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Old Norse

Index Old Norse

Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century. [1]

182 relations: Accusative case, Acute accent, Agreement (linguistics), Alexander romance, Algiz, Allophone, An Introduction to Old Norse, Apical consonant, Assimilation (phonology), Þjóðólfr of Hvinir, Baltic Sea, Belarusian language, Bergen, Black Death, Bokmål, Cambridge University Press, Chivalric romance, Codex Regius, Dalecarlian dialects, Danish language, Dative case, Declension, Denmark, Denmark–Norway, Determiner, Dialect, Dialect continuum, Digraph (orthography), Dual (grammatical number), Dyggvi, Earl, Elder Futhark, Elfdalian, English language, Epenthesis, Estonian language, Faroese language, Finnish language, First Grammatical Treatise, Fortition, Frederick York Powell, French language, Fricative consonant, Funbo Runestones, Gamla Uppsala, Geats, Gemination, Genitive case, Germanic a-mutation, Germanic languages, ..., Germanic umlaut, Goidelic languages, Gotland, Gotlander, Grammatical gender, Gray Goose Laws, Great Britain, Greenlandic Norse, Guðbrandur Vigfússon, Gutasaga, Hans Henrich Hock, Heimskringla, History of Danish, History of Icelandic, Holtzmann's law, I-mutation, Icelandic language, Indo-European ablaut, Inflection, International Phonetic Alphabet, Ireland, Irish language, Isle of Man, Isogloss, Jan Terje Faarlund, Kenning, Kievan Rus', Labialization, Latin alphabet, Latin script, Latvian language, Lemma (morphology), List of English words of Old Norse origin, List of wort plants, Lithuanian language, Loanword, Lokasenna, London, Medieval runes, Middle Low German, Morpheme, Mutual intelligibility, Names of Rus', Russia and Ruthenia, Nasal vowel, Nationalencyklopedin, New York City, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nominative case, Nordic countries, Norman language, Normandy, Norn language, Norse clans, North Germanic languages, Norway, Norwegian language, Nynorsk, Obstruent, Old English, Old Gutnish, Old Norse, Old Norse morphology, Old Norse orthography, Old Norse poetry, Old Norwegian, Old Swedish, Orkney, Oxford University Press, Participle, Partitive case, Phoneme, Poetic Edda, Project Runeberg, Pronoun, Prose Edda, Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Indo-European language, Proto-Norse language, Rígsþula, Richard Cleasby, Runes, Runic inscriptions, Rurik, Rus' people, Russian language, Saga, Sagas of Icelanders, Scandinavia, Scotland, Scots language, Scottish Gaelic, Scribal abbreviation, Second Swedish Crusade, Shetland, Sibilant, Småland, Snorri Sturluson, Stød, Stop consonant, Stress (linguistics), Svealand, Sweden, Swedes (Germanic tribe), Swedish dialects in Ostrobothnia, Swedish language, Swedish-speaking population of Finland, Syllable, Thematic vowel, Thing (assembly), Thorn (letter), Trøndelag, Ukrainian language, Uncial script, Urðarbrunnr, Västgötalagen, Veliky Novgorod, Vend (letter), Viking expansion, Vinland, Voiced dental fricative, Voiceless dental fricative, Volga River, Vowel, Vowel breaking, Weregild, Western Norway, Williams and Norgate, Word stem, Wynn, Younger Futhark, Zealand, 13th century. Expand index (132 more) »

Accusative case

The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.

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Acute accent

The acute accent (´) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.

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Agreement (linguistics)

Agreement or concord (abbreviated) happens when a word changes form depending on the other words to which it relates.

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Alexander romance

The Romance of Alexander is any of several collections of legends concerning the exploits of Alexander the Great.

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Algiz (also Elhaz) is the name conventionally given to the "z-rune" of the Elder Futhark runic alphabet.

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In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.

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An Introduction to Old Norse

An Introduction to Old Norse is a textbook written by E. V. Gordon, arising from his teaching at the University of Leeds and first published in 1927 in Oxford at The Clarendon Press.

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Apical consonant

An apical consonant is a phone (speech sound) produced by obstructing the air passage with the tip of the tongue.

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Assimilation (phonology)

In phonology, assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound.

