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Olfaction

Index Olfaction

Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell. [1]

173 relations: Acetylcholine, Action potential, Adenylyl cyclase, Albatross, Amygdala, Anosmia, Antennal lobe, Anterior commissure, Anterior olfactory nucleus, Antibody, Aroma compound, Axon, Basset Hound, Bay Area Air Quality Management District, Bear, Binocular rivalry, Bird, Bloodhound, Body odor, Bombykol, Bombyx mori, Brain, Calcium, Calmodulin, Carnivore, Catarrhini, Cetacea, Chemesthesis, Chemoreceptor, Chemosensory protein, Chewing, Chloride channel, Chlorine, Coriander, Cranial nerves, Cribriform plate, Cuscuta, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, Cyclic guanosine monophosphate, Cyclic nucleotide–gated ion channel, Dendrite, Dysosmia, Eleanor Gamble, Electro-olfactography, Electroantennography, Electronic nose, Emotion, Emotion and memory, Entorhinal cortex, Enzyme, ..., Epithelium, Evolution of olfaction, Exhalation, Flavor, Flehmen response, G protein, Gene, Glomerulus (olfaction), Glycosaminoglycan, Granule cell, Haptic perception, Hearing, Hippocampus, Human leukocyte antigen, Hyperosmia, Hyposmia, Hypothalamus, Immune system, Inbreeding avoidance, Inbreeding depression, Inhalation, Insect, Insular cortex, Ion, Ion channel, Ionone, IT Corporation, Kin recognition, Kiwi, Lateral inhibition, Lateral olfactory stria, Ligand, Limbic system, Linda B. Buck, Long-term memory, Luca Turin, Lucretius, Machine olfaction, Major histocompatibility complex, Major urinary proteins, Mammal, Martinez, California, Medial dorsal nucleus, Memory, Micrometre, Mole (animal), Molecule, Mountain View, California, Mouth, Mucus, Myelin, Nasal administration, Nasal cavity, Nobel Prize, Norepinephrine, Nose, Nostril, Odor, Odorant-binding protein, Odotope theory, Olfactometer, Olfactory bulb, Olfactory bulb mitral cell, Olfactory ensheathing glia, Olfactory epithelium, Olfactory fatigue, Olfactory nerve, Olfactory receptor, Olfactory receptor neuron, Olfactory reference syndrome, Olfactory system, Olfactory tubercle, OR2J3, OR5A1, OR6A2, Orbitofrontal cortex, Parosmia, Periglomerular cell, Petrel, Phantosmia, Pheromone, Photoreceptor cell, Piriform cortex, Prefrontal cortex, Primate, Procellariiformes, Protein kinase A, Quantum tunnelling, Red-bellied lemur, Retronasal smell, Richard Axel, Rodent, San Mateo, California, Scent hound, Scent transfer unit, Second messenger system, Sense, Sensillum, Serotonin, Shape theory of olfaction, Shoreline Amphitheatre, Smound, Sodium, Sodium-calcium exchanger, Sound, Stimulus modality, Strepsirrhini, Stria terminalis, Superior nasal concha, Tannin, Taste, The Fragrance Foundation, Tongue, Trail pheromone, Trigeminal nerve, Ungulate, United States, Vertebrate, Vibration theory of olfaction, Volatile organic compound, Vomeronasal organ, Vulture, Westermarck effect. Expand index (123 more) »

Acetylcholine

Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.

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Action potential

In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.

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Adenylyl cyclase

Adenylyl cyclase (also commonly known as adenyl cyclase and adenylate cyclase, abbreviated AC) is an enzyme with key regulatory roles in essentially all cells.

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Albatross

Albatrosses, of the biological family Diomedeidae, are large seabirds related to the procellariids, storm petrels and diving petrels in the order Procellariiformes (the tubenoses).

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Amygdala

The amygdala (plural: amygdalae; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin from Greek, ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'Almond', 'tonsil') is one of two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.

