428 relations: Administrative Science Quarterly, Adweek, Afghanistan, Africa, Aftermath of the September 11 attacks, Al Maktoum, Albert Corey, Albertville, Ali al-Ahmed, All-time Olympic Games medal table, Almaty, Amateur sports, Americas, Ancient Greece, Ancient Olympic Games, Ancient Rome, Andrew Jennings, Anita DeFrantz, Anti-Defamation League, Antisemitism, Apartheid, Apartheid-era South Africa and the Olympics, Arash Miresmaeili, Art competitions at the Summer Olympics, Aruba, Aruban Olympic Committee, Aryan, Asia, Athens, Athlete, Athletics at the 1904 Summer Olympics – Men's 4 miles team race, Athletics at the 1904 Summer Olympics – Men's marathon, Athletics at the 1988 Summer Olympics – Men's 100 metres, Athletics at the 2012 Summer Olympics – Women's 1500 metres, Athletics at the Summer Olympics, Atlanta, Australia, Austria, Avery Brundage, Badminton at the Summer Olympics, Bahiya Al-Hamad, Bahrain, Bahrain at the Olympics, Balance beam, Barcelona, Baseball at the Summer Olympics, Basketball at the Summer Olympics, BBC, BBC Sport, Beijing, ..., Ben Johnson (sprinter), Bermuda, Bernard Lagat, Bertrand Delanoë, Bids for the 2006 Winter Olympics, Bids for the 2022 Winter Olympics, Bids for the 2024 and 2028 Summer Olympics, Black September Organization, British Olympic Association, Brunei at the Olympics, Calgary, Cambodia, Canada, Canadian Amateur Hockey Association, Carl Lewis, CBC Sports, CBS, Centennial Olympic Park, Centennial Olympic Park bombing, Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions, Chamonix, China, Chipping Campden, City-state, Coca-Cola, Cold War, Colonialism, Color television, Coroebus of Elis, Cotswold Olimpick Games, Cross-country skiing at the Winter Olympics, Cultural appropriation, Curaçao, Czech Republic, Czechoslovakia, Daniel Rodríguez (tenor), Deaflympics, Decathlon, Demetrius Vikelas, Demonstration sport, Discus throw, Domestic terrorism in the United States, Dominican Order, Doping at the Olympic Games, Drug test, Egypt, Elis, Encyclopædia Britannica, Equestrian at the 1956 Summer Olympics, Equestrianism, Eric Rudolph, ETA (separatist group), Ethos, Europe, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, European Broadcasting Union, Evangelos Zappas, Exposition Universelle (1900), Fariba Rezayee, Fatema Hameed Gerashi, Fédération Internationale de Volleyball, Fencing at the 2012 Summer Olympics, Fencing at the Summer Olympics, FIFA, Figure skating at the Olympic Games, Finland, Flag of the Republic of China, Floor (gymnastics), France, Francoist Spain, Freestyle wrestling, French Revolution, Friendship Games, Gannett Company, Günther Sabetzki, George Averoff, George W. Bush, Georgia (country), Global Association of International Sports Federations, God Bless America, Great Britain, Great Britain at the 1904 Summer Olympics, Greco-Roman wrestling, Greece, Greek War of Independence, Guyana, Gymnastics, Gymnastics at the Summer Olympics, Hans-Gunnar Liljenwall, Henri Didon, Heracles, Hockey Hall of Fame, Hong Kong, Hu Jintao, Human rights in China, Hungarian Revolution of 1956, Hungary, Hungary at the 1936 Summer Olympics, Ibolya Csák, Ice hockey at the Olympic Games, Innsbruck, Institute for Gulf Affairs, International Olympic Committee, International Paralympic Committee, Iraq, Irish Free State, Israel at the 1972 Summer Olympics, Isthmian Games, Italy, IWAS World Games, Jacques Chirac, Jacques Rogge, Jesse Owens, Jim Thorpe, John Carlos, John Hulley, Juan Antonio Samaranch, 1st Marquess of Samaranch, Judo, Kazakhstan, KGB, Knud Enemark Jensen, Kodak, Konstantinos Zappas, Krasnodar Krai, LA84 Foundation, Labours of Hercules, Lake Placid, New York, Latin, Lausanne, Lebanon, List of international sports federations, List of IOC meetings, List of mayors of Paris, List of multi-sport events, List of Olympic Games boycotts, List of Olympic Games scandals and controversies, List of Olympic mascots, Liverpool, London, London bid for the 2012 Summer Olympics, London Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games, Los Angeles, Louisiana Purchase Exposition, Ludwig Guttmann, Maitha bint Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Manitoba, Marc Hodler, Mariam Mohamed Hadi Al Hilli, Maryam Yusuf Jamal, Maziah Mahusin, Melbourne, Mens sana in corpore sano, Metric system, Misha, Mixed team at the 1904 Summer Olympics, Modern pentathlon, Montreal, Much Wenlock, Multi-sport event, Munich, Munich massacre, Nadzeya Ostapchuk, Natalia Paderina, National anthem, National Anthem of the Republic of China, National Olympic Committee, Nazi Germany, Nazism, NBC, NBC Sports, Nemean Games, Nepotism, Netherlands, New York City Fire Department, New York City Police Department, New Zealand, New Zealand national rugby union team, Nino Salukvadze, Nordic combined, Nordic combined at the Winter Olympics, Norway, Oenomaus, Olympia, Greece, Olympiad, Olympic Charter, Olympic Congress, Olympic Council of Ireland, Olympic Cup, Olympic Day Run, Olympic flame, Olympic Games ceremony, Olympic medal, Olympic Order, Olympic Project for Human Rights, Olympic sports, Olympic Stadium, Olympic symbols, Olympic Village, Otto of Greece, Ottoman Empire, Oxo (food), Palestine Liberation Organization, Panagiotis Soutsos, Panathenaic Stadium, Panhellenic Games, Pankration, Panorama (TV series), Parabolic reflector, Paralympic Games, Paris, Pelops, Pentathlon, Peter Norman, Peter Ueberroth, Phidias, Pierre de Coubertin, Pierre de Coubertin medal, Pierre Trudeau, Pisa, Greece, Poland, President of France, President of the People's Republic of China, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Professional sports, Public school (United Kingdom), Puerto Rico, Pyeongchang County, Pythian Games, Qatar at the Olympics, Qatar Olympic Committee, Racial segregation, Refugee Olympic Team at the 2016 Summer Olympics, Rhodesia, Rhythmic gymnastics, Rio de Janeiro, Robert Dover (Cotswold Games), Robina Muqimyar, Russia, Russo-Georgian War, Salt Lake City, Saudi Arabia at the Olympics, Sebastian Coe, Seoul, September 11 attacks, Shooting at the 2008 Summer Olympics – Women's 10 metre air pistol, Shooting at the 2012 Summer Olympics, Shropshire, Single-elimination tournament, Sint Maarten, Sion, Switzerland, Ski jumping at the Winter Olympics, Slovakia, Sochi, Socialist Workers' Sport International, Softball at the Summer Olympics, South Africa, South Korea, Soviet Union, Soviet Union at the 1956 Summer Olympics, Soviet Union at the Olympics, Soviet–Afghan War, Spain, Spartakiad, Special Olympics, Speed skating at the Winter Olympics, Sports governing body, St. Moritz, Stadion (unit), Stanozolol, Statue of Zeus at Olympia, Stockholm, Strychnine, Substituted amphetamine, Suez Crisis, Summer Olympic Games, Sweden, Swimming at the Summer Olympics, Switzerland, Synchronised swimming, Taiwan, The Christian Science Monitor, The