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Þjóðólfr of Hvinir

Þjóðólfr of Hvinir (c.855–930) was a Norwegian skald.

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Baltic Sea

The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.

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Belarusian language

Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.

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Bergen, historically Bjørgvin, is a city and municipality in Hordaland on the west coast of Norway.

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Black Death

The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.

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Bokmål (literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language, alongside Nynorsk.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Chivalric romance

As a literary genre of high culture, romance or chivalric romance is a type of prose and verse narrative that was popular in the aristocratic circles of High Medieval and Early Modern Europe.

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Codex Regius

Codex Regius (Rēgius, "(The) Royal Book"; Konungsbók) or GKS 2365 4º is an Icelandic codex in which many Old Norse poems are preserved.

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Dalecarlian dialects

Dalecarlian (Dalmål in vernacular and Swedish) is a group of dialects or unofficial languages spoken in Dalecarlia (Dalarna), Sweden.

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Danish language

Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.

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Dative case

The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".

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In linguistics, declension is the changing of the form of a word to express it with a non-standard meaning, by way of some inflection, that is by marking the word with some change in pronunciation or by other information.

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Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.

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Denmark–Norway (Danish and Norwegian: Danmark–Norge or Danmark–Noreg; also known as the Oldenburg Monarchy or the Oldenburg realms) was an early modern multi-national and multi-lingual real unionFeldbæk 1998:11 consisting of the Kingdom of Denmark, the Kingdom of Norway (including Norwegian overseas possessions the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Greenland, et cetera), the Duchy of Schleswig, and the Duchy of Holstein.

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A determiner, also called determinative (abbreviated), is a word, phrase, or affix that occurs together with a noun or noun phrase and serves to express the reference of that noun or noun phrase in the context.

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The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.

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Dialect continuum

A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible.

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Digraph (orthography)

A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.

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Dual (grammatical number)

Dual (abbreviated) is a grammatical number that some languages use in addition to singular and plural.

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In Norse mythology, Dyggvi or Dyggve (Old Norse "Useful, Effective"McKinnell (2005:70).) was a Swedish king of the House of Ynglings.

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An earl is a member of the nobility.

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Elder Futhark

The Elder Futhark (also called Elder Fuþark, Older Futhark, Old Futhark or Germanic Futhark) is the oldest form of the runic alphabets.

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Elfdalian or Övdalian (Övdalsk or Övdalską in Elfdalian, Älvdalska or Älvdalsmål in Swedish) is a North Germanic language spoken by up to 3,000 people who live or have grown up in the parish of Älvdalen (Övdaln), which is located in the southeastern part of Älvdalen Municipality in northern Dalarna, Sweden.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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In phonology, epenthesis (Greek) means the addition of one or more sounds to a word, especially to the interior of a word (at the beginning prothesis and at the end paragoge are commonly used).

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Estonian language

Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.

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Faroese language

Faroese (føroyskt mál,; færøsk) is a North Germanic language spoken as a first language by about 66,000 people, 45,000 of whom reside on the Faroe Islands and 21,000 in other areas, mainly Denmark.

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Finnish language

Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.

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First Grammatical Treatise

The First Grammatical Treatise (Fyrsta málfræðiritgerðin digital reproduction at Old Norse etexts.) is a 12th-century work on the phonology of the Old Norse or Old Icelandic language.

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Fortition is a consonantal change from a 'weak' sound to a 'strong' one, the opposite of the more common lenition.

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Frederick York Powell

Frederick York Powell (4 January 1850 – 8 May 1904), was an English historian and scholar.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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Fricative consonant

Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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Funbo Runestones

The Funbo runestones constitute a group of four runestones originally from Funbo in the province of Uppland, Sweden, which were raised by members of the same family during the eleventh century.

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Gamla Uppsala

Gamla Uppsala (Old Uppsala) is a parish and a village outside Uppsala in Sweden.

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The Geats (gēatas; gautar; götar), sometimes called Goths, were a North Germanic tribe who inhabited italic ("land of the Geats") in modern southern Sweden.

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Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.

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Genitive case

In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.

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Germanic a-mutation

A-mutation is a metaphonic process supposed to have taken place in late Proto-Germanic (c. 200).

