210 relations: Abrogation of Old Covenant laws, Alexandria, Anglicanism, Aquila of Sinope, Arabic, Armenians, Athanasius of Alexandria, Augustine of Hippo, Authorship of the Bible, Babylonian captivity, Bava Batra, Bel and the Dragon, Ben Sira, Benedicite, Bernhard Anderson, Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia, Biblical and Quranic narratives, Biblical apocrypha, Biblical canon, Biblical criticism, Book of Amos, Book of Baruch, Book of Daniel, Book of Deuteronomy, Book of Esther, Book of Exodus, Book of Ezekiel, Book of Ezra, Book of Genesis, Book of Habakkuk, Book of Haggai, Book of Hosea, Book of Isaiah, Book of Jeremiah, Book of Job, Book of Job in Byzantine illuminated manuscripts, Book of Joel, Book of Jonah, Book of Joshua, Book of Judges, Book of Judith, Book of Lamentations, Book of Leviticus, Book of Malachi, Book of Micah, Book of Nahum, Book of Nehemiah, Book of Numbers, Book of Obadiah, Book of Proverbs, ..., Book of Ruth, Book of Tobit, Book of Wisdom, Book of Zechariah, Book of Zephaniah, Books of Chronicles, Books of Kings, Books of Samuel, Books of the Bible, Books of the Maccabees, Canada, Canon of Trent, Catholic Church, Chosen people, Christian denomination, Christian liturgy, Codex Alexandrinus, Codex Sinaiticus, Codex Vaticanus, Confession of Peter, Constans, Constantine the Great and Christianity, Coptic language, Council of Rome, Councils of Carthage, Covenant (biblical), Davidic line, Dead Sea Scrolls, Deuterocanonical books, Deuteronomist, Development of the Hebrew Bible canon, Divine judgment, Douay–Rheims Bible, Eastern / Greek Orthodox Bible, Eastern Christianity, Eastern Orthodox Church, Ecclesiastes, Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, Ecumenism, Elijah, English Civil War, English Standard Version, Enoch (ancestor of Noah), Esdras, Ethics, Eusebius, Ezra–Nehemiah, Faith, Fifty Bibles of Constantine, Fornication, Ge'ez script, God in Judaism, Gospel of Mark, Greg Bahnsen, Hellenization, Hexapla, Historical Jesus, Israelites, Jericho, Jerome, Jerusalem Bible, Jesus, John the Baptist, Judea (Roman province), Ketuvim, King James Version, Koine Greek, Language of Jesus, Last Judgment, Law and Gospel, Letter of Jeremiah, List of ancient legal codes, List of Hebrew Bible manuscripts, Luther Bible, Lutheranism, Maccabees, Major prophet, Marcion of Sinope, Masoretes, Masoretic Text, Matthew 5, Messiah, Mishneh Torah, Monolatry, Monotheism, Nevi'im, New American Bible, New American Bible Revised Edition, New Covenant, New Revised Standard Version, New Testament, Nicopolis, Noah, Non-canonical books referenced in the Bible, Oriental Orthodoxy, Origen, Peshitta, Philip Schaff, Pope Damasus I, Prayer of Manasseh, Problem of evil, Proselyte, Protestant Bible, Protestantism, Protocanonical books, Psalm 151, Psalms, Ptolemy II Philadelphus, Quotations from the Hebrew Bible in the New Testament, Redemption (theology), Revised Standard Version, Revised Standard Version Catholic Edition, Richard Challoner, Ritual purification, Russian Synodal Bible, Salvation, Second Temple, Secunda (Hexapla), Sefer (Hebrew), Septuagint, Siege of Jerusalem (587 BC), Sirach, Sixto-Clementine Vulgate, Social justice, Son of man, Song of Songs, Supersessionism, Susanna (Book of Daniel), Symmachus (translator), Synod of Hippo, Synod of Jerusalem (1672), Syriac language, Talmud, Tanakh, Targum, Tetragrammaton, The Prayer of Azariah and Song of the Three Holy Children, Theodotion, Thirty-nine Articles, Timeline of Genesis patriarchs, Torah, Twelve Minor Prophets, University of Edinburgh, Vetus Latina, Vulgate, Western Christianity, Western Roman Empire, Westminster Confession of Faith, Wisdom literature, World to come, Yahweh, Yehud Medinata, Zephaniah, Zion, 1 Esdras, 1 Maccabees, 2 Esdras, 2 Maccabees, 3 Maccabees, 4 Maccabees. Expand index (160 more) » « Shrink index
While most Christian theology reflects the view that at least some Mosaic Laws have been set aside under the New Covenant, there are some theology systems that view the entire Mosaic or Old Covenant as abrogated in that all of the Mosaic Laws are set aside for the Law of Christ.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
Aquila "Ponticus" (fl. 130 AD) of Sinope (modern-day Sinop, Turkey) was a translator of the Old Testament into Greek, proselyte, and disciple of Rabbi Akiva, assumed to be one and the same as Onkelos.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Athanasius of Alexandria (Ἀθανάσιος Ἀλεξανδρείας; ⲡⲓⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ ⲁⲑⲁⲛⲁⲥⲓⲟⲩ ⲡⲓⲁⲡⲟⲥⲧⲟⲗⲓⲕⲟⲥ or Ⲡⲁⲡⲁ ⲁⲑⲁⲛⲁⲥⲓⲟⲩ ⲁ̅; c. 296–298 – 2 May 373), also called Athanasius the Great, Athanasius the Confessor or, primarily in the Coptic Orthodox Church, Athanasius the Apostolic, was the 20th bishop of Alexandria (as Athanasius I).
Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.
Few biblical books are the work of a single author, and most have been edited and revised to produce the texts we have today.
The Babylonian captivity or Babylonian exile is the period in Jewish history during which a number of people from the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylonia.
Bava Batra (also Baba Batra; Talmudic Aramaic: בבא בתרא "The Last Gate") is the third of the three tractates in the Talmud in the order Nezikin; it deals with a person's responsibilities and rights as the owner of property.
The narrative of Bel and the Dragon is incorporated as chapter 14 of the extended Book of Daniel.
Ben Sira, or Ben Sirach, also known as Shimon ben Yeshua ben Eliezer ben Sira or Jesus Ben Sirach, (fl. 2nd century BCE) was a Hellenistic Jewish scribe, sage, and allegorist from Jerusalem.
The Benedicite (also Benedicite, omnia opera Domini or A Song of Creation) is a canticle that is used in the Roman Catholic Liturgy of the Hours, and is also used in Anglican and Lutheran worship.
Bernhard Word Anderson (1916 – December 26, 2007) was an American United Methodist pastor and Old Testament scholar.
The Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia, abbreviated as BHS or rarely BH4, is an edition of the Masoretic Text of the Hebrew Bible as preserved in the Leningrad Codex, and supplemented by masoretic and text-critical notes.
The Quran, the central religious text of Islam, contains references to more than fifty people and events also found in the Bible.
The Biblical apocrypha (from the Greek ἀπόκρυφος, apókruphos, meaning "hidden") denotes the collection of apocryphal ancient books found in some editions of Christian Bibles in a separate section between the Old and New Testaments or as an appendix after the New Testament.
A biblical canon or canon of scripture is a set of texts (or "books") which a particular religious community regards as authoritative scripture.
Biblical criticism is a philosophical and methodological approach to studying the Bible, using neutral non-sectarian judgment, that grew out of the scientific thinking of the Age of Reason (1700–1789).
The Book of Amos is the third of the Twelve Minor Prophets in the Tanakh/Old Testament and the second in the Greek Septuagint tradition.
The Book of Baruch, occasionally referred to as 1 Baruch, is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible in some Christian traditions.
The Book of Daniel is a biblical apocalypse, combining a prophecy of history with an eschatology (the study of last things) which is both cosmic in scope and political in its focus.
The Book of Deuteronomy (literally "second law," from Greek deuteros + nomos) is the fifth book of the Torah (a section of the Hebrew Bible) and the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Esther, also known in Hebrew as "the Scroll" (Megillah), is a book in the third section (Ketuvim, "Writings") of the Jewish Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible) and in the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Exodus or, simply, Exodus (from ἔξοδος, éxodos, meaning "going out"; וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמוֹת, we'elleh shəmōṯ, "These are the names", the beginning words of the text: "These are the names of the sons of Israel" וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמֹות בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל), is the second book of the Torah and the Hebrew Bible (the Old Testament) immediately following Genesis.
The Book of Ezekiel is the third of the Latter Prophets in the Tanakh and one of the major prophetic books in the Old Testament, following Isaiah and Jeremiah.
The Book of Ezra is a book of the Hebrew Bible; which formerly included the Book of Nehemiah in a single book, commonly distinguished in scholarship as Ezra–Nehemiah.
The Book of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek "", meaning "Origin"; בְּרֵאשִׁית, "Bərēšīṯ", "In beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and the Old Testament.
The Book of Habakkuk is the eighth book of the 12 minor prophets of the Bible.
The Book of Haggai is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and has its place as the third-to-last of the Minor Prophets.
The Book of Hosea is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible.