Crystal Palace, The Economic Journal, The Guardian, The Independent, The New York Times, Theodosius I, Theodosius II, Thomas Hicks (athlete), Time (magazine), Tommie Smith, Tony Blair, Tufts University, Turin, United Arab Emirates at the Olympics, United Kingdom, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United States, United States at the 1904 Summer Olympics, United States Olympic Committee, University of Paris, USA Today, Věra Čáslavská, Vladimir Putin, Volleyball at the Summer Olympics, Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, Wenlock Olympian Games, William Penny Brookes, Winnipeg, Winter Olympic Games, World Anti-Doping Agency, World Games, World Trade Center site, World War I, World War II, Wrestling at the Summer Olympics, Youth Olympic Games, Zappas Olympics, Zenith, Zeus, Zola Budd, 117th IOC Session, 1896 Summer Olympics, 1900 Summer Olympics, 1904 Summer Olympics, 1906 Intercalated Games, 1908 Summer Olympics, 1912 Summer Olympics, 1916 Summer Olympics, 1920 Summer Olympics, 1924 Summer Olympics, 1924 Winter Olympics, 1928 Summer Olympics, 1936 Summer Olympics, 1936 Winter Olympics, 1948 Summer Olympics, 1952 Summer Olympics, 1956 Summer Olympics, 1956 Winter Olympics, 1960 Summer Olympics, 1960 Summer Paralympics, 1960 Winter Olympics, 1968 Olympics Black Power salute, 1968 Summer Olympics, 1972 Summer Olympics, 1976 Summer Olympics, 1980 Summer Olympics, 1984 Summer Olympics, 1988 Summer Olympics, 1988 Winter Olympics, 1988 Winter Paralympics, 1991 Vic bombing, 1992 Summer Olympics, 1992 Winter Olympics, 1994 Winter Olympics, 1996 Summer Olympics, 1998 Winter Olympics, 2000 Summer Olympics, 2002 Winter Olympic bid scandal, 2002 Winter Olympics, 2004 Summer Olympics, 2008 Summer Olympics, 2008 Tibetan unrest, 2010 Summer Youth Olympics, 2010 Winter Olympics, 2012 Summer Olympics, 2012 Summer Paralympics, 2012 Winter Youth Olympics, 2014 Summer Youth Olympics, 2014 Winter Olympics, 2014 Winter Paralympics, 2016 Summer Olympics, 2016 Summer Paralympics, 2018 Winter Olympics, 2020 Summer Olympics, 2022 Winter Olympics, 2024 Summer Olympics, 2028 Summer Olympics. 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Administrative Science Quarterly is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering the field of organizational studies.
Adweek is a weekly American advertising trade publication that was first published in 1978.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
The September 11 attacks transformed the first term of President George W. Bush and led to what he has called the Global War on Terrorism.
The Al Maktoum (آل مكتوم, House of Maktoum) family is the ruling royal family of Dubai, and one of the six ruling families of the United Arab Emirates.
Albert Corey (birth name Louis Albert Corey; 1878-1926) was a French athlete who competed at the 1904 Summer Olympics held in St. Louis, Missouri, United States.
Albertville (Arpitan: Arbèrtvile) is a commune in the Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France.
Ali Abbas al-Ahmed (علي عباس آل أحمد, Gulf pronunciation:; born 1966, is a Saudi analyst focusing on the politics of the Persian Gulf region: including terrorism, Islamic movements, Wahhabi Islam, Saudi political history, Saudi-American relations, and the history of the al-Saud family. He is the founder and director of the Institute for Gulf Affairs (formerly the Saudi Institute), an independent think tank in Washington, D.C. focused on providing analyses and disseminating information on political issues in the Persian Gulf region and particularly Saudi Arabia, and U.S.-Gulf relations. IGA also convenes conferences, conducts independent research and investigations, and works with the media and policymakers to fosters a deeper understanding of Arab states of the Persian Gulf by providing them with up-to-date and exclusive information and connecting them with reliable analysts. He has been invited to speak by Princeton University, Amnesty International, the Hudson Institute, American Enterprise Institute and Meridian International Center. As a journalist, al-Ahmed exposed major news stories such as The Pentagon's botched translation of the 9-11 Bin Laden tape in December 2001. He also discovered the video of Daniel Pearl's murder. He has testified before Congress on several occasions on the issue of civil rights and religious freedom in the Middle East. He has authored reports on Saudi Arabia regarding religious freedom, torture, press freedom, and religious curriculum.
The all-time medal table for all Olympic Games from 1896 to 2018, including Summer Olympic Games, Winter Olympic Games, and a combined total of both, is tabulated below.
Almaty (Алматы, Almaty; Алматы), formerly known as Alma-Ata (Алма-Ата) and Verny (Верный Vernyy), is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,797,431 people, about 8% of the country's total population.
Amateur sports are sports in which participants engage largely or entirely without remuneration.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The ancient Olympic Games were originally a festival, or celebration of and for Zeus; later, events such as a footrace, a javelin contest, and wrestling matches were added.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Andrew Jennings is a British investigative reporter.
Anita Lucette DeFrantz (born October 4, 1952) is an American Olympic rower, member of the International Olympic Committee, and twice Vice-President of International Rowing Federation (FISA).
The Anti-Defamation League (ADL; formerly known as the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith) is an international Jewish non-governmental organization based in the United States.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.
South Africa did not compete at Olympic Games from 1964 to 1988, as a part of the sporting boycott of South Africa during the apartheid era.
Arash Miresmaeili (آرش میراسماعیلی., born March 3, 1981 in Khorramabad) is an Iranian judoka.
Art competitions formed part of the modern Olympic Games during its early years, from 1912 to 1948.
Aruba (Papiamento) is an island and a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in the southern Caribbean Sea, located about west of the main part of the Lesser Antilles and north of the coast of Venezuela.
The Aruban Olympic Committee (Comité Olímpico Arubano) was established in 1985 after Aruba separated from the Netherlands Antilles.
"Aryan" is a term that was used as a self-designation by Indo-Iranian people.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
An athlete (also sportsman or sportswoman) is a person who competes in one or more sports that involve physical strength, speed or endurance.
The men's 4 miles team race was a track and field athletics event held as part of the Athletics at the 1904 Summer Olympics programme.