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Germanic languages

The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.

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Germanic umlaut

The Germanic umlaut (sometimes called i-umlaut or i-mutation) is a type of linguistic umlaut in which a back vowel changes to the associated front vowel (fronting) or a front vowel becomes closer to (raising) when the following syllable contains,, or.

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Goidelic languages

The Goidelic or Gaelic languages (teangacha Gaelacha; cànanan Goidhealach; çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups of Insular Celtic languages, the other being the Brittonic languages.

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Gotland (older spellings include Gottland or Gothland), Gutland in the local dialect, is a province, county, municipality, and diocese of Sweden.

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The Gutes or the Gotlanders (in Swedish gutar) are the population of the island of Gotland.

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Grammatical gender

In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.

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Gray Goose Laws

The Gray (Grey) Goose Laws (Grágás) are a collection of laws from the Icelandic Commonwealth period.

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Great Britain

Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.

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Greenlandic Norse

Greenlandic Norse is an extinct North Germanic language that was spoken in the Norse settlements of Greenland until their demise in the late 15th century.

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Guðbrandur Vigfússon

Guðbrandur Vigfússon, known in English as Gudbrand Vigfusson, (13 March 1827 – 31 January 1889) was one of the foremost Scandinavian scholars of the 19th century.

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Gutasaga (Gutasagan) is a saga regarding the history of Gotland before its Christianization.

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Hans Henrich Hock

Hans Henrich Hock (born September 26, 1938) is Professor Emeritus of Linguistics and Sanskrit at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

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Heimskringla is the best known of the Old Norse kings' sagas.

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History of Danish

The Danish language developed during the Middle Ages out of the Old East Norse, the common predecessor of Danish and Swedish.

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History of Icelandic

The history of the Icelandic language began in the 9th century when the settlement of Iceland, mostly by Norwegians, brought a dialect of Old Norse to the island.

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Holtzmann's law

Holtzmann's law is a Proto-Germanic sound law originally noted by Adolf Holtzmann in 1838.

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I-mutation (also known as umlaut, front mutation, i-umlaut, i/j-mutation or i/j-umlaut) is a type of sound change in which a back vowel is fronted or a front vowel is raised if the following syllable contains /i/, /ī/ or /j/ (a voiced palatal approximant, sometimes called yod, the sound of English in yes).

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Icelandic language

Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.

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Indo-European ablaut

In linguistics, the Indo-European ablaut (pronounced) is a system of apophony (regular vowel variations) in the Proto-Indo-European language.

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In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.

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International Phonetic Alphabet

The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.

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Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.

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Irish language

The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.

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Isle of Man

The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin), also known simply as Mann (Mannin), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.

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An isogloss, also called a heterogloss (see Etymology below), is the geographic boundary of a certain linguistic feature, such as the pronunciation of a vowel, the meaning of a word, or the use of some morphological or syntactic feature.

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Jan Terje Faarlund

Jan Terje Faarlund (born 3 May 1943) is a Norwegian linguist and professor emeritus of North Germanic languages at the University of Oslo.

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A kenning (Old Norse pronunciation:, Modern Icelandic pronunciation) is a type of circumlocution, in the form of a compound that employs figurative language in place of a more concrete single-word noun.

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Kievan Rus'

Kievan Rus' (Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.

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Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages.

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Latin alphabet

The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.

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Latin script

Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.

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Latvian language

Latvian (latviešu valoda) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.

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Lemma (morphology)

In morphology and lexicography, a lemma (plural lemmas or lemmata) is the canonical form, dictionary form, or citation form of a set of words (headword).

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List of English words of Old Norse origin

Words of Old Norse origin have entered the English language, primarily from the contact between Old Norse and Old English during colonisation of eastern and northern England between the mid 9th to the 11th centuries (see also Danelaw).

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List of wort plants

This is an alphabetical listing of wort plants, meaning plants that employ the syllable wort in their English-language common names.

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Lithuanian language

Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.

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A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.

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Lokasenna ("Loki's flyting," "Loki's wrangling," "Loki's quarrel") is one of the poems of the Poetic Edda.