The Book of Isaiah (ספר ישעיהו) is the first of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible and the first of the Major Prophets in the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Jeremiah (ספר יִרְמְיָהוּ; abbreviated Jer. or Jerm. in citations) is the second of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible, and the second of the Prophets in the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Job (Hebrew: אִיוֹב Iyov) is a book in the Ketuvim ("Writings") section of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh), and the first poetic book in the Old Testament of the Christian Bible.
There are fourteen known Byzantine manuscripts of the Book of Job dating from the 9th to 14th centuries, as well as a post-Byzantine codex illuminated with cycle of miniatures.
The Book of Joel is part of the Hebrew Bible.
The Book of Jonah is a book of the Nevi’im (“Prophets”) in the Hebrew Bible.
The Book of Joshua (ספר יהושע) is the sixth book in the Hebrew Bible (the Christian Old Testament) and the first book of the Deuteronomistic history, the story of Israel from the conquest of Canaan to the Babylonian exile.
The Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is the seventh book of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Judith is a deuterocanonical book, included in the Septuagint and the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christian Old Testament of the Bible, but excluded from Jewish texts and assigned by Protestants to the Apocrypha.
The Book of Lamentations (אֵיכָה, ‘Êykhôh, from its incipit meaning "how") is a collection of poetic laments for the destruction of Jerusalem.
The Book of Leviticus is the third book of the Torah and of the Old Testament.
Malachi (or Malachias; מַלְאָכִי, Malʾaḫi, Mál'akhî) is the last book of the Neviim contained in the Tanakh, the last of the Twelve Minor Prophets (canonically) and the final book of the Neviim.
The Book of Micah is a prophetic book in the TanakhOld Testament, and the sixth of the twelve minor prophets.
The Book of Nahum is the seventh book of the 12 minor prophets of the Hebrew Bible.
The Book of Nehemiah has been, since the 16th century, a separate book of the Hebrew Bible.
The Book of Numbers (from Greek Ἀριθμοί, Arithmoi; בְּמִדְבַּר, Bəmiḏbar, "In the desert ") is the fourth book of the Hebrew Bible, and the fourth of five books of the Jewish Torah.
The Book of Obadiah is an oracle concerning the divine judgment of Edom and the restoration of Israel.
The Book of Proverbs (Hebrew: מִשְלֵי, Míshlê (Shlomoh), "Proverbs (of Solomon)") is the second book of the third section (called Writings) of the Hebrew Bible and a book of the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Ruth (מגילת רות, Ashkenazi pronunciation:, Megilath Ruth, "the Scroll of Ruth", one of the Five Megillot) is included in the third division, or the Writings (Ketuvim), of the Hebrew Bible; in most Christian canons it is treated as a history book and placed between Judges and 1 Samuel, as it is set "in the days when the judges judged", although the Syriac Christian tradition places it later, between Ecclesiastes and the Song of Songs.
The Book of Tobit is a book of scripture that is part of the Catholic and Orthodox biblical canons, pronounced canonical by the Council of Hippo (in 393), Councils of Carthage of 397 and 417, Council of Florence (in 1442) and confirmed for Roman Catholics by the Council of Trent (1546).
The Wisdom of Solomon or Book of Wisdom is a Jewish work, written in Greek, composed in Alexandria (Egypt).
The Book of Zechariah, attributed to the Hebrew prophet Zechariah, is included in the Twelve Minor Prophets in the Hebrew Bible.
The Book of Zephaniah is the ninth of the Twelve Minor Prophets, preceded by the Book of Habakkuk and followed by the Book of Haggai.
In the Christian Bible, the two Books of Chronicles (commonly referred to as 1 Chronicles and 2 Chronicles, or First Chronicles and Second Chronicles) generally follow the two Books of Kings and precede Ezra–Nehemiah, thus concluding the history-oriented books of the Old Testament, often referred to as the Deuteronomistic history.
The two Books of Kings, originally a single book, are the eleventh and twelfth books of the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament.
The Books of Samuel, 1 Samuel and 2 Samuel.
Different religious groups include different books in their biblical canons, in varying orders, and sometimes divide or combine books.
The Books of the Maccabees are books concerned with the Maccabees, the leaders of the Jewish rebellion against the Seleucid dynasty, or related subjects.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Canon of Trent usually refers to the list of biblical books that were from the Council of Trent on to be officially considered canonical.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Throughout history, various groups of people have considered themselves to be chosen people by a deity for a purpose, such as to act as the deity's agent on earth.
A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organisation, leadership and doctrine.
Christian liturgy is a pattern for worship used (whether recommended or prescribed) by a Christian congregation or denomination on a regular basis.