The men's marathon at the 1904 Summer Olympics in St. Louis took place on August 30 of that year, over a distance of 24.85 miles (39.99 km).
The Men's 100 Meters at the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul, South Korea – frequently dubbed "the dirtiest race in history" – ended in controversy after Canada's Ben Johnson defeated defending champion Carl Lewis of the United States in a world record time of 9.79s, breaking his own record of 9.83s that he had set at the 1987 World Championship in Rome.
The women's 1500 metres competition was an event at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, United Kingdom.
Athletics has been contested at every Summer Olympics since the birth of the modern Olympic movement at the 1896 Summer Olympics.
Atlanta is the capital city and most populous municipality of the state of Georgia in the United States.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Avery Brundage (September 28, 1887 – May 8, 1975) was the fifth President of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), serving from 1952 to 1972.
Badminton had its debut at the 1992 Summer Olympics and has been contested in 6 Olympiads.
Bahiya Mansour Al-Hamad (born 21 June 1992) is a rifle shooter from Qatar.
Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.
Bahrain has competed in 9 Summer Olympic Games.
The balance beam is a cube / rectangular object an artistic gymnastics apparatus, as well as the event performed using the apparatus.
Barcelona is a city in Spain.
Baseball at the Summer Olympics unofficially debuted at the 1904 Summer Olympics, and became an official Olympic sport at the 1992 Summer Olympics.
Basketball at the Summer Olympics has been a sport for men consistently since 1936.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC Sport is a department of the BBC North division providing national sports coverage for BBC Television, radio and online.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
Benjamin Sinclair Johnson, (born December 30, 1961) is a Jamaican-born Canadian former sprinter, who won two Olympic bronze medals and an Olympic gold medal, which was later rescinded.
Bermuda is a British Overseas Territory in the North Atlantic Ocean.
Bernard Kipchirchir Lagat (born December 12, 1974) is a Kenyan-American middle and long-distance runner.
Bertrand Delanoë (born 30 May 1950) is a retired French politician who was Mayor of Paris from 25 March 2001 to 5 April 2014.
At the closing date of the receipt of applications to host 2006 Winter Olympics (formally known as XX Olympic Winter Games) on February 1, 1998, six cities had formally presented their candidatures to the IOC.
A total of six bids were initially submitted for the 2022 Winter Olympics.
There were a total of five bids which were initially submitted for the 2024 Summer Olympics.
The Black September Organization (BSO) (منظمة أيلول الأسود, Munaẓẓamat Aylūl al-aswad) was a Palestinian terrorist organization founded in 1970.
The British Olympic Association (BOA) is the National Olympic Committee for the United Kingdom.
Brunei, as Brunei Darussalam, first participated at the Olympic Games in 1988, with a single official but no athletes.
Calgary is a city in the Canadian province of Alberta.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Canadian Amateur Hockey Association (CAHA) was the national governing body of amateur ice hockey play in Canada from 1914 until 1994 when it merged with the Canadian Hockey Association or Hockey Canada.
Frederick Carlton "Carl" Lewis (born July 1, 1961) is an American former track and field athlete who won nine Olympic gold medals, one Olympic silver medal, and 10 World Championships medals, including eight gold.
CBC Sports is the division of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation responsible for English-language sports broadcasting.
CBS (an initialism of the network's former name, the Columbia Broadcasting System) is an American English language commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of CBS Corporation.
Centennial Olympic Park is a public park located in downtown Atlanta, Georgia owned and operated by the Georgia World Congress Center Authority.
The Centennial Olympic Park bombing was a domestic terrorist pipe bombing attack on the Centennial Olympic Park in Atlanta, Georgia, on July 27 during the 1996 Summer Olympics.
The Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions (COHRE) was a Geneva-based international non-governmental organisation founded in 1994 by Scott Leckie as a foundation in the Netherlands (Stichting COHRE).
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chipping Campden is a small market town in the Cotswold district of Gloucestershire, England.
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.
Coca-Cola, or Coke (also Pemberton's Cola at certain Georgian vendors), is a carbonated soft drink produced by The Coca-Cola Company.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
Color/Colour television is a television transmission technology that includes information on the color of the picture, so the video image can be displayed in color on the television set.
Coroebus of Elis, commonly spelled Koroibos (Greek: Κόροιβος Ἠλεῖος), was a Greek cook, baker and athlete from Elis, who won the stadion race in the first recorded Ancient Olympic Games in 776 BC.
The Cotswold Olimpick Games is an annual public celebration of games and sports now held on the Friday after Spring Bank Holiday near Chipping Campden, in the Cotswolds of England.
Cross-country skiing has been contested at the Winter Olympic Games since the first Winter Games in 1924 in Chamonix, France.
Cultural appropriation is a concept dealing with the adoption of the elements of a minority culture by members of the dominant culture.
Curaçao (Curaçao,; Kòrsou) is a Lesser Antilles island in the southern Caribbean Sea and the Dutch Caribbean region, about north of the Venezuelan coast.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
Daniel Rodríguez (born May 24, 1964) is a Puerto Rican American operatic tenor from New York City.
The Deaflympics (previously called World Games for the Deaf, and International Games for the Deaf) are an International Olympic Committee (IOC)-sanctioned event at which deaf athletes compete at an elite level.
The decathlon is a combined event in athletics consisting of ten track and field events.
Demetrios Vikelas (also Demetrius Bikelas; Δημήτριος Βικέλας; February 15, 1835 – July 20, 1908) was a Greek businessman and writer; he was the first President of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), from 1894 to 1896.
A demonstration sport is a sport which is played to promote it, most commonly during the Olympic Games, but also at other sporting events.
The discus throw is a track and field event in which an athlete throws a heavy disc—called a discus—in an attempt to mark a farther distance than their competitors.
Domestic terrorism in the United States consists of incidents confirmed as terrorist acts.
The Order of Preachers (Ordo Praedicatorum, postnominal abbreviation OP), also known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216.
This article is about the history of competitors at the Olympic Games using banned athletic performance-enhancing drugs.
A drug test is a technical analysis of a biological specimen, for example urine, hair, blood, breath, sweat, and/or oral fluid/saliva — to determine the presence or absence of specified parent drugs or their metabolites.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Elis or Eleia (Greek, Modern: Ήλιδα Ilida, Ancient: Ἦλις Ēlis; Doric: Ἆλις Alis; Elean: Ϝαλις Walis, ethnonym: Ϝαλειοι) is an ancient district that corresponds to the modern Elis regional unit.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The equestrian events at the 1956 Summer Olympics were held in Stockholm due to the Australian quarantine regulations and included dressage, eventing, and show jumping.
Equestrianism (from Latin equester, equestr-, equus, horseman, horse), more often known as riding, horse riding (British English) or horseback riding (American English), refers to the skill of riding, driving, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses.
Eric Robert Rudolph (born September 19, 1966), also known as the Olympic Park Bomber, is an American domestic terrorist convicted for a series of anti-abortion and anti-gay-motivated bombings across the southern United States between 1996 and 1998, which killed two people and injured over 120 others.