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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Medieval runes

The medieval runes, or the futhork, was a Scandinavian 27 letter runic alphabet that evolved from the Younger Futhark after the introduction of dotted runes at the end of the Viking Age and it was fully formed in the early 13th century.

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Middle Low German

Middle Low German or Middle Saxon (ISO 639-3 code gml) is a language that is the descendant of Old Saxon and the ancestor of modern Low German.

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A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.

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Mutual intelligibility

In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.

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Names of Rus', Russia and Ruthenia

Originally, the name Rus' (Русь) referred to the people, regions, and medieval states (9th to 12th centuries) of the Kievan Rus'.

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Nasal vowel

A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the nose as well as the mouth, such as the French vowel.

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Nationalencyklopedin, abbreviated NE, is a comprehensive contemporary Swedish-language encyclopedia, initiated by a favourable loan from the Government of Sweden of 17 million Swedish kronor in 1980, which was repaid by December 1990.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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Newfoundland and Labrador

Newfoundland and Labrador (Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador; Akamassiss; Newfoundland Irish: Talamh an Éisc agus Labradar) is the most easterly province of Canada.

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Nominative case

The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.

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Nordic countries

The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden (literally "the North").

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Norman language

No description.

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Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.

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Norn language

Norn is an extinct North Germanic language that was spoken in the Northern Isles (Orkney and Shetland) off the north coast of mainland Scotland and in Caithness in the far north of the Scottish mainland.

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Norse clans

The Scandinavian clan or ætt/ätt (pronounced in Old Norse) was a social group based on common descent.

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North Germanic languages

The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.

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Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.

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Norwegian language

Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.

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Nynorsk (translates to New Norwegian or New Norse) is one of the two written standards of the Norwegian language, the other being Bokmål.

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An obstruent is a speech sound such as,, or that is formed by obstructing airflow.

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Old English

Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

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Old Gutnish

Old Gutnish or Old Gotlandic was the dialect of Old Norse that was spoken on the Baltic island of Gotland.

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Old Norse

Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.

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Old Norse morphology

Old Norse has three categories of verbs (strong, weak, & present-preterite) and two categories of nouns (strong, weak).

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Old Norse orthography

The orthography of the Old Norse language was diverse, being written in both Runic and Latin alphabets, with many spelling conventions, variant letterforms, and unique letters and signs.

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Old Norse poetry

Old Norse poetry encompasses a range of verse forms written in Old Norse, during the period from the 8th century (see Eggjum stone) to as late as the far end of the 13th century.

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Old Norwegian

Old Norwegian (Norwegian: gammelnorsk and gam(m)alnorsk), also called Norwegian Norse, is an early form of the Norwegian language that was spoken between the 11th and 14th century; it is a transitional stage between Old West Norse and Middle Norwegian, and also Old Norn and Old Faroese.

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Old Swedish

Old Swedish (Modern Swedish: fornsvenska) is the name for two distinct stages of the Swedish language that were spoken in the Middle Ages: Early Old Swedish (Klassisk fornsvenska), spoken from around 1225 until 1375, and Late Old Swedish (Yngre fornsvenska), spoken from 1375 until 1526.

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Orkney (Orkneyjar), also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago in the Northern Isles of Scotland, situated off the north coast of Great Britain.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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A participle is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.

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Partitive case

The partitive case (abbreviated or more ambiguously) is a grammatical case which denotes "partialness", "without result", or "without specific identity".

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A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.

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Poetic Edda

Poetic Edda is the modern attribution for an unnamed collection of Old Norse anonymous poems, which is different from the Edda written by Snorri Sturluson.

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Project Runeberg

Project Runeberg (Swedish, Projekt Runeberg) is a digital cultural archive initiative that publishes free electronic versions of books significant to the culture and history of the Nordic countries.

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In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (abbreviated) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.

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Prose Edda

The Prose Edda, also known as the Younger Edda, Snorri's Edda (Snorra Edda) or, historically, simply as Edda, is an Old Norse work of literature written in Iceland in the early 13th century.

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Proto-Germanic language

Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Proto-Indo-European language

Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.

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Proto-Norse language

Proto-Norse (also called Proto-Scandinavian, Proto-Nordic, Ancient Scandinavian, Proto-North Germanic and a variety of other names) was an Indo-European language spoken in Scandinavia that is thought to have evolved as a northern dialect of Proto-Germanic in the first centuries CE.