The Codex Alexandrinus (London, British Library, MS Royal 1. D. V-VIII; Gregory-Aland no. A or 02, Soden δ 4) is a fifth-century manuscript of the Greek Bible,The Greek Bible in this context refers to the Bible used by Greek-speaking Christians who lived in Egypt and elsewhere during the early history of Christianity.
Codex Sinaiticus (Σιναϊτικός Κώδικας, קודקס סינאיטיקוס; Shelfmarks and references: London, Brit. Libr., Additional Manuscripts 43725; Gregory-Aland nº א [Aleph] or 01, [Soden δ 2]) or "Sinai Bible" is one of the four great uncial codices, an ancient, handwritten copy of the Greek Bible.
The Codex Vaticanus (The Vatican, Bibl. Vat., Vat. gr. 1209; no. B or 03 Gregory-Aland, δ 1 von Soden) is regarded as the oldest extant manuscript of the Greek Bible (Old and New Testament), one of the four great uncial codices.
In Christianity, the Confession of Peter (anglicized from the Matthean Vulgate Latin section title: Confessio Petri) refers to an episode in the New Testament in which the Apostle Peter proclaims Jesus to be the Christ (Jewish Messiah).
Constans (Flavius Julius Constans Augustus;Jones, p. 220 Κῶνστας Αʹ; c. 323 – 350) or Constans I was Roman Emperor from 337 to 350.
During the reign of the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great (AD 306–337), Christianity began to transition to the dominant religion of the Roman Empire.
Coptic or Coptic Egyptian (Bohairic: ti.met.rem.ən.khēmi and Sahidic: t.mənt.rəm.ən.kēme) is the latest stage of the Egyptian language, a northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Egypt until at least the 17th century.
The Council of Rome was a meeting of Catholic Church officials and theologians which took place in 382 under the authority of Pope Damasus I, the current bishop of Rome.
The Councils of Carthage, or Synods of Carthage, were church synods held during the 3rd, 4th, and 5th centuries in the city of Carthage in Africa.
A biblical covenant is a religious covenant that is described in the Bible.
The Davidic line refers to the tracing of lineage to King David through the texts in the Hebrew Bible, in the New Testament, and through the following centuries.
Dead Sea Scrolls (also Qumran Caves Scrolls) are ancient Jewish religious, mostly Hebrew, manuscripts found in the Qumran Caves near the Dead Sea.
The deuterocanonical books (from the Greek meaning "belonging to the second canon") is a term adopted in the 16th century by the Roman Catholic Church to denote those books and passages of the Christian Old Testament, as defined in 1546 by the Council of Trent, that were not found in the Hebrew Bible.
The Deuteronomist, or simply D, is one of the sources identified through source criticism as underlying much of the Hebrew Bible (Christian Old Testament).
Rabbinic Judaism recognizes the 24 books of the Masoretic Text, commonly called the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible, as authoritative.
Divine judgment means the judgment of God or other supreme beings within a religion.
The Douay–Rheims Bible (pronounced or) (also known as the Rheims–Douai Bible or Douai Bible, and abbreviated as D–R and DRB) is a translation of the Bible from the Latin Vulgate into English made by members of the English College, Douai, in the service of the Catholic Church.
The Eastern / Greek Orthodox Bible (EOB) is an English language edition of the Bible published and controlled by Greek Orthodox Christians with limited copyright control and within a collaborative framework.
Eastern Christianity consists of four main church families: the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox churches, the Eastern Catholic churches (that are in communion with Rome but still maintain Eastern liturgies), and the denominations descended from the Church of the East.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Ecclesiastes (Greek: Ἐκκλησιαστής, Ekklēsiastēs, קֹהֶלֶת, qōheleṯ) is one of 24 books of the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible, where it is classified as one of the Ketuvim (or "Writings").
The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople (Οἰκουμενικόν Πατριαρχεῖον Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Oikoumenikón Patriarkhíon Konstantinoupóleos,; Patriarchatus Oecumenicus Constantinopolitanus; Rum Ortodoks Patrikhanesi, "Roman Orthodox Patriarchate") is one of the fourteen autocephalous churches (or "jurisdictions") that together compose the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Ecumenism refers to efforts by Christians of different Church traditions to develop closer relationships and better understandings.
Elijah (meaning "My God is Yahu/Jah") or latinized form Elias (Ἡλίας, Elías; ܐܸܠܝܼܵܐ, Elyāe; Arabic: إلياس or إليا, Ilyās or Ilyā) was, according to the Books of Kings in the Hebrew Bible, a prophet and a miracle worker who lived in the northern kingdom of Israel during the reign of King Ahab (9th century BC).
