271 relations: Adam of Bremen, Adoption, Ahmad ibn Fadlan, Altar, Althing, Ancient Greek religion, Anglo-Saxons, Archaeology, Arkiv för nordisk filologi, Asgard, Aska Hundred, Aspergillum, Auðumbla, Aud the Deep-Minded (Ketilsdóttir), Augury, Æsir, Æsir–Vanir War, Élivágar, Öland, Östergötland, Úlfr Uggason, Þangbrandr, Þórsdrápa, Þjóðólfr of Hvinir, Þorbjörg Lítilvölva, Þorgerðr Hölgabrúðr and Irpa, Þrymskviða, Baldr, Búri, Bestla, Birka, Blót, Blood brother, Bog body, Borr, Bracteate, Bride price, Brimir, Byzantium, Capital punishment, Celtic languages, Charlemagne, Christianization of Scandinavia, Classical mythology, Cnut the Great, Dís, Der Ring des Nibelungen, Divination, Domalde, Draugr, ..., Dwarf (mythology), Ebbo, Egill Skallagrímsson, Einherjar, Ergi, Ethnic religion, Euhemerism, Eyrbyggja saga, Fólkvangr, Fibula, Finnic peoples, Finnish paganism, Finnur Jónsson, Fortune-telling, Frösön, Freyja, Freyr, Fylgja, Gabriel Turville-Petre, Galdr, Gautreks saga, Geirröðr, Georges Dumézil, Gerðr, Germania (book), Germanic languages, Germanic paganism, Germanic peoples, Gesta Danorum, Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum, Gimlé, Ginnungagap, Gothi, Gotland, Grave goods, Grímnismál, Greenlandic Inuit, Gudme, Gulating, Gylfaginning, Haakon Sigurdsson, Haakon the Good, Halitgar, Hamingja, Hanging, Harald Greycloak, Harald Klak, Haustlöng, Hákonarmál, Hávamál, Hörgr, Húsdrápa, Hedeby, Heiðrún, Heimskringla, Hel (location), Helgafell, Helgakviða Hjörvarðssonar, Helgö, Hilda Ellis Davidson, Historia Norwegiæ, Historical fiction, Historical linguistics, Hof (Germanic temple), Horik II, Hrafnagaldr Óðins, Hrafnkels saga, Hringhorni, Human sacrifice, Hyndluljóð, Hyrrokkin, Iðunn, Infanticide, Interpretatio graeca, Iron Age Scandinavia, J. R. R. Tolkien, Jacqueline Simpson, Jan de Vries (linguist), Jötunn, Jesus, Kaupang, Kjalnesinga saga, Landnámabók, Latin script, Legendary saga, Lokasenna, Loki, Longhouse, Lotte Motz, Louis the Pious, Lucifer, Magic (supernatural), Magnus Olsen, Margaret Clunies Ross, Market town, Material culture, Mære, Mývatn, Midgard, Migration Period, Mjölnir, Muspelheim, Mythology, Nation, Nationalism, Nazi Germany, Neo-Nazism, Neoshamanism, Niðafjöll, Niflheim, Njörðr, Noaidi, Nord-Trøndelag, Nordic Bronze Age, Norns, Norse mythology, Odin, Olaf Tryggvason, Old Norse, Oseberg Ship, Outlaw, Picture stone, Poetic Edda, Polytheism, Prisoner of war, Prologue (Prose Edda), Prose Edda, Proto-Indo-European religion, Proto-Norse language, Ragnarök, Rígsþula, Rebirth in North Germanic religion, Religion in ancient Rome, Richard Wagner, Rindr, River Hull, Romanticism, Roseberry Topping, Roskilde, Runes, Runestone, Sacred grove, Sacred king, Sacred trees and groves in Germanic paganism and mythology, Saga, Saga of Erik the Red, Sagas of Icelanders, Saint Boniface, Sami people, Sami shamanism, Saxo Grammaticus, Saxons, Sæhrímnir, Södermanland, Scandinavian folklore, Scania, Scholia, Seiðr, Settlement of Iceland, Shamanism, Ship burial, Sindri (mythology), Skaði, Skald, Skáldskaparmál, Slavic languages, Snorri Sturluson, Solomon's Temple, Sonatorrek, Sophus Bugge, Stone ship, Strängnäs, Strängnäs Municipality, Sune Lindqvist, Surtr, Sutton Hoo, Swan maiden, Tacitus, Tønsberg, Týr, Temple at Uppsala, The Lord of the Rings, Thor, Tolkien's legendarium, Toponymy, Trans-cultural diffusion, Trøndelag, Trifunctional hypothesis, Troy, Tumulus, Tutelary deity, Ullr, Uppåkra, Uppland, Ursula Dronke, Vafþrúðnismál, Valknut, Valkyrie, Vanir, Varangians, Vatnsdæla saga, Vár, Vä, Vættir, Vé (shrine), Víga-Glúms saga, Völsa þáttr, Völva, Veliky Novgorod, Viking Age, Wetland deposits in Scandinavia, Willehad, Willerich, Willibrord, World tree, World War II, Yggdrasil, Ymir, Ynglinga saga, Ynglingatal, Younger Futhark. Expand index (221 more) » « Shrink index
Adam of Bremen (Adamus Bremensis; Adam von Bremen) was a German medieval chronicler.
Adoption is a process whereby a person assumes the parenting of another, usually a child, from that person's biological or legal parent or parents, and, in so doing, permanently transfers all rights and responsibilities, along with filiation, from the biological parent or parents.