ETA, an acronym for Euskadi Ta Askatasuna ("Basque Homeland and Liberty"), was an armed leftist Basque nationalist and separatist organization in the Basque Country (in northern Spain and southwestern France).
Ethos is a Greek word meaning "character" that is used to describe the guiding beliefs or ideals that characterize a community, nation, or ideology.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) is an international financial institution founded in 1991.
The European Broadcasting Union (EBU; Union européenne de radio-télévision, UER) is an alliance of public service media organisations, established on 12 February 1950.
Evangelis or Evangelos Zappas (Ευαγγέλης/Ευάγγελος Ζάππας; Evanghelie Zappa, 1800–19 June 1865) was a Greek patriot, philanthropist and businessman who spent most of his life in Romania.
The Exposition Universelle of 1900 was a world's fair held in Paris, France, from 14 April to 12 November 1900, to celebrate the achievements of the past century and to accelerate development into the next.
Friba Rezayee (فریبا رضایی) (born September 3, 1985) is an Afghan judoka, who is perhaps best known as one of the first two women athletes from Afghanistan to compete in the Summer Olympics.
Fatema Hameed Gerashi, born in 1987 or 1988, is a Bahraini swimmer.
The Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (English: International Volleyball Federation), commonly known by the acronym FIVB, is the international governing body for the sports of indoor, beach and grass volleyball.
The fencing competitions at the 2012 Olympic Games in London were held from 28 July to 5 August at the ExCeL Exhibition Centre.
Fencing has been contested at every Summer Olympic Games since the birth of the modern Olympic movement at the 1896 Summer Olympics in Athens.
The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA; French for "International Federation of Association Football") is an association which describes itself as an international governing body of association football, futsal, and beach soccer.
Figure skating was first contested in the Olympic Games at the 1908 Summer Olympics.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
The Flag of the Republic of China is a red flag with a navy blue canton bearing a white sun with twelve triangular rays.
In gymnastics, the floor refers to a specially prepared exercise surface, which is considered an apparatus.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francoist Spain (España franquista) or the Franco regime (Régimen de Franco), formally known as the Spanish State (Estado Español), is the period of Spanish history between 1939, when Francisco Franco took control of Spain after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War establishing a dictatorship, and 1975, when Franco died and Prince Juan Carlos was crowned King of Spain.
Freestyle wrestling is a style of amateur wrestling that is practiced throughout the world.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The Friendship Games, or Friendship-84 (Дружба-84, Druzhba-84), was an international multi-sport event held between 2 July and 16 September 1984 in the Soviet Union and eight other socialist states which boycotted the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles.
Gannett Company, Inc. is a publicly traded American media holding company headquartered in Tysons Corner, Virginia, near McLean in Greater Washington DC.
Günther Sabetzki (4 June 1915 in Düsseldorf, German Empire – 21 June 2000) was an executive for several ice hockey leagues and organizations.
George M. Averoff (15 August 1815, Metsovo – 15 July 1899, Alexandria), alternately Georgios Averof (in Greek: Γεώργιος Αβέρωφ), was a Greek businessman and philanthropist.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Global Association of International Sports Federations (GAISF; previously SportAccord) is the umbrella organisation for all (Olympic and non-Olympic) international sports federations as well as organisers of multi-sports games and sport-related international associations.
"God Bless America" is an American patriotic song written by Irving Berlin during World War I in 1918 and revised by him in the run up to World War II in 1938.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
Great Britain did not send a team to the 1904 Summer Olympics in St. Louis, Missouri, United States.
Greco-Roman (US) or Graeco-Roman (UK) wrestling is a style of wrestling that is practiced worldwide.
The Greek War of Independence, also known as the Greek Revolution (Ελληνική Επανάσταση, Elliniki Epanastasi, or also referred to by Greeks in the 19th century as the Αγώνας, Agonas, "Struggle"; Ottoman: يونان عصياني Yunan İsyanı, "Greek Uprising"), was a successful war of independence waged by Greek revolutionaries against the Ottoman Empire between 1821 and 1830.
Guyana (pronounced or), officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, is a sovereign state on the northern mainland of South America.
Gymnastics is a sport that requires balance, strength, flexibility, agility, coordination, and endurance.
Gymnastics events have been contested at every Summer Olympic Games since the birth of the modern Olympic movement at the 1896 Summer Olympics in Athens.
Hans-Gunnar Liljenwall (born 9 July 1941) is a Swedish modern pentathlete who caused the disqualification of the Swedish team at the 1968 Summer Olympics for alcohol use.
Henri Didon (17 March 1840, Le Touvet – 13 March 1900, Toulouse) was a famous French Dominican preacher.
Heracles (Ἡρακλῆς, Hēraklês, Glory/Pride of Hēra, "Hera"), born Alcaeus (Ἀλκαῖος, Alkaios) or Alcides (Ἀλκείδης, Alkeidēs), was a divine hero in Greek mythology, the son of Zeus and Alcmene, foster son of AmphitryonBy his adoptive descent through Amphitryon, Heracles receives the epithet Alcides, as "of the line of Alcaeus", father of Amphitryon.
The Hockey Hall of Fame (Temple de la renommée du hockey) is an ice hockey museum located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
---- Hu Jintao (born 21 December 1942) is a Chinese politician who was the paramount leader of China from 2002 to 2012.
Human rights in China is a highly contested topic, especially for the fundamental human rights periodically reviewed by the United Nations Human Rights Committee, on which the government of the People's Republic of China and various foreign governments and human rights organizations have often disagreed.
The Hungarian Revolution of 1956, or Hungarian Uprising of 1956 (1956-os forradalom or 1956-os felkelés), was a nationwide revolt against the Marxist-Leninist government of the Hungarian People's Republic and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
The Kingdom of Hungary competed at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, Germany.
Ibolya Csák (6 January 1915 – 9 February 2006) was a Hungarian athlete.
Ice hockey tournaments have been staged at the Olympic Games since 1920.
Innsbruck is the capital city of Tyrol in western Austria and the fifth-largest city in Austria.
Institute for Gulf Affairs (formerly the Saudi Institute) is a Washington, D.C.-based human rights advocacy group and think tank that monitors politics and education in the Middle East.
The International Olympic Committee (IOC; French: Comité International Olympique, CIO) is a Swiss private non-governmental organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, which is the authority responsible for the modern Olympic Games.
The International Paralympic Committee (IPC; Internationales Paralympisches Komitee) is an international non-profit organisation and the global governing body for the Paralympic Movement.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was a state established in 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921.
Israel competed at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany, which began on August 26.
Isthmian Games or Isthmia (Ancient Greek: Ἴσθμια) were one of the Panhellenic Games of Ancient Greece, and were named after the Isthmus of Corinth, where they were held.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
The International Wheelchair and Amputee Sports (IWAS) World Games (or IWAS World Games) are a multi-sport competition for athletes with a disability, which under the former name of the International Stoke Mandeville Games were the forerunner of the Paralympic Games.