The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.
The English Standard Version (ESV) is an English translation of the Bible published in 2001 by Crossway.
Enoch is a character of the Antediluvian period in the Hebrew Bible.
Esdras (Ἔσδρας) is a Greco-Latin variation of the name of Hebrew Ezra the Scribe (עזרא).
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
Eusebius of Caesarea (Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, Eusébios tés Kaisareías; 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius Pamphili (from the Εὐσέβιος τοῦ Παμϕίλου), was a historian of Christianity, exegete, and Christian polemicist. He became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima about 314 AD. Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon and is regarded as an extremely learned Christian of his time. He wrote Demonstrations of the Gospel, Preparations for the Gospel, and On Discrepancies between the Gospels, studies of the Biblical text. As "Father of Church History" (not to be confused with the title of Church Father), he produced the Ecclesiastical History, On the Life of Pamphilus, the Chronicle and On the Martyrs. During the Council of Antiochia (325) he was excommunicated for subscribing to the heresy of Arius, and thus withdrawn during the First Council of Nicaea where he accepted that the Homoousion referred to the Logos. Never recognized as a Saint, he became counselor of Constantine the Great, and with the bishop of Nicomedia he continued to polemicize against Saint Athanasius of Alexandria, Church Fathers, since he was condemned in the First Council of Tyre in 335.
Ezra–Nehemiah is a book in the Hebrew Bible found in the Ketuvim section, originally with the Hebrew title of Ezra.
In the context of religion, one can define faith as confidence or trust in a particular system of religious belief, within which faith may equate to confidence based on some perceived degree of warrant, in contrast to the general sense of faith being a belief without evidence.
The Fifty Bibles of Constantine were Bibles in the Greek language commissioned in 331 by Constantine I and prepared by Eusebius of Caesarea.
Fornication is generally consensual sexual intercourse between two people not married to each other.
Ge'ez (Ge'ez: ግዕዝ), also known as Ethiopic, is a script used as an abugida (alphasyllabary) for several languages of Ethiopia and Eritrea.
In Judaism, God has been conceived in a variety of ways.
The Gospel According to Mark (τὸ κατὰ Μᾶρκον εὐαγγέλιον, to kata Markon euangelion), is one of the four canonical gospels and one of the three synoptic gospels.
Greg L. Bahnsen (September 17, 1948 – December 11, 1995) was an American Calvinist philosopher, apologist, and debater.
Hellenization or Hellenisation is the historical spread of ancient Greek culture, religion and, to a lesser extent, language, over foreign peoples conquered by Greeks or brought into their sphere of influence, particularly during the Hellenistic period following the campaigns of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC.
Hexapla (Ἑξαπλᾶ, "sixfold") is the term for a critical edition of the Hebrew Bible in six versions, four of them translated into Greek, preserved only in fragments.
The term historical Jesus refers to attempts to "reconstruct the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth by critical historical methods", in "contrast to Christological definitions ('the dogmatic Christ') and other Christian accounts of Jesus ('the Christ of faith')." It also considers the historical and cultural context in which Jesus lived.
The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.
Jericho (יְרִיחוֹ; أريحا) is a city in the Palestinian Territories and is located near the Jordan River in the West Bank.
Jerome (Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; c. 27 March 347 – 30 September 420) was a priest, confessor, theologian, and historian.
The Jerusalem Bible (JB or TJB) is an English translation of the Bible published in 1966 by Darton, Longman & Todd.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
John the Baptist (יוחנן המטביל Yokhanan HaMatbil, Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής, Iōánnēs ho baptistḗs or Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτίζων, Iōánnēs ho baptízōn,Lang, Bernhard (2009) International Review of Biblical Studies Brill Academic Pub p. 380 – "33/34 CE Herod Antipas's marriage to Herodias (and beginning of the ministry of Jesus in a sabbatical year); 35 CE – death of John the Baptist" ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ ⲡⲓⲡⲣⲟⲇⲣⲟⲙⲟⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ ⲡⲓⲣϥϯⲱⲙⲥ, يوحنا المعمدان) was a Jewish itinerant preacherCross, F. L. (ed.) (2005) Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd ed.
The Roman province of Judea (יהודה, Standard Tiberian; يهودا; Ἰουδαία; Iūdaea), sometimes spelled in its original Latin forms of Iudæa or Iudaea to distinguish it from the geographical region of Judea, incorporated the regions of Judea, Samaria and Idumea, and extended over parts of the former regions of the Hasmonean and Herodian kingdoms of Judea.
Ketuvim (כְּתוּבִים Kəṯûḇîm, "writings") is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), after Torah (instruction) and Nevi'im (prophets).