Ibn Fadlan (أحمد بن فضلان بن العباس بن راشد بن حماد Aḥmad ibn Faḍlān ibn al-ʿAbbās ibn Rāšid ibn Ḥammād, 921–22) was a 10th-century Arab Muslim traveler, famous for his account of his travels as a member of an embassy of the Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad to the king of the Volga Bulgars, known as his Risala ("account" or "journal") His account is most notable for providing a detailed description of the Volga Vikings, including an eyewitness account of a ship burial.
An altar is any structure upon which offerings such as sacrifices are made for religious purposes, and by extension the 'Holy table' of post-reformation Anglican churches.
The Alþingi (parliament (Icelandic) and anglicised as Althingi or Althing) is the national parliament of Iceland.
Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and cult practices.
The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
Arkiv för nordisk filologi is an annual academic journal of Old Norse and older Scandinavian studies, published by Lund University.
In Norse religion, Asgard ("Enclosure of the Æsir") is one of the Nine Worlds and home to the Æsir tribe of gods.
Aska Hundred, or Aska härad, was a hundred of Östergötland in Sweden.
An aspergillum (less commonly, aspergilium or aspergil) is a liturgical implement used to sprinkle holy water.
Auðumbla (also spelled Auðumla, Auðhumbla, and Auðhumla) is a primeval cow appearing in Norse mythology.
Aud the Deep-Minded (Old Norse: Auðr djúpúðga Ketilsdóttir; Icelandic: Auður djúpúðga Ketilsdóttir, Norwegian: Aud den djuptenkte), also known as Unn, Aud Ketilsdatter or Unnur Ketilsdottir, was a 9th-century settler during the age of Settlement of Iceland.
Augury is the practice from ancient Roman religion of interpreting omens from the observed flight of birds (aves).
In Old Norse, ǫ́ss (or áss, ás, plural æsir; feminine ásynja, plural ásynjur) is a member of the principal pantheon in Norse religion.
In Norse mythology, the Æsir–Vanir War was a conflict between two groups of deities that ultimately resulted in the unification of the Æsir and the Vanir into a single pantheon.
In Norse mythology, Élivágar (Ice Waves) are rivers that existed in Ginnungagap at the beginning of the world.
Öland (known in Latin as Oelandia, and sometimes written Øland in other Scandinavian languages, and Oland internationally) is the second largest Swedish island and the smallest of the traditional provinces of Sweden.
Östergötland (English exonym: East Gothland) is one of the traditional provinces of Sweden (landskap in Swedish) in the south of Sweden.
Úlfr Uggason was an Icelandic skald who lived in the last part of the tenth century.
Þangbrandr was a missionary sent to Iceland by king of Norway Óláfr Tryggvason to convert the inhabitants to Christianity.
Þórsðrápa (Old Norse: "Lay of Thor") is a skaldic poem by Eilífr Goðrúnarson, a poet in the service of Jarl Hákon Sigurðarson.
Þjóðólfr of Hvinir (c.855–930) was a Norwegian skald.
Þorbjörg Lítilvölva (Thorbjörg) was a renowned Greenlandic Völva described in the Saga of Erik the Red.
In Norse mythology, Þorgerðr Hǫlgabrúðr (Thorgerdr Holgabrudr) and Irpa are divine figures.
Þrymskviða (the name can be anglicised as Thrymskviða, Thrymskvitha, Thrymskvidha or Thrymskvida) is one of the best known poems from the Poetic Edda.
Baldr (also Balder, Baldur) is a god in Norse mythology, and a son of the god Odin and the goddess Frigg.
Búri (or Buri) was the first god in Norse mythology.
In Norse mythology, Bestla is the mother of the gods Odin, Vili and Vé by way of Borr, the sister of an unnamed being who assisted Odin, and the daughter or, depending on source, granddaughter of the jötunn Bölþorn.
Birka (Birca in medieval sources), on the island of Björkö (literally: "Birch Island") in present-day Sweden, was an important Viking Age trading center which handled goods from Scandinavia and Finland as well as Central and Eastern Europe and the Orient.
Blót is the term for "sacrifice" in Norse paganism.
Blood brother can refer to one of two things: a male related by birth, or two or more men not related by birth who have sworn loyalty to each other.
A bog body is a human cadaver that has been naturally mummified in a peat bog.
Borr or Burr (Old Norse: 'son'; sometimes anglicized Bor, Bör or Bur) was the son of Búri, the husband of Bestla, the father of Odin, Vili and Vé, and the grandfather of Thor, Baldr, Víðarr and Váli in Norse mythology.
A bracteate (from the Latin bractea, a thin piece of metal) is a flat, thin, single-sided gold medal worn as jewelry that was produced in Northern Europe predominantly during the Migration Period of the Germanic Iron Age (including the Vendel era in Sweden).
Bride price, bridewealth, or bride token, is money, property, or other form of wealth paid by a groom or his family to the family of the woman he will be married or is just about to marry.
In Norse mythology, Brimir is possibly another name for the giant Ymir and also a name of a hall for the souls of the virtuous following the endtime conflict of Ragnarok.
Byzantium or Byzantion (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and later Istanbul.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
The Christianization of Scandinavia as well as other Nordic countries and the Baltic countries, took place between the 8th and the 12th centuries.
Classical Greco-Roman mythology, Greek and Roman mythology or Greco-Roman mythology is both the body of and the study of myths from the ancient Greeks and Romans as they are used or transformed by cultural reception.
Cnut the GreatBolton, The Empire of Cnut the Great: Conquest and the Consolidation of Power in Northern Europe in the Early Eleventh Century (Leiden, 2009) (Cnut se Micela, Knútr inn ríki. Retrieved 21 January 2016. – 12 November 1035), also known as Canute—whose father was Sweyn Forkbeard (which gave him the patronym Sweynsson, Sveinsson)—was King of Denmark, England and Norway; together often referred to as the North Sea Empire.