Jacques René Chirac (born 29 November 1932) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 1995 to 2007.
Jacques Jean Marie Rogge, Count Rogge (born 2 May 1942) is a Belgian sports administrator and physician who served as the eighth President of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) from 2001 to 2013.
James Cleveland "Jesse" Owens (September 12, 1913March 31, 1980) was an American track and field athlete and four-time Olympic gold medalist in the 1936 Games.
James Francis Thorpe (Sac and Fox (Sauk): Wa-Tho-Huk, translated as "Bright Path"; May 22 or 28, 1887March 28, 1953) was an American athlete and Olympic gold medalist.
John Wesley Carlos (born June 5, 1945) is an American former track and field athlete and professional football player.
John Hulley (19 February 1832 – 6 January 1875) was an English gymnastics and athletics entrepreneur who encouraged public participation in physical education to improve health and well-being, and was one of the instigators of the Olympic movement in Britain.
Juan Antonio Samaranch y Torelló, 1st Marquess of Samaranch (17 July 1920 – 21 April 2010) was a Spanish sports administrator and minister of sports under the Franco regime (1973–1977) who served as the seventh President of the IOC (IOC) from 1980 to 2001.
was created as a physical, mental and moral pedagogy in Japan, in 1882, by Jigoro Kano (嘉納治五郎).
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
The KGB, an initialism for Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti (p), translated in English as Committee for State Security, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its break-up in 1991.
Knud Enemark Jensen (30 November 1936 – 26 August 1960) was a Danish cyclist who died while participating in the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome, Italy.
The Eastman Kodak Company (referred to simply as Kodak) is an American technology company that produces imaging products with its historic basis on photography.
Konstantinos Zappas (Κωνσταντίνος Ζάππας.; 1814–1892) was a Greek entrepreneur and national benefactor.
Krasnodar Krai (p) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai), located in the North Caucasus region in Southern Russia and administratively a part of the Southern Federal District.
The LA84 Foundation (known until June 2007 as the Amateur Athletic Foundation of Los Angeles) is a private, nonprofit institution created by the Los Angeles Olympic Organizing Committee to manage Southern California's endowment from the 1984 Olympic Games.
--> The Twelve Labours of Heracles or of Hercules (ἆθλοι, hoi Hērakleous athloi) are a series of episodes concerning a penance carried out by Heracles, the greatest of the Greek heroes, whose name was later Romanised as Hercules.
Lake Placid is a village in the Adirondack Mountains in Essex County, New York, United States.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lausanne (Lausanne Losanna, Losanna) is a city in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, and the capital and biggest city of the canton of Vaud.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
This is a list of international sports federations, each of which serves as a non-governmental governing body for a given sport and administers its sport at a world level, most often crafting rules, promoting the sport to prospective spectators and fans, developing prospective players, and organizing world or continental championships.
This is the list of International Olympic Committee (IOC) meetings.
The Mayor of Paris (Maire de Paris) is the chief executive of Paris, the capital and largest city in the France.
A multi-sport event is an organized sporting event, often held over multiple days, featuring competition in many different sports between organized teams of athletes from (mostly) nation-states.
The Olympic Games is a major international multi-sport event.
The Olympic Games is a major international multi-sport event.
The Olympic mascots are fictional characters, usually an animal native to the area or human figures, who represent the cultural heritage of the place where the Olympic and Paralympic Games are taking place.
Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 in 2017.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
London 2012 was the successful bid to host the 2012 Summer Olympics, held in London with most events taking place in Stratford in the borough of Newham.
The London Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games (LOCOG) was the organisation responsible for overseeing the planning and development of the 2012 Summer Olympic and Paralympic Games.
Los Angeles (Spanish for "The Angels";; officially: the City of Los Angeles; colloquially: by its initials L.A.) is the second-most populous city in the United States, after New York City.
The Louisiana Purchase Exposition, informally known as the St.
Sir Ludwig "Poppa" Guttmann (3 July 1899 – 18 March 1980)GRO – Register of Deaths – MAR 1980 19 1000 AYLESBURY, Ludwig Guttmann, DoB.
Sheikha Maitha bint Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum (born 5 March 1980) is a karate and taekwondo athlete and sheikha of Dubai.
Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada.
Marc Hodler (–) was a Swiss lawyer, President of the International Ski Federation (1951–1998), member of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) from 1963 until his death, and bridge player.
Mariam Mohamed Hadi Al Hilli (born March 17, 1984) is a Bahraini Olympic athlete, who specialises in the 100 metres sprint.
Maryam Yusuf Jamal (ማሪያም፡ ዩሱፍ፡ ጃማል) (مريم يوسف جمال) (born Zenebech Tola) (ዘነበቸ፡ ቶላ) (born 16 September 1984) is a Bahraini middle-distance runner.
Maziah Mahusin (born March 18, 1993) is a Bruneian hurdler.
Melbourne is the state capital of Victoria and the second-most populous city in Australia and Oceania.
Mens sana in corpore sano is a Latin phrase, usually translated as "a healthy mind in a healthy body".
The metric system is an internationally adopted decimal system of measurement.
Misha (Миша), also known as Mishka (Мишка) or The Olympic Mishka (Олимпийский Мишка), is the name of the Russian Bear mascot of the 1980 Moscow Olympic Games (the XXII Summer Olympics).
Early Olympic Games allowed for individuals in a team to be from different nations.
The modern pentathlon is an Olympic sport that comprises five different events; fencing (one-touch épée), freestyle swimming (200m), equestrian show jumping (15 jumps), and a final combined event of pistol shooting and cross country running (3200m).
Montreal (officially Montréal) is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada.
Much Wenlock is a small town and parish in Shropshire, England, situated on the A458 road between Shrewsbury and Bridgnorth.
A multi-sport event is an organized sporting event, often held over multiple days, featuring competition in many different sports among organized teams of athletes from (mostly) nation-states.
Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
The Munich massacre was an attack during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany, in which the Palestinian terrorist group Black September took eleven Israeli Olympic team members hostage and killed them along with a German police officer.
Nadzeya Ostapchuk (Надзея Мікалаеўна Астапчук, Nadzeya Mikalayeuna Astapchuk; Надежда Остапчук, Nadezhda Ostapchuk; born October 28, 1980) is a Belarusian shot putter.
Natalia Paderina (born November 1, 1975 in Sverdlovsk) is a Russian sport shooter.
A national anthem (also state anthem, national hymn, national song, etc.) is generally a patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nation's government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people.
The "National Anthem of the Republic of China" is the national anthem of Taiwan.
A National Olympic Committee (NOC) is a national constituent of the worldwide Olympic movement.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) is an American English language commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast.
NBC Sports is the programming division of the American broadcast network NBC, owned by the NBCUniversal Television Group division of NBCUniversal, that is responsible for sports broadcasts on the network, and its dedicated national sports cable channels.