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Rígsþula or Rígsmál ("Lay of Ríg") is an Eddic poem, preserved in the manuscript (AM 242 fol, the Codex Wormianus), in which a Norse god named Ríg or Rígr, described as "old and wise, mighty and strong", fathers the classes of mankind.

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Richard Cleasby

Richard Cleasby (1797–1847) was an English philologist, author with Guðbrandur Vigfússon of the first Icelandic-English dictionary.

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Runes are the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialised purposes thereafter.

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Runic inscriptions

A runic inscription is an inscription made in one of the various runic alphabets.

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Rurik (also Riurik; Old Church Slavonic Рюрикъ Rjurikŭ, from Old Norse Hrøríkʀ; 830 – 879), according to the 12th-century Primary Chronicle, was a Varangian chieftain of the Rus' who in the year 862 gained control of Ladoga, and built the Holmgard settlement near Novgorod.

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Rus' people

The Rus (Русь, Ῥῶς) were an early medieval group, who lived in a large area of what is now Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and other countries, and are the ancestors of modern East Slavic peoples.

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Russian language

Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.

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Sagas are stories mostly about ancient Nordic and Germanic history, early Viking voyages, the battles that took place during the voyages, and migration to Iceland and of feuds between Icelandic families.

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Sagas of Icelanders

The Sagas of Icelanders (Íslendingasögur), also known as family sagas, are prose narratives mostly based on historical events that mostly took place in Iceland in the 9th, 10th, and early 11th centuries, during the so-called Saga Age.

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Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.

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Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

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Scots language

Scots is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots).

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Scottish Gaelic

Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.

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Scribal abbreviation

Scribal abbreviations or sigla (singular: siglum or sigil) are the abbreviations used by ancient and medieval scribes writing in Latin, and later in Greek and Old Norse.

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Second Swedish Crusade

The Second Swedish Crusade was a 13th century Swedish military expedition against the Tavastians, in present-day Finland, led by Birger jarl.

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Shetland (Old Norse: Hjaltland), also called the Shetland Islands, is a subarctic archipelago of Scotland that lies northeast of Great Britain.

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Sibilance is an acoustic characteristic of fricative and affricate consonants of higher amplitude and pitch, made by directing a stream of air with the tongue towards the sharp edge of the teeth, which are held close together; a consonant that uses sibilance may be called a sibilant.

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Småland is a historical province (landskap) in southern Sweden.

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Snorri Sturluson

Snorri Sturluson (1179 – 23 September 1241) was an Icelandic historian, poet, and politician.

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Stød (also occasionally spelled stod) is a suprasegmental unit of Danish phonology (represented in IPA as or as), which in its most common form is a kind of creaky voice (laryngealization), but it may also be realized as a glottal stop, especially in emphatic pronunciation.

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Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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Stress (linguistics)

In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.

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Svealand, Swealand or (rarely or historically) Sweden proper is the historical core region of Sweden.

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Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Swedes (Germanic tribe)

The Swedes (svear; Old Norse: svíar / suar (probably from the PIE reflexive pronominal root *s(w)e, "one's own ";Bandle, Oskar. 2002. The Nordic languages: an international handbook of the history of the North Germanic languages. 2002. P.391 Old English: Sweonas) were a North Germanic tribe who inhabited Svealand ("land of the Swedes") in central Sweden and one of the progenitor groups of modern Swedes, along with Geats and Gutes. The first author who wrote about the tribe is Tacitus, who in his Germania, from 98 CE mentions the Suiones. Jordanes, in the sixth century, mentions Suehans and Suetidi. According to early sources such as the sagas, especially Heimskringla, the Swedes were a powerful tribe whose kings claimed descendence from the god Freyr. During the Viking Age they constituted the basis of the Varangian subset, the Vikings that travelled eastwards (see Rus' people).

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Swedish dialects in Ostrobothnia

Ostrobothnian Swedish (österbottniska) is a variety of Finland-Swedish, spoken in Finland.

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Swedish language

Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.