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Anosmia

Anosmia is the inability to perceive odor or a lack of functioning olfaction—the loss of the sense of smell.

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Antennal lobe

The antennal lobe is the deutocerebral neuropil of insects which receives the input from the olfactory sensory neurons on the antenna.

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Anterior commissure

The anterior commissure (also known as the precommissure) is a white matter tract (a bundle of axons) connecting the two temporal lobes of the cerebral hemispheres across the midline, and placed in front of the columns of the fornix.

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Anterior olfactory nucleus

The anterior olfactory nucleus (AON; also called the anterior olfactory cortex) is a portion of the forebrain of vertebrates.

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Antibody

An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.

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Aroma compound

An aroma compound, also known as an odorant, aroma, fragrance, or flavor, is a chemical compound that has a smell or odor.

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Axon

An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.

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Basset Hound

The Basset Hound is a short-legged breed of dog of the hound family.

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Bay Area Air Quality Management District

The Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD) is a public agency that regulates the stationary sources of air pollution in the nine counties of California's San Francisco Bay Area: Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, southwestern Solano, and southern Sonoma.

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Bear

Bears are carnivoran mammals of the family Ursidae.

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Binocular rivalry

Binocular rivalry is a phenomenon of visual perception in which perception alternates between different images presented to each eye.

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Bird

Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.

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Bloodhound

The Bloodhound is a large scent hound, originally bred for hunting deer, wild boar and, since the Middle Ages, for tracking people.

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Body odor

Body odor (American English) or body odour (British English; see spelling differences) is present in animals and humans, and its intensity can be influenced by many factors (behavioral patterns, survival strategies).

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Bombykol

Bombykol is a pheromone released by the female silkworm moth to attract mates.

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Bombyx mori

The silkworm is the larva or caterpillar or imago of the domestic silkmoth, Bombyx mori (Latin: "silkworm of the mulberry tree").

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Brain

The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

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Calcium

Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.

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Calmodulin

Calmodulin (CaM) (an abbreviation for calcium-modulated protein) is a multifunctional intermediate calcium-binding messenger protein expressed in all eukaryotic cells.

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Carnivore

A carnivore, meaning "meat eater" (Latin, caro, genitive carnis, meaning "meat" or "flesh" and vorare meaning "to devour"), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.

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Catarrhini

Catarrhini is one of the two subdivisions of the simians, the other being the plathyrrhine (New World monkeys).

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Cetacea

Cetacea are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.

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Chemesthesis

Chemesthesis is defined as the chemical sensibility of the skin and mucous membranes.

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Chemoreceptor

A chemoreceptor, also known as chemosensor, is a specialized sensory receptor cell which transduces (responds to) a chemical substance (endogenous or induced) and generates a biological signal.

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Chemosensory protein

Chemosensory proteins are a class of small (10-15 kDa), soluble proteins characterised for the first time by Angeli et al.

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Chewing

Chewing or mastication is the process by which food is crushed and ground by teeth.

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Chloride channel

Chloride channels are a superfamily of poorly understood ion channels specific for chloride.

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Chlorine

Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

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Coriander

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum), also known as cilantro or Chinese parsley, is an annual herb in the family Apiaceae.

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Cranial nerves

Cranial nerves are the nerves that emerge directly from the brain (including the brainstem), in contrast to spinal nerves (which emerge from segments of the spinal cord).

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Cribriform plate

In human anatomy, the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone (horizontal lamina or lamina cribrosa) is received into the ethmoidal notch of the frontal bone and roofs in the nasal cavities.

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Cuscuta

Cuscuta (dodder) is a genus of about 100–170 species of yellow, orange, or red (rarely green) parasitic plants.

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Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.

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Cyclic guanosine monophosphate

Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a cyclic nucleotide derived from guanosine triphosphate (GTP).

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Cyclic nucleotide–gated ion channel

Cyclic nucleotide–gated ion channels or CNG channels are ion channels that function in response to the binding of cyclic nucleotides.