The Nemean Games (Νέμεα or Νέμεια) were one of the four Panhellenic Games of Ancient Greece, and were held at Nemea every two years (or every third).
Nepotism is based on favour granted to relatives in various fields, including business, politics, entertainment, sports, religion and other activities.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
The New York City Fire Department, officially the Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY), is a department of the government of New York City that provides fire protection, technical rescue, primary response to biological, chemical, and radioactive hazards, and emergency medical services to the five boroughs of New York City.
The City of New York Police Department, commonly known as the NYPD, is the primary law enforcement and investigation agency within the five boroughs of New York City.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
The New Zealand national rugby union team, called the All Blacks, represents New Zealand in men's rugby union, which is known as the country's national sport.
Nino Salukvadze (ნინო სალუქვაძე; born 1 February 1969 in Tbilisi) is a female Georgian sports shooter.
Nordic combined is a winter sport in which athletes compete in cross-country skiing and ski jumping.
The Nordic combined events have been contested at the Winter Olympic Games since 1924.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
In Greek mythology, King Oenomaus (also Oenamaus; Οἱνόμαος, Oἱnómaos) of Pisa, the father of Hippodamia, was the son of Ares, either by the naiad Harpina (daughter of the river god Phliasian Asopus, the armed (harpe) spirit of a spring near Pisa) or by Sterope, one of the Pleiades, whom some identify as his consort instead.
Olympia (Greek: Ὀλυμπία;; Olymbía), a sanctuary of ancient Greece in Elis on the Peloponnese peninsula, is known for having been the site of the Olympic Games in classical times.
An Olympiad (Ὀλυμπιάς, Olympiás) is a period of four years associated with the Olympic Games of the Ancient Greeks.
The Olympic Charter is a set of rules and guidelines for the organisation of the Olympic Games, and for governing the Olympic movement.
An Olympic Congress is a large gathering of representatives from the different constituencies of the Olympic Movement, organised by the International Olympic Committee (IOC).
The Olympic Council of Ireland or OCI (Comhairle Oilimpeach na hÉireann) (called the Irish Olympic Council until 1952) is the National Olympic Committee (NOC) of the island of Ireland.
The Olympic Cup (French: Coupe olympique) is an award given annually by the International Olympic Committee.
Olympic Day Run is an international Olympic Movement activity promoting mass participation of sports held in June organized by National Olympic Committees (NOCs).
The Olympic flame is a symbol used in the Olympic movement.
Olympic Games ceremonies of the Ancient Olympic Games were an integral part of these Games; the modern Olympic games have opening, closing and medal ceremonies.
An Olympic medal is awarded to successful competitors at one of the Olympic Games.
The Olympic Order is the highest award of the Olympic Movement and is awarded for particularly distinguished contributions to the Olympic Movement, i.e. recognition of efforts worthy of merit in the cause of sport.
The Olympic Project for Human Rights (OPHR) was an American organization established by sociologist Harry Edwards and others, including noted Olympians Tommie Smith and John Carlos, in October 1967.
Olympic sports are sports that are contested in the Summer Olympic Games and Winter Olympic Games.
Olympic Stadium is the name usually given to the main stadium of an Olympic Games.
The Olympic symbols are icons, flags and symbols used by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to elevate the Olympic Games.
An Olympic Village is an accommodation center built for the Olympic Games, usually within an Olympic Park or elsewhere in a host city.
Otto (Óthon; 1 June 1815 – 26 July 1867) was a Bavarian prince who became the first modern King of Greece in 1832 under the Convention of London.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Oxo is a brand of food products, including stock cubes, herbs and spices, dried gravy, and yeast extract.
The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO; منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية) is an organization founded in 1964 with the purpose of the "liberation of Palestine" through armed struggle, with much of its violence aimed at Israeli civilians.
Panagiotis Soutsos (Παναγιώτης Σοῦτσος; 1806 – 25 October 1868), was a Greek poet, novelist and journalist born in Constantinople (modern Istanbul, Turkey).
The Panathenaic Stadium (Παναθηναϊκό Στάδιο, Panathinaïkó Stádio) or Kallimarmaro (Καλλιμάρμαρο, lit. "beautiful marble") is a multi-purpose stadium in Athens, Greece.
"Panhellenic Games" is the collective term for four separate sports festivals held in ancient Greece.
Pankration (παγκράτιον) was a sporting event introduced into the Greek Olympic Games in 648 BC and was an empty-hand submission sport with scarcely any rules.
Panorama is a BBC Television investigative current affairs documentary programme.
A parabolic (or paraboloid or paraboloidal) reflector (or dish or mirror) is a reflective surface used to collect or project energy such as light, sound, or radio waves.
The Paralympic Games is a major international multi-sport event involving athletes with a range of disabilities, including impaired muscle power (e.g. paraplegia and quadriplegia, muscular dystrophy, post-polio syndrome, spina bifida), impaired passive range of movement, limb deficiency (e.g. amputation or dysmelia), leg length difference, short stature, hypertonia, ataxia, athetosis, vision impairment and intellectual impairment.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
In Greek mythology, Pelops (Greek: Πέλοψ), was king of Pisa in the Peloponnesus.
A pentathlon is a contest featuring five events.
Peter George Norman (15 June 1942 – 3 October 2006) was an Australian track athlete.
Peter Victor Ueberroth (born September 2, 1937) is an American executive.
Phidias or Pheidias (Φειδίας, Pheidias; 480 – 430 BC) was a Greek sculptor, painter, and architect.
Pierre de Frédy, Baron de Coubertin (born Pierre de Frédy; 1 January 1863 – 2 September 1937, also known as Pierre de Coubertin and Baron de Coubertin) was a French educator and historian, and founder of the International Olympic Committee, as well as its second President.
The Pierre de Coubertin medal (also known as the De Coubertin medal or the True Spirit of Sportsmanship medal) is a special decoration awarded by the International Olympic Committee to those athletes, former athletes, sports promoters, sporting officials and others who exemplify the spirit of sportsmanship in Olympic events or through exceptional service to the Olympic movement.
Joseph Philippe Pierre Yves Elliott Trudeau (October 18, 1919 – September 28, 2000), often referred to by the initials PET, was a Canadian statesman who served as the 15th Prime Minister of Canada (1968–1979 and 1980–1984).
Pisa (Πῖσα) was the name of an ancient town in the western Peloponnese, Greece.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française) is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic.
The President of the People's Republic of China is the head of state of the People's Republic of China.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
Professional sports, as opposed to amateur sports, are sports in which athletes receive payment for their performance.
A public school in England and Wales is a long-established, student-selective, fee-charging independent secondary school that caters primarily for children aged between 11 or 13 and 18, and whose head teacher is a member of the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference (HMC).
Puerto Rico (Spanish for "Rich Port"), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico") and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea.
Pyeongchang (in full, Pyeongchang-gun) is a county in the province of Gangwon-do, South Korea, located in the Taebaek Mountains region.