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Swedish-speaking population of Finland

The Swedish-speaking population of Finland (whose members are often called Swedish-speaking Finns, Finland-Swedes, Finland Swedes, Finnish Swedes, or Swedes of Finland—see below; finlandssvenskar; suomenruotsalaiset; the term Swedo-Finnish—finlandssvensk; suomenruotsalainen—can be used as an attribute) is a linguistic minority in Finland.

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A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.

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Thematic vowel

In Indo-European studies, a thematic vowel or theme vowel is the vowel or from ablaut placed before the ending of a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) word.

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Thing (assembly)

A thing, also known as Alþing, was the governing assembly of a northern Germanic society, made up of the free people of the community presided over by lawspeakers.

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Thorn (letter)

Thorn or þorn (Þ, þ) is a letter in the Old English, Gothic, Old Norse and modern Icelandic alphabets, as well as some dialects of Middle English.

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Trøndelag is a county in the central part of Norway.

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Ukrainian language

No description.

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Uncial script

Uncial is a majusculeGlaister, Geoffrey Ashall.

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Urðarbrunnr (Old Norse "Well of Urðr"; either referring to a Germanic concept of fate—urðr—or the norn named UrðrSimek (2007:342).) is a well in Norse mythology.

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Västgötalagen or the Westrogothic law is the oldest Swedish text written in Latin script and the oldest of all Swedish provincial laws.

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Veliky Novgorod

Veliky Novgorod (p), also known as Novgorod the Great, or Novgorod Veliky, or just Novgorod, is one of the most important historic cities in Russia, which serves as the administrative center of Novgorod Oblast.

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Vend (letter)

Vend (Ꝩ, ꝩ) is a letter of Old Norse.

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Viking expansion

Viking expansion is the process by which the Vikings sailed most of the North Atlantic, reaching south to North Africa and east to Russia, Constantinople and the Middle East as looters, traders, colonists and mercenaries.

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Vinland, Vineland or Winland (Vínland) is the name for North American land explored by Norse Vikings, where Leif Erikson first landed 1000, approximately five centuries prior to the voyages of Christopher Columbus and John Cabot.

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Voiced dental fricative

The voiced dental fricative is a consonant sound used in some spoken languages.

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Voiceless dental fricative

The voiceless dental non-sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.

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Volga River

The Volga (p) is the longest river in Europe.

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A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.

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Vowel breaking

In historical linguistics, vowel breaking, vowel fracture, or diphthongization is the change of a monophthong into a diphthong or triphthong.

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Weregild (also spelled wergild, wergeld (in archaic/historical usage of English), weregeld, etc.), also known as man price, was a value placed on every being and piece of property, for example in the Frankish Salic Code.

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Western Norway

Western Norway (Vestlandet, Vest-Norge, Vest-Noreg) is the region along the Atlantic coast of southern Norway.

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Williams and Norgate

Williams and Norgate were publishers and book importers in London and Edinburgh.

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Word stem

In linguistics, a stem is a part of a word.

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Ƿynn (Ƿ ƿ) (also spelled wen, ƿynn, or ƿen) is a letter of the Old English alphabet, where it is used to represent the sound.

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Younger Futhark

The Younger Futhark, also called Scandinavian runes, is a runic alphabet and a reduced form of the Elder Futhark, with only 16 characters, in use from about the 9th century, after a "transitional period" during the 7th and 8th centuries.

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Zealand (Sjælland), at 7,031 km2, is the largest and most populous island in Denmark proper (thus excluding Greenland and Disko Island, which are larger).

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13th century

As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was the century which lasted from January 1, 1201 through December 31, 1300 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era.

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Redirects here:

Danish tongue, Dansk tunga, Dǫnsk tunga, East Norse, Eastern Norse, Fornnordiska, ISO 639:non, Norroena tunga, Norrænt mál, Norrönt mål, Norrønt, Norrønt mál, Norrœna tunga, Norrœnt mál, Norse language, Old East Norse, Old East Norse language, Old Icelandic, Old Icelandic language, Old Norse language, Old Norse languages, Old Norse phonology, Old West Norse, Old West Norse language, Old icelandic, Old norse, Old norse language, Old-Norse, Olde Norse, Runic Danish, Runic Old East Norse, Runic Swedish, Viking language, West Norse.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Norse

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