The King James Version (KJV), also known as the King James Bible (KJB) or simply the Version (AV), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, begun in 1604 and completed in 1611.
It is generally agreed by historians that Jesus and his disciples primarily spoke Aramaic (Jewish Palestinian Aramaic), the common language of Judea in the first century AD, most likely a Galilean dialect distinguishable from that of Jerusalem.
The Last Judgment, Final Judgment, Day of Judgment, Judgment Day, Doomsday, or The Day of the Lord (Hebrew Yom Ha Din) (יום הדין) or in Arabic Yawm al-Qiyāmah (یوم القيامة) or Yawm ad-Din (یوم الدین) is part of the eschatological world view of the Abrahamic religions and in the Frashokereti of Zoroastrianism.
In Protestant Christianity, the relationship between Law and Gospel—God's Law and the Gospel of Jesus Christ—is a major topic in Lutheran and Reformed theology.
The Letter of Jeremiah, also known as the Epistle of Jeremiah, is a deuterocanonical book of the Old Testament; this letter purports to have been written by Jeremiah to the Jews who were about to be carried away as captives to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar.
The legal code was a common feature of the legal systems of the ancient Middle East.
A Hebrew Bible manuscript is a handwritten copy of a portion of the text of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) made on papyrus, parchment, or paper, and written in the Hebrew language.
The Luther Bible (Lutherbibel) is a German language Bible translation from Hebrew and ancient Greek by Martin Luther.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
The Maccabees, also spelled Machabees (מכבים or, Maqabim; or Maccabaei; Μακκαβαῖοι, Makkabaioi), were a group of Jewish rebel warriors who took control of Judea, which at the time was part of the Seleucid Empire.
The Major Prophets is a grouping of books in the Christian Old Testament.
Marcion of Sinope (Greek: Μαρκίων Σινώπης; c. 85 – c. 160) was an important figure in early Christianity.
The Masoretes (Hebrew: Ba'alei ha-Masora) were groups of Jewish scribe-scholars who worked between the 6th and 10th centuries CE, based primarily in early medieval Palestine in the cities of Tiberias and Jerusalem, as well as in Iraq (Babylonia).
The Masoretic Text (MT, 𝕸, or \mathfrak) is the authoritative Hebrew and Aramaic text of the Tanakh for Rabbinic Judaism.
Matthew 5 is the fifth chapter of the Gospel of Matthew in the New Testament.
In Abrahamic religions, the messiah or messias is a saviour or liberator of a group of people.
The Mishneh Torah (מִשְׁנֵה תּוֹרָה, "Repetition of the Torah"), subtitled Sefer Yad ha-Hazaka (ספר יד החזקה "Book of the Strong Hand"), is a code of Jewish religious law (Halakha) authored by Maimonides (Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, also known as RaMBaM or "Rambam").
Monolatry (Greek: μόνος (monos).
Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.
Nevi'im (נְבִיאִים Nəḇî'îm, lit. "spokespersons", "Prophets") is the second main division of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh), between the Torah (instruction) and Ketuvim (writings).
The New American Bible (NAB) is an English translation of the Bible first published in 1970.
The New American Bible Revised Edition (NABRE) is an English-language Catholic Bible translation, the first major update in 20 years to the New American Bible (NAB), originally published in 1970 by the Confraternity of Christian Doctrine.
The New Covenant (Hebrew; Greek διαθήκη καινή diatheke kaine) is a biblical interpretation originally derived from a phrase in the Book of Jeremiah, in the Hebrew Bible.
The New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) is an English translation of the Bible published in 1989 by National Council of Churches.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
Nicopolis (Νικόπολις Nikópolis, "City of Victory") or Actia Nicopolis was the capital city of the Roman province of Epirus Vetus.
In Abrahamic religions, Noah was the tenth and last of the pre-Flood Patriarchs.
The non-canonical books referenced in the Bible includes pseudepigrapha, writings from Hellenistic and other non-Biblical cultures, and lost works of known or unknown status.
Oriental Orthodoxy is the fourth largest communion of Christian churches, with about 76 million members worldwide.
Origen of Alexandria (184 – 253), also known as Origen Adamantius, was a Hellenistic scholar, ascetic, and early Christian theologian who was born and spent the first half of his career in Alexandria.
The Peshitta (ܦܫܝܛܬܐ) is the standard version of the Bible for churches in the Syriac tradition.
Philip Schaff (January 1, 1819 – October 20, 1893) was a Swiss-born, German-educated Protestant theologian and ecclesiastical historian who spent most of his adult life living and teaching in the United States.