The Pythian Games (Πύθια; also Delphic Games) were one of the four Panhellenic Games of Ancient Greece.
Qatar has competed in 9 Summer Olympic Games.
Qatar Olympic Committee (IOC code: QAT) is the National Olympic Committee representing Qatar.
Racial segregation is the separation of people into racial or other ethnic groups in daily life.
The Refugee Olympic Team competed at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 5 to 21 August 2016, as independent Olympic participants.
Rhodesia was an unrecognised state in southern Africa from 1965 to 1979, equivalent in territory to modern Zimbabwe.
Rhythmic gymnastics is a sport in which individuals or groups of five manipulate one or two pieces of apparatus: rope, hoop, ball, clubs, ribbon and freehand (no apparatus).
Rio de Janeiro (River of January), or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas.
Robert Dover (1575/82–1652) was an English attorney, author and wit, best known as the founder and for many years the director of the Cotswold Olimpick Games.
Robina Jalali, also known as Robina Muqimyar (born July 3, 1986) is a former Olympic athlete who represented Afghanistan at the 2004 and 2008 Olympics and in 30 international events competing in the 100 meter sprint.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russo-Georgian War was a war between Georgia, Russia and the Russian-backed self-proclaimed republics of South Ossetia and Abkhazia.
Salt Lake City (often shortened to Salt Lake and abbreviated as SLC) is the capital and the most populous municipality of the U.S. state of Utah.
Saudi Arabia has competed in ten Summer Olympic Games.
Sebastian Newbold Coe, Baron Coe, (born 29 September 1956), often referred to as Seb Coe or Lord Coe, is a British politician and former track and field athlete.
Seoul (like soul; 서울), officially the Seoul Special Metropolitan City – is the capital, Constitutional Court of Korea and largest metropolis of South Korea.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
The Women's 10 metre air pistol event at the 2008 Olympic Games took place on August 10 at the Beijing Shooting Range Hall.
Shooting competitions at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London took place from 28 July to 6 August at the Royal Artillery Barracks in Woolwich.
Shropshire (alternatively Salop; abbreviated, in print only, Shrops; demonym Salopian) is a county in the West Midlands of England, bordering Wales to the west, Cheshire to the north, Staffordshire to the east, and Worcestershire and Herefordshire to the south.
A single-elimination, knockout, or sudden death tournament is a type of elimination tournament where the loser of each match-up is immediately eliminated from the tournament.
Sint Maarten is an island country in the Caribbean.
Sion (Sitten; Seduno; Sedunum) is a Swiss town, a municipality, and the capital of the canton of Valais and of the district of Sion.
Ski jumping has been included in the program of every Winter Olympic Games.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
Sochi (a) is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Black Sea coast near the border between Georgia/Abkhazia and Russia.
Socialist Workers' Sport International (Sozialistische Arbeitersport Internationale, SASI) was an international socialist sporting organisation, based in Lucerne.
Softball at the Summer Olympics was on the Olympic programme from 1996 to 2008.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Soviet Union (USSR) competed at the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne, Australia.
The Soviet Union first participated at the Olympic Games in 1952, and competed at the Games on 18 occasions subsequently.
The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The Spartakiad (or Spartakiade) was an international sports event that was sponsored by the Soviet Union.
The Special Olympics is the world's largest sports organization for children and adults with intellectual disabilities, providing year-round training and competitions to 5 million athletes and Unified States Sports partners in 172 countries.
Speed skating has been featured as a sport in the Winter Olympics since the first winter games in 1924.
A sports governing body is a sports organization that has a regulatory or sanctioning function.
The stadion (στάδιον; stadium), formerly also anglicized as stade, was an ancient Greek unit of length, based on the length of a typical sports stadium of the time.
Stanozolol, sold under many brand names, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which was derived from dihydrotestosterone (DHT).
The Statue of Zeus at Olympia was a giant seated figure, about tall, made by the Greek sculptor Phidias around 435 BC at the sanctuary of Olympia, Greece, and erected in the Temple of Zeus there.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
Strychnine (also or) is a highly toxic, colorless, bitter, crystalline alkaloid used as a pesticide, particularly for killing small vertebrates such as birds and rodents.
Substituted amphetamines are a class of compounds based upon the amphetamine structure; it includes all derivative compounds which are formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the amphetamine core structure with substituents.
The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli War, also named the Tripartite Aggression (in the Arab world) and Operation Kadesh or Sinai War (in Israel),Also named: Suez Canal Crisis, Suez War, Suez–Sinai war, Suez Campaign, Sinai Campaign, Operation Musketeer (أزمة السويس /‎ العدوان الثلاثي, "Suez Crisis"/ "the Tripartite Aggression"; Crise du canal de Suez; מבצע קדש "Operation Kadesh", or מלחמת סיני, "Sinai War") was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France.
The Summer Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'été) or the Games of the Olympiad, first held in 1896, is an international multi-sport event that is hosted by a different city every four years.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Swimming has been a sport at every modern Summer Olympics.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Synchronised swimming (renamed as artistic swimming since July 2017 by the global governing body FINA), is a hybrid form of swimming, dance, and gymnastics, consisting of swimmers performing a synchronised routine (either solo, duet, mixed duet, free team, free combination, and highlight) of elaborate moves in the water, accompanied by music.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is a nonprofit news organization that publishes daily articles in electronic format as well as a weekly print edition.
The Crystal Palace was a cast-iron and plate-glass structure originally built in Hyde Park, London, to house the Great Exhibition of 1851.
The Economic Journal (EJ) is a peer-reviewed academic journal of economics published on behalf of the Royal Economic Society (RES) by Wiley-Blackwell.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius Augustus; Θεοδόσιος Αʹ; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from AD 379 to AD 395, as the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the empire. His resources were not equal to destroy them, and by the treaty which followed his modified victory at the end of the Gothic War, they were established as Foederati, autonomous allies of the Empire, south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the empire's borders. He was obliged to fight two destructive civil wars, successively defeating the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius, not without material cost to the power of the empire. He also issued decrees that effectively made Nicene Christianity the official state church of the Roman Empire."Edict of Thessalonica": See Codex Theodosianus XVI.1.2 He neither prevented nor punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of classical antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi and the Serapeum in Alexandria. He dissolved the order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome. In 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient Greece. After his death, Theodosius' young sons Arcadius and Honorius inherited the east and west halves respectively, and the Roman Empire was never again re-united, though Eastern Roman emperors after Zeno would claim the united title after Julius Nepos' death in 480 AD.
Theodosius II (Flavius Theodosius Junior Augustus; Θεοδόσιος Βʹ; 10 April 401 – 28 July 450),"Theodosius II" in The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, New York & Oxford, 1991, p. 2051.
Thomas John Hicks (January 11, 1876 – January 28, 1952) was an American track and field athlete.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Tommie C. Smith (born June 6, 1944) is an American former track & field athlete and wide receiver in the American Football League.
Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007.
Tufts University is a private research university incorporated in the municipality of Medford, Massachusetts, United States.