In Norse mythology, a dís ("lady", plural '''dísir''') is a ghost, spirit or deity associated with fate who can be either benevolent or antagonistic towards mortals.
(The Ring of the Nibelung), WWV 86, is a cycle of four German-language epic music dramas composed by Richard Wagner.
Divination (from Latin divinare "to foresee, to be inspired by a god", related to divinus, divine) is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic, standardized process or ritual.
In Norse mythology, Domalde, Dómaldi or Dómaldr (Old Norse possibly "Power to Judge"McKinnell (2005:70).) was a Swedish king of the House of Ynglings, cursed by his stepmother, according to Snorri Sturluson, with ósgæssa, "ill-luck".
The draugr or draug (draugr, plural draugar; modern draugur, dreygur and Danish, Swedish, and draug), also called aptrganga or aptrgangr, literally "again-walker" (afturganga) is an undead creature from Norse mythology.
In Germanic mythology, a dwarf is a human-shaped entity that dwells in mountains and in the earth, and is variously associated with wisdom, smithing, mining, and crafting.
Ebbo or Ebo (– 20 March 851) was archbishop of Rheims from 816 until 835 and again from 840 to 841.
Egill Skallagrímsson (c. 904c. 995) was a Viking-Age poet, warrior and farmer.
In Norse mythology, the einherjar (Old Norse "single (or once) fighters"Orchard (1997:36) and Lindow (2001:104).) are those who have died in battle and are brought to Valhalla by valkyries.
(noun) and (adjective) are two Old Norse terms of insult, denoting effeminacy or other unmanly behavior.
In religious studies, an ethnic religion (or indigenous religion) is a religion associated with a particular ethnic group.
Euhemerism is an approach to the interpretation of mythology in which mythological accounts are presumed to have originated from real historical events or personages.
Eyrbyggja saga is one of the Icelanders' sagas; its title can be translated as The Saga of the People of Eyri. It was written by an anonymous writer, who describes a long-standing feud between Snorri Goði and Arnkel Goði, two strong chieftains within the Norse community that settled in Iceland.
In Norse mythology, Fólkvangr (Old Norse "field of the host"Orchard (1997:45). or "people-field" or "army-field"Lindow (2001:118).) is a meadow or field ruled over by the goddess Freyja where half of those that die in combat go upon death, while the other half go to the god Odin in Valhalla.
The fibula or calf bone is a leg bone located on the lateral side of the tibia, with which it is connected above and below.
The Finnic peoples or Baltic Finns consist of the peoples inhabiting the region around the Baltic Sea in Northeastern Europe who speak Finnic languages, including the Finns proper, Estonians (including Võros and Setos), Karelians (including Ludes and Olonets), Veps, Izhorians, Votes, and Livonians as well as their descendants worldwide.
Finnish paganism was the indigenous pagan religion in Finland, Estonia, and Karelia prior to Christianisation.
Finnur Jónsson (May 29, 1858 – March 30, 1934) was an Icelandic philologist and Professor of Nordic Philology at the University of Copenhagen.
*For the origami, see Paper fortune teller.
Frösön (Frey's island;; in the local dialect, Jamtlandic) is the largest island in the lake Storsjön, located west of the city Östersund in Jämtland, Sweden.
In Norse mythology, Freyja (Old Norse for "(the) Lady") is a goddess associated with love, sex, beauty, fertility, gold, seiðr, war, and death.
Freyr (Old Norse: Lord), sometimes anglicized as Frey, is a widely attested god associated with sacral kingship, virility and prosperity, with sunshine and fair weather, and pictured as a phallic fertility god in Norse mythology.
In Norse mythology, a fylgja (plural fylgjur) is a spirit who accompanies a person in connection to their fate or fortune.
Edward Oswald Gabriel Turville-Petre F.B.A. (known as Gabriel) (25 March 1908 – 17 February 1978) was Professor of Ancient Icelandic Literature and Antiquities at the University of Oxford.
Galdr (plural galdrar) is one Old Norse word for "spell, incantation"; these were usually performed in combination with certain rites.
Gautreks saga (Gautrek's Saga) is a Scandinavian legendary saga put to text towards the end of the 13th century which survives only in much later manuscripts.
In Norse mythology, Geirröd was a jötunn and the father of the giantesses Gjálp and Greip.
Georges Dumézil (4 March 1898 – 11 October 1986, Paris) was a French comparative philologist best known for his analysis of sovereignty and power in Proto-Indo-European religion and society.
In Norse mythology, Gerðr (Old Norse "fenced-in"Orchard (1997:54).) is a jötunn, goddess, and the wife of the god Freyr.
The Germania, written by the Roman historian Publius Cornelius Tacitus around 98 and originally entitled On the Origin and Situation of the Germans (De Origine et situ Germanorum), was a historical and ethnographic work on the Germanic tribes outside the Roman Empire.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
Germanic religion refers to the indigenous religion of the Germanic peoples from the Iron Age until Christianisation during the Middle Ages.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Gesta Danorum ("Deeds of the Danes") is a patriotic work of Danish history, by the 13th century author Saxo Grammaticus ("Saxo the Literate", literally "the Grammarian").
Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum (Medieval Latin for "Deeds of the Bishops of Hamburg") is a historical treatise written between 1073 and 1076 by Adam of Bremen, who made additions (scholia) to the text until his death (possibly 1081; before 1085).
In Norse mythology, Gimlé (alternately Gimli as in Icelandic) is a place where the worthy survivors of Ragnarök are foretold to live.
In Norse mythology, Ginnungagap ("gaping abyss", "yawning void") is the primordial void, mentioned in the Gylfaginning, the Eddaic text recording Norse cosmogony.