Pope Damasus I (c. 305 – 11 December 384) was Pope of the Catholic Church, from October 366 to his death in 384.
The Prayer of Manasseh is a short work of 15 verses recording a penitential prayer attributed to king Manasseh of Judah.
The problem of evil refers to the question of how to reconcile the existence of evil with an omnibenevolent, omniscient, and omnipotent God (see theism).
The biblical term "proselyte" is an anglicization of the Koine Greek term προσήλυτος (proselytos), as used in the Septuagint (Greek Old Testament) for "stranger", i.e. a "newcomer to Israel"; a "sojourner in the land", and in the Greek New Testament for a first century convert to Judaism, generally from Ancient Greek religion.
A Protestant Bible is a Christian Bible whose translation or revision was produced by Protestants.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
The protocanonical books are those books of the Old Testament that are also included in the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and that came to be considered canonical during the formational period of Christianity.
Psalm 151 is a short psalm found in most copies of the Septuagint but not in the Masoretic Text of the Hebrew Bible.
The Book of Psalms (תְּהִלִּים or, Tehillim, "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms or "the Psalms", is the first book of the Ketuvim ("Writings"), the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and a book of the Christian Old Testament.
Ptolemy II Philadelphus (Πτολεμαῖος Φιλάδελφος, Ptolemaîos Philádelphos "Ptolemy Beloved of his Sibling"; 308/9–246 BCE) was the king of Ptolemaic Egypt from 283 to 246 BCE.
There are in all two hundred and eighty-three direct quotations from the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) in the New Testament.
Redemption is an essential concept in many religions, including Judaism and Christianity.
The Revised Standard Version (RSV) is an English translation of the Bible published in 1952 by the Division of Christian Education of the National Council of Churches.
The Revised Standard Version Catholic Edition is an English translation of the Bible first published in 1966.
His Excellency, The Right Reverend Bishop Richard Challoner, Bishop of Doberus (29 September 1691 – 12 January 1781) was an English Roman Catholic bishop, a leading figure of English Catholicism during the greater part of the 18th century.
Ritual purification is the purification ritual prescribed by a religion by which a person about to perform some ritual is considered to be free of uncleanliness, especially prior to the worship of a deity, and ritual purity is a state of ritual cleanliness.
The Russian Synodal Bible (Синодальный перевод, The Synodal Translation) is a Russian non-Church Slavonic translation of the Bible commonly used by the Russian Orthodox Church, Russian Baptists and other Protestant as well as Roman Catholic communities in Russia.
Salvation (salvatio; sōtēría; yāšaʕ; al-ḵalaṣ) is being saved or protected from harm or being saved or delivered from a dire situation.
The Second Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי, Beit HaMikdash HaSheni) was the Jewish Holy Temple which stood on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem during the Second Temple period, between 516 BCE and 70 CE.
The Secunda is the second column of Origen's Hexapla, a compilation of the Hebrew Bible and Greek versions.
Sefer in biblical Hebrew means any kind of "book" or written document (plural s'farim).
The Septuagint or LXX (from the septuāgintā literally "seventy"; sometimes called the Greek Old Testament) is the earliest extant Greek translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew.
In 589 BC, Nebuchadnezzar II laid siege to Jerusalem, culminating in the destruction of the city and its temple in the summer of 587 or 586 BC.
The Book of the All-Virtuous Wisdom of Yeshua ben Sira, commonly called the Wisdom of Sirach or simply Sirach, and also known as the Book of Ecclesiasticus (abbreviated Ecclus.) or Ben Sira, is a work of ethical teachings, from approximately 200 to 175 BCE, written by the Jewish scribe Ben Sira of Jerusalem, on the inspiration of his father Joshua son of Sirach, sometimes called Jesus son of Sirach or Yeshua ben Eliezer ben Sira.
Vulgata Sixto-Clementina, is the edition of Latin Vulgate from 1592, prepared by Pope Clement VIII.
Social justice is a concept of fair and just relations between the individual and society.
"Son of man" is a phrase used in the Hebrew Bible, various apocalyptic works of the intertestamental period, and in the Greek New Testament.
The Song of Songs, also Song of Solomon or Canticles (Hebrew:, Šîr HašŠîrîm, Greek: ᾎσμα ᾎσμάτων, asma asmaton, both meaning Song of Songs), is one of the megillot (scrolls) found in the last section of the Tanakh, known as the Ketuvim (or "Writings"), and a book of the Old Testament.
Supersessionism, also called replacement theology or fulfillment theology, is a Christian doctrine which asserts that the New Covenant through Jesus Christ, supercedes the Old Covenant, which was made exclusively with the Jewish people.
