") refers to a medieval collection of fables in French literature, specifically to versions of Aesop's Fables.