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Dendrite

Dendrites (from Greek δένδρον déndron, "tree"), also dendrons, are branched protoplasmic extensions of a nerve cell that propagate the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project.

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Dysosmia

Dysosmia is a disorder described as any qualitative alteration or distortion of the perception of smell.

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Eleanor Gamble

Eleanor Acheson McCulloch Gamble (March 2, 1868 – August 30, 1933) was an influential American psychologist from the late 19th century through the early 20th century.

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Electro-olfactography

Electro-olfactography or electroolfactography (EOG) is a type of electrography (electrophysiologic test) that aids the study of olfaction (the sense of smell).

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Electroantennography

Electroantennography or EAG is a technique for measuring the average output of an insect antenna to its brain for a given odor.

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Electronic nose

An electronic nose is a device intended to detect odors or flavors.

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Emotion

Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure.

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Emotion and memory

Emotion can have a powerful effect on humans and animals.

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Entorhinal cortex

The entorhinal cortex (EC) (ento.

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Enzyme

Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Epithelium

Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.

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Evolution of olfaction

Odor molecules are detected by the olfactory receptors (hereafter OR) in the olfactory epithelium of the nasal cavity.

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Exhalation

Exhalation (or expiration) is the flow of the breath out of an organism.

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Flavor

Flavor (American English) or flavour (British English; see spelling differences) is the sensory impression of food or other substance, and is determined primarily by the chemical senses of taste and smell.

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Flehmen response

The flehmen response, also called the flehmen position, flehmen reaction, flehming, or flehmening, is a behavior in which an animal curls back its upper lip exposing its front teeth, inhales with the nostrils usually closed, and then often holds this position for several seconds.

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G protein

G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior.

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Gene

In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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Glomerulus (olfaction)

The glomerulus (plural glomeruli) is a spherical structure located in the olfactory bulb of the brain where synapses form between the terminals of the olfactory nerve and the dendrites of mitral, periglomerular and tufted cells.

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Glycosaminoglycan

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or mucopolysaccharides are long unbranched polysaccharides consisting of a repeating disaccharide unit.

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Granule cell

The name granule cell has been used by anatomists for a number of different types of neuron whose only common feature is that they all have very small cell bodies.

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Haptic perception

Haptic perception (italics "palpable", haptikόs "suitable for touch") means literally the ability "to grasp something".

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Hearing

Hearing, or auditory perception, is the ability to perceive sounds by detecting vibrations, changes in the pressure of the surrounding medium through time, through an organ such as the ear.

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Hippocampus

The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.

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Human leukocyte antigen

The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system or complex is a gene complex encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins in humans.

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Hyperosmia

Hyperosmia is an increased olfactory acuity (heightened sense of smell), usually caused by a lower threshold for odor.

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Hyposmia

Hyposmia is a reduced ability to smell and to detect odors.

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Hypothalamus

The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.

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Immune system

The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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Inbreeding avoidance

Inbreeding avoidance, or the inbreeding avoidance hypothesis, is a concept in evolutionary biology that refers to the prevention of the deleterious effects of inbreeding.

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Inbreeding depression

Inbreeding depression is the reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result of inbreeding, or breeding of related individuals.

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Inhalation

Inhalation (also known as inspiration) happens when oxygen from the air enters the lungs.

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Insect

Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.

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Insular cortex

In each hemisphere of the mammalian brain the insular cortex (also insula and insular lobe) is a portion of the cerebral cortex folded deep within the lateral sulcus (the fissure separating the temporal lobe from the parietal and frontal lobes).

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Ion

An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Ion channel

Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.

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Ionone

The ionones are a series of closely related chemical substances that are part of a group of compounds known as rose ketones, which also includes damascones and damascenones.

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IT Corporation

IT Corporation was a United States industrial company whose principal business was the disposal of industrial hazardous waste.

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Kin recognition

Kin recognition, also called kin detection, is an organism's ability to distinguish between close genetic kin and non-kin.