Susanna or Shoshana ("lily"), also called Susanna and the Elders, is included in the Book of Daniel (as chapter 13) by the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches.
Symmachus (Σύμμαχος "ally"; fl. late 2nd century) translated the Old Testament into Greek.
The Synod of Hippo refers to the synod of 393 which was hosted in Hippo Regius in northern Africa during the early Christian Church.
The Synod of Jerusalem was convened by Orthodox Patriarch Dositheos Notaras in March 1672.
Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic.
The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study") is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and theology.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
The targumim (singular: "targum", תרגום) were spoken paraphrases, explanations and expansions of the Jewish scriptures (also called the Tanakh) that a rabbi would give in the common language of the listeners, which was then often Aramaic.
The tetragrammaton (from Greek Τετραγράμματον, meaning " four letters"), in Hebrew and YHWH in Latin script, is the four-letter biblical name of the God of Israel.
The Prayer of Azariah and the Song of the Three Holy Children is a lengthy passage that appears after Daniel 3:23 in Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Bibles, as well as in the ancient Greek Septuagint translation.
Theodotion (Θεοδοτίων, gen.: Θεοδοτίωνος; died c. 200) was a Hellenistic Jewish scholar, perhaps working in Ephesus, who in c. AD 150 translated the Hebrew Bible into Greek.
The Thirty-nine Articles of Religion (commonly abbreviated as the Thirty-nine Articles or the XXXIX Articles) are the historically defining statements of doctrines and practices of the Church of England with respect to the controversies of the English Reformation.
The timeline of the Tanakh can be estimated using the ages given in Genesis and Jubilees.
Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.
The Minor Prophets or Twelve Prophets (תרי עשר, Trei Asar, "Twelve"), occasionally Book of the Twelve, is the last book of the Nevi'im, the second main division of the Jewish Tanakh.
The University of Edinburgh (abbreviated as Edin. in post-nominals), founded in 1582, is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's ancient universities.
Vetus Latina ("Old Latin" in Latin), also known as Vetus Itala ("Old Italian"), Itala ("Italian") See, for example, Quedlinburg ''Itala'' fragment.
The Vulgate is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible that became the Catholic Church's officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible during the 16th century.
Western Christianity is the type of Christianity which developed in the areas of the former Western Roman Empire.
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.
The Westminster Confession of Faith is a Reformed confession of faith.
Wisdom literature is a genre of literature common in the ancient Near East.
The world to come, age to come, or heaven on Earth are eschatological phrases reflecting the belief that the current world or current age is flawed or cursed and will be replaced in the future by a better world, age, or paradise.
Yahweh (or often in English; יַהְוֶה) was the national god of the Iron Age kingdoms of Israel (Samaria) and Judah.
Yehud Medinata (Aramaic for "the province of Judah"), or simply Yehud, was an autonomous province of the Persian Achaemenid Empire, roughly equivalent to the older kingdom of Judah but covering a smaller area, within the satrapy of Eber-Nari.
Zephaniah is the name of several people in the Hebrew Bible and Jewish Tanakh.
Zion (צִיּוֹן Ṣîyōn, modern Tsiyyon; also transliterated Sion, Sayon, Syon, Tzion, Tsion) is a placename often used as a synonym for Jerusalem as well as for the biblical Land of Israel as a whole.
1 Esdras (Ἔσδρας Αʹ), also Greek Esdras, Greek Ezra, or 3 Esdras, is an ancient Greek version of the biblical Book of Ezra in use among the early church, and many modern Christians with varying degrees of canonicity.
1 Maccabees is a book of the Bible written in Hebrew by a Jewish author after the restoration of an independent Jewish kingdom by the Hasmonean dynasty, about the latter part of the 2nd century BC.
2 Esdras (also called 4 Esdras, Latin Esdras, or Latin Ezra) is the name of an apocalyptic book in many English versions of the BibleIncluding the KJB, RSV, NRSV, NEB, REB, and GNB (see Naming conventions below).
2 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book which focuses on the Maccabean Revolt against Antiochus IV Epiphanes and concludes with the defeat of the Seleucid empire general Nicanor in 161 BC by Judas Maccabeus, the hero of the hard work.
The book of 3 Maccabees is found in most Orthodox Bibles as a part of the Anagignoskomena.
The book of 4 Maccabees is a homily or philosophic discourse praising the supremacy of pious reason over passion.
Ancien Testament, Christian Old Testament, First Testament, Kāwenata Tawhito, Old Testament (Tanakh), Old Testaments, Old Testement, Old Testiment, Old testament, Old testiment, OldTestament, Older Testament, Testament, Old, The Old Testament, The Story of the Old Testament.