A goði or gothi (plural goðar) is the Old Norse term for a priest and chieftain.
Gotland (older spellings include Gottland or Gothland), Gutland in the local dialect, is a province, county, municipality, and diocese of Sweden.
Grave goods, in archaeology and anthropology, are the items buried along with the body.
Grímnismál (Sayings of Grímnir) is one of the mythological poems of the Poetic Edda.
The Greenlandic Inuit (kalaallit) are the most populous ethnic group in Greenland.
Gudme is a town in central Denmark with a population of 943 (1 January 2014), located in Svendborg municipality on the island of Funen in Region of Southern Denmark.
Gulating (Gulaþing) is the name of both one of the first Norwegian legislative assemblies or things and one of the present-day law courts of western Norway.
Gylfaginning (Old Norse pronunciation;; either Tricking of Gylfi; c. 20,000 words), is the first part of Snorri Sturluson's Prose Edda after Prologue.
Haakon Sigurdarson (Haakon Jarl) (Hákon Sigurðarson, Håkon Sigurdsson) (c. 937 – 995) was the de facto ruler of Norway from about 975 to 995.
Haakon Haraldsson (c. 920–961), also Haakon the Good (Old Norse: Hákon góði, Norwegian: Håkon den gode) and Haakon Adalsteinfostre (Old Norse: Hákon Aðalsteinsfóstri, Norwegian: Håkon Adalsteinsfostre), was the king of Norway from 934 to 961.
Halitgar (Halitgarius, Halitcharius, Halitgaire, Aligerio) was a ninth-century bishop of Cambrai (in office 817–831).
The Hamingja was a kind of female guardian angel in Norse mythology.
Hanging is the suspension of a person by a noose or ligature around the neck.
Harald II Greycloak or Grey-hide literally translated (Old Norse: Haraldr gráfeldr, Norwegian: Harald Gråfell, Danish: Harald Gråfeld) (died 970) was a king of Norway.
Harald 'Klak' Halfdansson (c. 785 – c. 852) was a king in Jutland (and possibly other parts of Denmark) around 812–814 and again from 819–827.
Haustlöng (Old Norse "autumn-long") is a skaldic poem composed around the beginning of the 10th century.
Hákonarmál is a skaldic poem which the skald Eyvindr skáldaspillir composed about the fall of the Norwegian king Hákon the Good at the battle of Fitjar and his reception in Valhalla.
Hávamál ("sayings of the high one") is presented as a single poem in the Codex Regius, a collection of Old Norse poems from the Viking age.
A hörgr (Old Norse, plural hörgar) or hearg (Old English) was a type of altar or cult site, possibly consisting of a heap of stones, used in Norse religion, as opposed to a roofed hall used as a ''hof'' (temple).
Húsdrápa is a skaldic poem partially preserved in the Prose Edda where disjoint stanzas of it are quoted.
Hedeby (Old Norse Heiðabýr, German Haithabu) was an important Viking Age (8th to the 11th centuries) trading settlement near the southern end of the Jutland Peninsula, now in the Schleswig-Flensburg district of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.
Heiðrún or Heidrun is a goat in Norse mythology, which consumes the foliage of the tree Læraðr and produces mead for the einherjar.
Heimskringla is the best known of the Old Norse kings' sagas.
In Norse mythology, Hel, the location, shares a name with Hel, a being who rules over the location.
Helgafell ("holy mountain") is a small mountain on the Snæfellsnes Peninsula of Iceland.
Helgakviða Hjörvarðssonar ("Lay of Helgi Hjörvarðsson") is a poem collected in the Poetic Edda, found in the Codex Regius manuscript where it follows Helgakviða Hundingsbana I and precedes Helgakviða Hundingsbana II.
Helgö is an island in Ekerö Municipality in Stockholm County, Sweden.
Hilda Roderick Ellis Davidson (born Hilda Roderick Ellis, 1 October 1914 – January 2006) was an English antiquarian and academic, writing in particular on Germanic paganism and Celtic paganism.
Historia Norwegiæ is a short history of Norway written in Latin by an anonymous monk.
Historical fiction is a literary genre in which the plot takes place in a setting located in the past.
Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time.
A heathen hof or Germanic pagan temple was a temple building of Germanic religion; a few have also been built for use in modern heathenry.
Horik II, also known as Erik Barn (Danish: "Erik the Child"), was King of Denmark from the murder of Horik I in 854 to c. 860s.
Hrafnagaldr Óðins ("Odin's raven-galdr") or Forspjallsljóð ("prelude poem") is an Icelandic poem in the style of the Poetic Edda.
Hrafnkels saga or Hrafnkels saga Freysgoða is one of the Icelanders' sagas.
In Norse mythology, Hringhorni (Old Norse "ship with a circle on the stem"Simek (2007:159).) is the name of the ship of the god Baldr, described as the "greatest of all ships".
Human sacrifice is the act of killing one or more humans, usually as an offering to a deity, as part of a ritual.
Hyndluljóð or Lay of Hyndla is an Old Norse poem often considered a part of the Poetic Edda.
In Norse mythology, Hyrrokkin ("Fire-Smoked", possibly referring to a dark, shrivelled appearance) is a giantess.
In Norse mythology, Iðunn is a goddess associated with apples and youth.
Infanticide (or infant homicide) is the intentional killing of infants.
Interpretatio graeca (Latin, "Greek translation" or "interpretation by means of Greek ") is a discourse in which ancient Greek religious concepts and practices, deities, and myths are used to interpret or attempt to understand the mythology and religion of other cultures.
Iron Age Scandinavia (or Nordic Iron Age) refers to the Iron Age, as it unfolded in Scandinavia.