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Kiwi

Kiwi or kiwis are flightless birds native to New Zealand, in the genus Apteryx and family Apterygidae.

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Lateral inhibition

In neurobiology, lateral inhibition is the capacity of an excited neuron to reduce the activity of its neighbors.

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Lateral olfactory stria

The lateral olfactory stria is directed across the lateral part of the anterior perforated substance and then bends abruptly medially toward the uncus of the parahippocampal gyrus.

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Ligand

In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.

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Limbic system

The limbic system is a set of brain structures located on both sides of the thalamus, immediately beneath the cerebrum.

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Linda B. Buck

Linda Brown Buck (born January 29, 1947) is an American biologist best known for her work on the olfactory system.

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Long-term memory

Long-term memory (LTM) is the stage of the Atkinson–Shiffrin memory model where informative knowledge is held indefinitely.

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Luca Turin

Luca Turin (born 20 November 1953) is a Lebanese American biophysicist and writer with a long-standing interest in the sense of smell, perfumery, and the fragrance industry.

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Lucretius

Titus Lucretius Carus (15 October 99 BC – c. 55 BC) was a Roman poet and philosopher.

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Machine olfaction

Machine olfaction is the automated simulation of the sense of smell.

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Major histocompatibility complex

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a set of cell surface proteins essential for the acquired immune system to recognize foreign molecules in vertebrates, which in turn determines histocompatibility.

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Major urinary proteins

Major urinary proteins (Mups), also known as α2u-globulins, are a subfamily of proteins found in abundance in the urine and other secretions of many animals.

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Mammal

Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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Martinez, California

Martinez is a city in and the county seat of Contra Costa County, California, in the East Bay of the San Francisco Bay Area.

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Medial dorsal nucleus

The medial dorsal nucleus (or dorsomedial nucleus of thalamus) is a large nucleus in the thalamus.

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Memory

Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.

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Micrometre

The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".

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Mole (animal)

Moles are small mammals adapted to a subterranean lifestyle (i.e., fossorial).

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Molecule

A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Mountain View, California

Mountain View is a city located in Santa Clara County, California, United States, named for its views of the Santa Cruz Mountains.

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Mouth

In animal anatomy, the mouth, also known as the oral cavity, buccal cavity, or in Latin cavum oris, is the opening through which many animals take in food and issue vocal sounds.

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Mucus

Mucus is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes.

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Myelin

Myelin is a lipid-rich substance that surrounds the axon of some nerve cells, forming an electrically insulating layer.

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Nasal administration

Nasal administration is a route of administration in which drugs are insufflated through the nose.

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Nasal cavity

The nasal cavity (nasal fossa, or nasal passage) is a large air filled space above and behind the nose in the middle of the face.

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Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.

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Norepinephrine

Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.

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Nose

A nose is a protuberance in vertebrates that houses the nostrils, or nares, which receive and expel air for respiration alongside the mouth.

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Nostril

A nostril (or naris, plural nares) is one of the two channels of the nose, from the point where they bifurcate to the external opening.

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Odor

An odor, odour or fragrance is always caused by one or more volatilized chemical compounds.

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Odorant-binding protein

Odorant-binding proteins are abundant small soluble proteins secreted in the nasal mucus of many animal species and in the sensillar lymph of chemosensory sensilla of insects.

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Odotope theory

Odotope theory, also known as weak shape theory, is a theory of how olfactory receptors bind to odor molecules.

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Olfactometer

An olfactometer is an instrument used to detect and measure odor dilution.

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Olfactory bulb

The olfactory bulb (bulbus olfactorius) is a neural structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, the sense of smell.

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Olfactory bulb mitral cell

Mitral cells are neurons that are part of the olfactory system.

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Olfactory ensheathing glia

Olfactory ensheathing glia (OEG), also known as olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) or olfactory ensheathing glial cells, are a type of macroglia (radial glia) found in the nervous system.

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Olfactory epithelium

The olfactory epithelium is a specialized epithelial tissue inside the nasal cavity that is involved in smell.