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, (Tolkien pronounced his surname, see his phonetic transcription published on the illustration in The Return of the Shadow: The History of The Lord of the Rings, Part One. Christopher Tolkien. London: Unwin Hyman, 1988. (The History of Middle-earth; 6). In General American the surname is also pronounced. This pronunciation no doubt arose by analogy with such words as toll and polka, or because speakers of General American realise as, while often hearing British as; thus or General American become the closest possible approximation to the Received Pronunciation for many American speakers. Wells, John. 1990. Longman pronunciation dictionary. Harlow: Longman, 3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English writer, poet, philologist, and university professor who is best known as the author of the classic high fantasy works The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, and The Silmarillion.
Jacqueline Simpson (born 1930) is a British researcher and author on folklore and legends.
Jan Pieter Marie Laurens de Vries (11 February 1890 – 23 July 1964) was a Dutch scholar of Germanic linguistics and Germanic mythology, from 1926 to 1945 ordinarius at Leiden University and author of reference works still in use today.
In Norse mythology, a jötunn (plural jötnar) is a type of entity contrasted with gods and other figures, such as dwarfs and elves.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Kaupang was a Norse term for market-place.
Kjalnesinga saga is one of the sagas of Icelanders.
Landnámabók (“Book of Settlements”), often shortened to Landnáma, is a medieval Icelandic written work which describes in considerable detail the settlement (''landnám'') of Iceland by the Norse in the 9th and 10th centuries CE.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
A legendary saga or fornaldarsaga (literally, "story/history of the ancient era") is a Norse saga that, unlike the Icelanders' sagas, takes place before the colonization of Iceland.
Lokasenna ("Loki's flyting," "Loki's wrangling," "Loki's quarrel") is one of the poems of the Poetic Edda.
Loki (Old Norse, Modern Icelandic, often Anglicized as) is a god in Norse mythology.
A longhouse or long house is a type of long, proportionately narrow, single-room building built by peoples in various parts of the world including Asia, Europe, and North America.
Lotte Motz, born Lotte Edlis, (August 16, 1922 – December 24, 1997) was an Austrian-American scholar who published four books and many scholarly papers, primarily in the fields of Germanic mythology and folklore.
Louis the Pious (778 – 20 June 840), also called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was the King of the Franks and co-Emperor (as Louis I) with his father, Charlemagne, from 813.
Lucifer is a name that, according to dictionaries of the English language, refers either to the Devil or to the planet Venus when appearing as the morning star.
Magic is a category in Western culture into which have been placed various beliefs and practices considered separate from both religion and science.
Magnus Bernhard Olsen (Arendal, 28 November 1878Oslo, 16 January 1963) by Magnus Rindal in Norsk Biografisk Leksikon online at Store Norske Leksikon.
Margaret Beryl Clunies Ross (born 24 April 1942) is a medievalist who was until her retirement in 2009 the McCaughey Professor of English Language and Early English Literature and Director of the Centre for Medieval Studies at the University of Sydney.
Market town or market right is a legal term, originating in the Middle Ages, for a European settlement that has the right to host markets, distinguishing it from a village and city.
Material culture is the physical aspect of culture in the objects and architecture that surround people.
Mære is a village in the municipality of Steinkjer in Trøndelag county, Norway.
Mývatn is a shallow eutrophic lake situated in an area of active volcanism in the north of Iceland, not far from Krafla volcano.
Midgard (an anglicised form of Old Norse Miðgarðr; Old English Middangeard, Swedish and Danish Midgård, Old Saxon Middilgard, Old High German Mittilagart, Gothic Midjun-gards; "middle yard") is the name for Earth (equivalent in meaning to the Greek term οἰκουμένη, "inhabited") inhabited by and known to humans in early Germanic cosmology, and specifically one of the Nine Worlds in Norse mythology.
The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.
In Norse mythology, Mjölnir (Mjǫllnir) is the hammer of Thor, the Norse god associated with thunder.
In Norse mythology, Muspelheim (Múspellsheimr), also called Muspell (Múspell), is a realm of fire.
Mythology refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people or to the study of such myths.
A nation is a stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, economic life, ethnicity or psychological make-up manifested in a common culture.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Neo-Nazism consists of post-World War II militant social or political movements seeking to revive and implement the ideology of Nazism.
Neoshamanism refers to "new"' forms of shamanism, or methods of seeking visions or healing.
Niðafjöll (pronounced, also written Niðvellir), which means dark mountains, are located in the northern underworld.
Niflheim (or Niflheimr) ("Mist Home", the "Abode of Mist" or "Mist World", or probably world of the darkness according to the Oxford English Dictionary) is one of the Nine Worlds and is a location in Norse mythology which sometimes overlaps with the notions of Niflhel and Hel.
In Norse mythology, Njörðr is a god among the Vanir.
A noaidi (noaidi, noajdde, nåejttie, nōjjd, niojte, noojd/nuojd) is a shaman of the Sami people in the Nordic countries representing an indigenous nature religion.
Nord-Trøndelag ("North Trøndelag") was a county constituting the northern part of the present-day Trøndelag county in Norway.
The Nordic Bronze Age (also Northern Bronze Age, or Scandinavian Bronze Age) is a period of Scandinavian prehistory from c. 1700–500 BC.
The Norns (norn, plural: nornir) in Norse mythologyThe article in Nordisk familjebok (1907).
Norse mythology is the body of myths of the North Germanic people stemming from Norse paganism and continuing after the Christianization of Scandinavia and into the Scandinavian folklore of the modern period.
In Germanic mythology, Odin (from Óðinn /ˈoːðinː/) is a widely revered god.
Olaf Tryggvason (960s – 9 September 1000) was King of Norway from 995 to 1000.
Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.
The Oseberg ship (Norwegian: Osebergskipet) is a well-preserved Viking ship discovered in a large burial mound at the Oseberg farm near Tønsberg in Vestfold county, Norway.
In historical legal systems, an outlaw is declared as outside the protection of the law.
A picture stone, image stone or figure stone is an ornate slab of stone, usually limestone, which was raised in Germanic Iron Age or Viking Age Scandinavia, and in the greatest number on Gotland.
Poetic Edda is the modern attribution for an unnamed collection of Old Norse anonymous poems, which is different from the Edda written by Snorri Sturluson.
Polytheism (from Greek πολυθεϊσμός, polytheismos) is the worship of or belief in multiple deities, which are usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own religions and rituals.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
The Prologue is the first section of four books of the Prose Edda, and consists of a euhemerized account of the origins of Norse mythology: the Norse gods are described descended from the Thracians.
The Prose Edda, also known as the Younger Edda, Snorri's Edda (Snorra Edda) or, historically, simply as Edda, is an Old Norse work of literature written in Iceland in the early 13th century.
Proto-Indo-European religion is the belief system adhered to by the Proto-Indo-Europeans.
Proto-Norse (also called Proto-Scandinavian, Proto-Nordic, Ancient Scandinavian, Proto-North Germanic and a variety of other names) was an Indo-European language spoken in Scandinavia that is thought to have evolved as a northern dialect of Proto-Germanic in the first centuries CE.
In Norse mythology, Ragnarök is a series of future events, including a great battle, foretold to ultimately result in the death of a number of major figures (including the gods Odin, Thor, Týr, Freyr, Heimdallr, and Loki), the occurrence of various natural disasters, and the subsequent submersion of the world in water.
Rígsþula or Rígsmál ("Lay of Ríg") is an Eddic poem, preserved in the manuscript (AM 242 fol, the Codex Wormianus), in which a Norse god named Ríg or Rígr, described as "old and wise, mighty and strong", fathers the classes of mankind.
Surviving texts indicate that there was a belief in rebirth in Norse religion.
Religion in Ancient Rome includes the ancestral ethnic religion of the city of Rome that the Romans used to define themselves as a people, as well as the religious practices of peoples brought under Roman rule, in so far as they became widely followed in Rome and Italy.
Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas (or, as some of his later works were later known, "music dramas").
Rindr (Old Norse) or Rinda (Latin) (sometimes Anglicized Rind) is a female character in Norse mythology, alternatively described as a giantess, a goddess or a human princess from the east (somewhere in present-day Ukraine).
The River Hull is a navigable river in the East Riding of Yorkshire in Northern England.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
Roseberry Topping is a distinctive hill in North Yorkshire, England.
Roskilde, located west of Copenhagen on the Danish island of Zealand, is the main city in Roskilde Municipality.
Runes are the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialised purposes thereafter.
A runestone is typically a raised stone with a runic inscription, but the term can also be applied to inscriptions on boulders and on bedrock.
A sacred grove or sacred woods are any grove of trees that are of special religious importance to a particular culture.
In many historical societies, the position of kingship carries a sacral meaning, that is, it is identical with that of a high priest and of judge.
Trees hold a particular role in Germanic paganism and Germanic mythology, both as individuals (sacred trees) and in groups (sacred groves).
Sagas are stories mostly about ancient Nordic and Germanic history, early Viking voyages, the battles that took place during the voyages, and migration to Iceland and of feuds between Icelandic families.
Eiríks saga rauða or the Saga of Erik the Red is a saga, thought to have been composed before 1265, on the Norse exploration of North-America.
The Sagas of Icelanders (Íslendingasögur), also known as family sagas, are prose narratives mostly based on historical events that mostly took place in Iceland in the 9th, 10th, and early 11th centuries, during the so-called Saga Age.
Saint Boniface (Bonifatius; 675 – 5 June 754 AD), born Winfrid (also spelled Winifred, Wynfrith, Winfrith or Wynfryth) in the kingdom of Wessex in Anglo-Saxon England, was a leading figure in the Anglo-Saxon mission to the Germanic parts of the Frankish Empire during the 8th century.
The Sami people (also known as the Sámi or the Saami) are a Finno-Ugric people inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses large parts of Norway and Sweden, northern parts of Finland, and the Murmansk Oblast of Russia.
Traditional Sámi spiritual practices and beliefs can vary considerably from region to region within Sápmi.
Saxo Grammaticus (1160 – 1220), also known as Saxo cognomine Longus, was a Danish historian, theologian and author.
The Saxons (Saxones, Sachsen, Seaxe, Sahson, Sassen, Saksen) were a Germanic people whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, Saxonia) near the North Sea coast of what is now Germany.
In Norse mythology, Sæhrímnir is the creature killed and eaten every night by the Æsir and einherjar.
Södermanland, sometimes referred to under its Latin form Sudermannia or Sudermania, is a historical province or landskap on the south eastern coast of Sweden.
Scandinavian folklore or Nordic folklore is the folklore of Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Iceland and the Faroe Islands.
Scania, also known as Skåne, is the southernmost province (landskap) of Sweden.
Scholia (singular scholium or scholion, from σχόλιον, "comment, interpretation") are grammatical, critical, or explanatory comments, either original or extracted from pre-existing commentaries, which are inserted on the margin of the manuscript of an ancient author, as glosses.
In Old Norse, seiðr (sometimes anglicized as seidhr, seidh, seidr, seithr, seith, or seid) was a type of sorcery practiced in Norse society during the Late Scandinavian Iron Age.
The age of settlement of Iceland (Icelandic: landnámsöld) is generally believed to have begun in the second half of the 9th century, when Norse settlers migrated across the North Atlantic.
Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.
A ship burial or boat grave is a burial in which a ship or boat is used either as a container for the dead and the grave goods, or as a part of the grave goods itself.
In Norse mythology, Sindri (from the Old Norse sindr: "spark") is the name of both a character (probably a dwarf) and a hall that will serve as a dwelling place for the souls of the virtuous after Ragnarök.
In Norse mythology, Skaði (sometimes anglicized as Skadi, Skade, or Skathi) is a jötunn and goddess associated with bowhunting, skiing, winter, and mountains.
The term skald, or skáld (Old Norse:, later;, meaning "poet"), is generally used for poets who composed at the courts of Scandinavian and Icelandic leaders during the Viking Age and Middle Ages.
The second part of Snorri Sturluson's Prose Edda the Skáldskaparmál ("language of poetry"; c. 50,000 words) is effectively a dialogue between Ægir, the Norse god of the sea, and Bragi, the god of poetry, in which both Norse mythology and discourse on the nature of poetry are intertwined.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
Snorri Sturluson (1179 – 23 September 1241) was an Icelandic historian, poet, and politician.
According to the Hebrew Bible, Solomon's Temple, also known as the First Temple, was the Holy Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ: Beit HaMikdash) in ancient Jerusalem before its destruction by Nebuchadnezzar II after the Siege of Jerusalem of 587 BCE and its subsequent replacement with the Second Temple in the 6th century BCE.
Sonatorrek ("the irreparable loss of sons") is a skaldic poem in 25 stanzas by Egill Skallagrímsson (ca. 910–990).
Elseus Sophus Bugge (5 January 1833 – 8 July 1907) was a noted Norwegian philologist and linguist.
The stone ship or ship setting was an early burial custom in Scandinavia, Northern Germany and the Baltic states.
Strängnäs is a locality and the seat of Strängnäs Municipality, Södermanland County, Sweden with 12,856 inhabitants in 2010.
Strängnäs Municipality (Strängnäs kommun) is a municipality in Södermanland County in eastern Sweden, located by Lake Mälaren.
Sune Lindqvist (20 March 1887 – 23 March 1976) was a Swedish archaeologist and scholar.
In Norse mythology, Surtr (Old Norse "black"Orchard (1997:154). or "the swarthy one"Simek (2007:303–304)) is a jötunn.
Sutton Hoo, near Woodbridge, Suffolk, is the site of two 6th- and early 7th-century cemeteries.
The swan maiden is a mythical creature who shapeshifts from human form to swan form.
Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (–) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire.
Tønsberg is a city and municipality in Vestfold county, southern Norway, located around south-southwest of Oslo on the western coast of the Oslofjord near its mouth onto the Skagerrak.
Týr (Old Norse: Týr short.
The Temple at Uppsala was a religious center in the ancient Norse religion once located at what is now Gamla Uppsala (Swedish "Old Uppsala"), Sweden attested in Adam of Bremen's 11th-century work Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum and in Heimskringla, written by Snorri Sturluson in the 13th century.
The Lord of the Rings is an epic high fantasy novel written by English author and scholar J. R. R. Tolkien.
In Norse mythology, Thor (from Þórr) is the hammer-wielding god of thunder, lightning, storms, oak trees, strength, the protection of mankind, in addition to hallowing, and fertility.
Tolkien's legendarium is the body of J. R. R. Tolkien's mythopoetic writing that forms the background to his The Lord of the Rings.
Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.
In cultural anthropology and cultural geography, cultural diffusion, as conceptualized by Leo Frobenius in his 1897/98 publication Der westafrikanische Kulturkreis, is the spread of cultural items—such as ideas, styles, religions, technologies, languages—between individuals, whether within a single culture or from one culture to another.
Trøndelag is a county in the central part of Norway.
The trifunctional hypothesis of prehistoric Proto-Indo-European society postulates a tripartite ideology ("idéologie tripartite") reflected in the existence of three classes or castes—priests, warriors, and commoners (farmers or tradesmen)—corresponding to the three functions of the sacral, the martial and the economic, respectively.
Troy (Τροία, Troia or Τροίας, Troias and Ἴλιον, Ilion or Ἴλιος, Ilios; Troia and Ilium;Trōia is the typical Latin name for the city. Ilium is a more poetic term: Hittite: Wilusha or Truwisha; Truva or Troya) was a city in the far northwest of the region known in late Classical antiquity as Asia Minor, now known as Anatolia in modern Turkey, near (just south of) the southwest mouth of the Dardanelles strait and northwest of Mount Ida.
A tumulus (plural tumuli) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves.
A tutelary (also tutelar) is a deity or spirit who is a guardian, patron, or protector of a particular place, geographic feature, person, lineage, nation, culture, or occupation.
In early Germanic paganism, *Wulþuz ("glory") appears to have been an important concept, perhaps personified as a god, or an epithet of an important god; it is continued in Old Norse tradition as Ullr, a god associated with archery.
Uppåkra is a village and parish in Staffanstorp Municipality, in Scania, southern Sweden, located five kilometres south of Lund.
Uppland is a historical province or landskap on the eastern coast of Sweden, just north of Stockholm, the capital.
Ursula Miriam Dronke (née Brown, 3 November 1920 – 8 March 2012Heather O'Donoghue,, The Guardian 25 March 2012.) was a medievalist and former Vigfússon Reader in Old Norse at the University of Oxford and an Emeritus Fellow of Linacre College.
In Norse mythology, Vafþrúðnismál (Vafþrúðnir's sayings) is the third poem in the Poetic Edda.
The valknut (coined from Old Norse valr, "slain warriors" and knut, "knot") is a symbol consisting of three interlocked triangles.