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Olfactory fatigue

Olfactory fatigue, also known as odor fatigue or olfactory adaptation, is the temporary, normal inability to distinguish a particular odor after a prolonged exposure to that airborne compound.

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Olfactory nerve

The olfactory nerve is typically considered the first cranial nerve, or simply CN I, that contains sensory nerve fibers relating to smell.

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Olfactory receptor

Olfactory receptors (ORs), also known as odorant receptors, are expressed in the cell membranes of olfactory receptor neurons and are responsible for the detection of odorants (i.e., compounds that have an odor) which give rise to the sense of smell.

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Olfactory receptor neuron

An olfactory receptor neuron (ORN), also called an olfactory sensory neuron (OSN), is a transduction cell within the olfactory system.

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Olfactory reference syndrome

Olfactory reference syndrome (ORS) is a psychiatric condition in which there is a persistent false belief and preoccupation with the idea of emitting abnormal body odors which the patient thinks that are foul and offensive to other individuals.

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Olfactory system

The olfactory system, or sense of smell, is the part of the sensory system used for smelling (olfaction).

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Olfactory tubercle

The olfactory tubercle (OT), also known as the tuberculum olfactorium, is a multi-sensory processing center that is contained within the olfactory cortex and ventral striatum and plays a role in reward cognition.

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OR2J3

Olfactory receptor 2J3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR2J3 gene.

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OR5A1

Olfactory receptor 5A1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR5A1 gene.

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OR6A2

Olfactory receptor 6A2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR6A2 gene.

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Orbitofrontal cortex

The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is a prefrontal cortex region in the frontal lobes in the brain which is involved in the cognitive processing of decision-making.

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Parosmia

Parosmia (from the Greek παρά pará and ὀσμή osmḗ), also known as troposmia (Gk.) or cacosmia (Gk.), is an olfactory dysfunction that is characterized by the inability of the brain to properly identify an odor's "natural" smell.

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Periglomerular cell

Periglomerular cells mediate lateral inhibition in the olfactory system together with granule cells.

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Petrel

Petrels are tube-nosed seabirds in the bird order Procellariiformes.

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Phantosmia

Phantosmia (phantom smell) -->, also called an olfactory hallucination, is smelling an odor that is not actually there.

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Pheromone

A pheromone (from Ancient Greek φέρω phero "to bear" and hormone, from Ancient Greek ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species.

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Photoreceptor cell

A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of neuroepithelial cell found in the retina that is capable of visual phototransduction.

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Piriform cortex

The piriform cortex, or pyriform cortex, is a region in the brain, part of the rhinencephalon situated in the cerebrum.

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Prefrontal cortex

In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.

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Primate

A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").

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Procellariiformes

Procellariiformes is an order of seabirds that comprises four families: the albatrosses, petrels and shearwaters, and 2 families of storm petrels.

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Protein kinase A

In cell biology, protein kinase A (PKANot to be confused with pKa, the symbol for the acid dissociation constant.) is a family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on cellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP).

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Quantum tunnelling

Quantum tunnelling or tunneling (see spelling differences) is the quantum mechanical phenomenon where a particle tunnels through a barrier that it classically cannot surmount.

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Red-bellied lemur

The red-bellied lemur (Eulemur rubriventer) is a medium-sized strepsirrhine primate with a luxuriant chestnut brown coat.

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Retronasal smell

Retronasal smell, retronasal olfaction, or mouth smell, is the ability to perceive flavor dimensions of foods and drinks.

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Richard Axel

Richard Axel (born July 2, 1946) is a molecular biologist and University Professor in the Department of Neuroscience at Columbia University and investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

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Rodent

Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.

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San Mateo, California

San Mateo (Spanish for "Saint Matthew") is a city on the San Francisco Peninsula in Northern California's Bay Area, approximately south of San Francisco, and northwest of San Jose.

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Scent hound

Franz Rudolf Frisching in the uniform of an officer of the Bernese Huntsmen Corps with his Berner Laufhund, painted by Jean Preudhomme in 1785 Scent hounds (or scenthounds) are a type of hound that primarily hunts by scent rather than sight.

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Scent transfer unit

A scent transfer unit is a vacuum device used to collect scent evidence from a crime scene or item of evidence.

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Second messenger system

Second messengers are intracellular signaling molecules released by the cell in response to exposure to extracellular signaling molecules—the first messengers.

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Sense

A sense is a physiological capacity of organisms that provides data for perception.

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Sensillum

A sensillum (pl.

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Serotonin

Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.

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Shape theory of olfaction

The Shape theory of smell proposes that a molecule's smell character is due to its molecular shape, molecular size and functional groups.

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Shoreline Amphitheatre

Shoreline Amphitheatre is an outdoor amphitheater located in Mountain View, California, in the San Francisco Bay Area.

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Smound

Smound is a perception or sense experience created from the convergence of scents and sounds in the brain.

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Sodium

Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.

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Sodium-calcium exchanger

The sodium-calcium exchanger (often denoted Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, NCX, or exchange protein) is an antiporter membrane protein that removes calcium from cells.

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Sound

In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.

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Stimulus modality

Stimulus modality, also called sensory modality, is one aspect of a stimulus or what we perceive after a stimulus.

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Strepsirrhini

Strepsirrhini or Strepsirhini is a suborder of primates that includes the lemuriform primates, which consist of the lemurs of Madagascar, galagos, ("bushbabies") and pottos from Africa, and the lorises from India and southeast Asia.

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Stria terminalis

The stria terminalis (or terminal stria) is a structure in the brain consisting of a band of fibers running along the lateral margin of the ventricular surface of the thalamus.

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Superior nasal concha

The back part of the medial surface of the labyrinth of ethmoid is subdivided by a narrow oblique fissure, the superior meatus of the nose, bounded above by a thin, curved plate, the superior nasal concha.

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Tannin

Tannins (or tannoids) are a class of astringent, polyphenolic biomolecules that bind to and precipitate proteins and various other organic compounds including amino acids and alkaloids.

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Taste

Taste, gustatory perception, or gustation is one of the five traditional senses that belongs to the gustatory system.

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The Fragrance Foundation

The Fragrance Foundation is the non-profit, educational arm of the international fragrance industry, founded in 1949.

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Tongue

The tongue is a muscular organ in the mouth of most vertebrates that manipulates food for mastication, and is used in the act of swallowing.

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Trail pheromone

Trail pheromones are semiochemicals secreted from the body of an individual to impact the behavior of another individual receiving it.

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Trigeminal nerve

The trigeminal nerve (the fifth cranial nerve, or simply CN V) is a nerve responsible for sensation in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing; it is the largest of the cranial nerves.

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Ungulate

Ungulates (pronounced) are any members of a diverse group of primarily large mammals that includes odd-toed ungulates such as horses and rhinoceroses, and even-toed ungulates such as cattle, pigs, giraffes, camels, deer, and hippopotami.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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Vertebrate

Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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Vibration theory of olfaction

The Vibration theory of smell proposes that a molecule's smell character is due to its vibrational frequency in the infrared range.

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Volatile organic compound

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature.

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Vomeronasal organ

The vomeronasal organ (VNO), or the Jacobson's organ, is an auxiliary olfactory sense organ that is found in many animals.

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Vulture

A vulture is a scavenging bird of prey.

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Westermarck effect

The Westermarck effect, or reverse sexual imprinting, is a hypothetical psychological effect through which people who live in close domestic proximity during the first few years of their lives become desensitized to sexual attraction.

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Accessory olfactory system, Classification of smells, Macrosmatic, Odorless, Olefactory, Olfacception, Olfacoception, Olfactics, Olfactories, Olfactory, Olfactory groove, Olfactory perception, Olfactory sensation, Olfactory sense, Osmesis, Osphresis, Sense of smell, Smell receptors, Smelling.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olfaction

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