In Norse mythology, a valkyrie (from Old Norse valkyrja "chooser of the slain") is one of a host of female figures who choose those who may die in battle and those who may live.
In Norse mythology, the Vanir (singular Vanr) are a group of gods associated with fertility, wisdom, and the ability to see the future.
The Varangians (Væringjar; Greek: Βάραγγοι, Várangoi, Βαριάγοι, Variágoi) was the name given by Greeks, Rus' people and Ruthenians to Vikings,"," Online Etymology Dictionary who between the 9th and 11th centuries, ruled the medieval state of Kievan Rus', settled among many territories of modern Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, and formed the Byzantine Varangian Guard.
Vatnsdœla saga is one of the sagas of Icelanders.
In Norse mythology, Vár or Vór (Old Norse, meaning either "pledge"Orchard (1997:173). or "beloved"Byock (2005:178) and Simek (2007:353).) is a goddess associated with oaths and agreements.
Vä is a former town in Scania, now a village in the municipality of Kristianstad in Sweden, ca 5 km south west of the town of Kristianstad.
Vættir (Old Norse; singular '''Vættr''') or wights are nature spirits in Norse mythology.
In Germanic paganism, a vé (Old Norse) or wēoh (Old English) is a type of shrine or sacred enclosure.
Víga-Glúms saga is one of the Sagas of Icelanders.
"Vǫlsa þáttr" is a short story which is only extant in the Flateyjarbók codex, where it is found in a chapter of Óláfs saga helga.
A vǫlva or völva (Old Norse and Icelandic, respectively; plural forms vǫlur and völvur, sometimes anglicized vala; also spákona or spækona) is a female shaman and seer in Norse religion and a recurring motif in Norse mythology.
Veliky Novgorod (p), also known as Novgorod the Great, or Novgorod Veliky, or just Novgorod, is one of the most important historic cities in Russia, which serves as the administrative center of Novgorod Oblast.
The Viking Age (793–1066 AD) is a period in European history, especially Northern European and Scandinavian history, following the Germanic Iron Age.
In many areas of Scandinavia, a wide variety of items were deposited in lakes and bogs from the Mesolithic period through to the Middle Ages.
Willehad or Willihad (Willehadus/Willihadus); 745 AD 8 November 789 AD) was a Christian missionary and the Bishop of Bremen from 787 AD. Willehad was born in Northumbria and probably received his education at York under Ecgbert. A friend of Alcuin he was ordained after his education and, about the year 766, he went to Frisia, preaching at Dokkum and in Overijssel, to continue the missionary work of Boniface who had been martyred by the Frisians in 754. At an assembly in Paderborn in 777, Saxony was divided into missionary zones. The zone between the Weser and the Elbe, called Wigmodia, was given to Willehad. From 780 he preached in the region of the lower Weser River on commission from Charlemagne. He barely escaped with his life when the Frisians wanted to kill him as well and he returned to the area around Utrecht. Once again he and his fellow missionaries barely escaped with their lives when the local pagans wanted to kill them for destroying some temples. Finally, in 780, Charlemagne sent him to evangelize the Saxons. He preached to them for two years but, in 782, the Saxons under Widukind, rebelled against Charlemagne and Willehad was forced to flee to Frisia. He took the opportunity to travel to Rome where he reported to Pope Adrian I on his work. Upon his return from Rome, Willehad retired for a time to the monastery of Echternach, in present-day Luxembourg. He spent two years there reassembling his missionary team. After Charlemagne's conquest of the Saxons, Willehad preached in the region about the lower Elbe and the lower Weser. In 787 Willehad was consecrated bishop, and that part of Saxony and Friesland about the mouth of the Weser assigned him for his diocese. He chose as his see the city of Bremen, which is mentioned for the first time in documents of 782, and built there a cathedral. Praised for its beauty by Anschar, it was dedicated in 789. Willehad died in Blexen upon Weser, today a part of Nordenham. He is buried in the city's cathedral, which he consecrated shortly before his death on 8 November 789. Anschar compiled a life of Willehad, and the preface which he wrote was considered a masterpiece for that age. In 860, a sick girl from Wege (Weyhe) travelled to his grave. There, she was reportedly cured by a miracle. This was the first time the small village was mentioned in any historical documents.
Willerich (*unknown – 4 May? 838*) was the second bishop of Bremen in Germany; or, according to some, the first, his predecessor Willehad being just a missionary in the area, and the diocese set up after his death.
Willibrord (658 – 7 November AD 739) was a Northumbrian missionary saint, known as the "Apostle to the Frisians" in the modern Netherlands.
The world tree is a motif present in several religions and mythologies, particularly Indo-European religions, Siberian religions, and Native American religions.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yggdrasil (or; from Old Norse Yggdrasill, pronounced) is an immense mythical tree that connects the nine worlds in Norse cosmology.
In Norse mythology, Ymir, Aurgelmir, Brimir, or Bláinn is the ancestor of all jötnar.
Ynglinga saga is a legendary saga, originally written in Old Norse by the Icelandic poet and historian Snorri Sturluson about 1225.
Ynglingatal is a Skaldic poem cited by Snorri Sturluson in the Ynglinga saga, the first saga of Snorri's Heimskringla.
The Younger Futhark, also called Scandinavian runes, is a runic alphabet and a reduced form of the Elder Futhark, with only 16 characters, in use from about the 9th century, after a "transitional period" during the 7th and 8th centuries.
Ancient Norse religion, Nordic paganism, Nordic religion, Norse Paganism, Norse pagan, Norse paganism, Norse paganist, Norse polytheism, Norse religion, North Germanic religion, Old Norse Religion, Scandinavian paganism, Scandinavian polytheism, Traditional Norse religion, Viking religion.