Turin (Torino; Turin) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy.
United Arab Emirates have competed in eight Summer Olympic Games.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States hosted the 1904 Summer Olympics in St. Louis, Missouri.
The United States Olympic Committee (USOC) is the National Olympic Committee for the United States.
The University of Paris (Université de Paris), metonymically known as the Sorbonne (one of its buildings), was a university in Paris, France, from around 1150 to 1793, and from 1806 to 1970.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
Věra Čáslavská (3 May 1942 – 30 August 2016) was a Czechoslovak artistic gymnast and Czech sports official.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.
Volleyball has been part of the Summer Olympics program for both men and women consistently since 1964.
The Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, officially known as Operation Danube, was a joint invasion of Czechoslovakia by five Warsaw Pact nations – the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Hungary, East Germany and Poland – on the night of 20–21 August 1968.
The Wenlock Olympian Games, dating from 1850, are a forerunner of the modern Olympic Games.
William Penny Brookes (13 August 1809 – 11 December 1895) was an English surgeon, magistrate, botanist, and educationalist especially known for inspiring the modern Olympic Games, the Wenlock Olympian Games and for his promotion of physical education and personal betterment.
Winnipeg is the capital and largest city of the province of Manitoba in Canada.
The Winter Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'hiver) is a major international sporting event held once every four years for sports practised on snow and ice.
The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA; Agence mondiale antidopage, AMA) is a foundation initiated by the International Olympic Committee based in Canada to promote, coordinate and monitor the fight against drugs in sports.
The World Games, first held in 1981, are an international multi-sport event, meant for sports, or disciplines or events within a sport, that are not contested in the Olympic Games.
The World Trade Center site, formerly referred to as "Ground Zero" after the September 11 attacks, is a 14.6-acre (5.9 ha) area in Lower Manhattan in New York City.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wrestling had been contested at the Summer Olympic Games since the sport was introduced in the ancient Olympic Games in 708 BC.
The Youth Olympic Games (YOG) is an international multi-sport event organized by the International Olympic Committee.
The Zappas Olympics (Ζάππειες Ολυμπιάδες), simply called Olympics (Ολύμπια, Olympia) at the time, were a series of athletic events held in Athens, Greece, in 1859, 1870, and 1875 sponsored by Greek businessman Evangelis Zappas.
The zenith is an imaginary point directly "above" a particular location, on the imaginary celestial sphere.
Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeús) is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.
Zola Pieterse (née Budd; born 26 May 1966) is a middle-distance and long-distance runner.
The 117th International Olympic Committee Session was held for the first time in Singapore from 2 to 9 July 2005.
The 1896 Summer Olympics (Θερινοί Ολυμπιακοί Αγώνες 1896), officially known as the Games of the I Olympiad, was the first international Olympic Games held in modern history.
The 1900 Summer Olympics (Les Jeux olympiques d'été de 1900), today officially known as the Games of the II Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that took place in Paris, France, in 1900.
The 1904 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the III Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in St. Louis, Missouri, in the United States from August 29 until September 3, 1904, as part of an extended sports program lasting from July 1 to November 23, 1904, at what is now known as Francis Field on the campus of Washington University in St. Louis.
The 1906 Intercalated Games or 1906 Olympic Games was an international multi-sport event that was celebrated in Athens, Greece.
The 1908 Summer Olympics, officially the Games of the IV Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was held in 1908 in London, United Kingdom from 27 April to 31 October 1908.
The 1912 Summer Olympics (Swedish: Olympiska sommarspelen 1912), officially known as the Games of the V Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in Stockholm, Sweden, between 5 May and 22 July 1912.
The 1916 Summer Olympics (German: Olympische Sommerspiele 1916), officially known as the Games of the VI Olympiad, were scheduled to be held in Berlin, Germany, but were eventually canceled due to the outbreak of World War I. Berlin was selected as the host city during the 14th IOC Session in Stockholm on 4 July 1912, defeating bids from Alexandria, Amsterdam, Brussels, Budapest and Cleveland.
The 1920 Summer Olympics (Les Jeux olympiques d'été de 1920; Olympische Zomerspelen van de VIIe Olympiade), officially known as the Games of the VII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event in 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium.
The 1924 Summer Olympics (Les Jeux olympiques d'été de 1924), officially known as the Games of the VIII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1924 in Paris, France.
The 1924 Winter Olympics, officially known as the I Olympic Winter Games (Les Iers Jeux olympiques d'hiver), were a winter multi-sport event which was held in 1924 in Chamonix, France.
The 1928 Summer Olympics (Dutch: Olympische Zomerspelen 1928), officially known as the Games of the IX Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that was celebrated from 28 July to 12 August 1928 in Amsterdam, Netherlands.
The 1936 Summer Olympics (German: Olympische Sommerspiele 1936), officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in 1936 in Berlin, Nazi Germany.
The 1936 Winter Olympics, officially known as the IV Olympic Winter Games (French: Les IVes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) (German: Olympische Winterspiele 1936), were a winter multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1936 in the market town of Garmisch-Partenkirchen in Bavaria, Germany.
The 1948 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XIV Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event which was held in London, United Kingdom.
The 1952 Summer Olympics (Kesäolympialaiset 1952; Olympiska sommarspelen 1952), officially known as the Games of the XV Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in Helsinki, Finland, in 1952.
The 1956 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVI Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was held in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, in November–December 1956, apart from the equestrian events, which were held five months earlier in Stockholm, Sweden.
The 1956 Winter Olympics, officially known as the VII Olympic Winter Games (French: Les VIIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) (Italian: VII Giochi olimpici invernali), was a winter multi-sport event celebrated in Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy.
The 1960 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVII Olympiad (Italian: Giochi della XVII Olimpiade), was an international multi-sport event that was held from August 25 to September 11, 1960, in Rome, Italy.
The 9th Annual International Stoke Mandeville Games, retroactively designated as the 1960 Summer Paralympics (I Giochi Paralimpici Estivi),, International Paralympic Committee (IPC) were the first international Paralympic Games, following on from the Stoke Mandeville Games of 1948 and 1952.
The 1960 Winter Olympics, officially known as the VIII Olympic Winter Games, was a winter multi-sport event held between February 18–28, 1960 in Squaw Valley, California, United States.
The 1968 Olympics Human Rights Salute was a political demonstration conducted by African-American athletes Tommie Smith and John Carlos during their medal ceremony on October 16, 1968, at the 1968 Summer Olympics in the Olympic Stadium in Mexico City.
The 1968 Summer Olympics (Spanish: Juegos Olímpicos de Verano de 1968), officially known as the Games of the XIX Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in Mexico City, Mexico, in October 1968.
The 1972 Summer Olympics (German: Olympische Sommerspiele 1972), officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Munich, West Germany, from August 26 to September 11, 1972.
The 1976 Summer Olympics, officially called the Games of the XXI Olympiad (French: Les XXIes olympiques d'été), was an international multi-sport event in Montreal, Quebec, in 1976, and the first Olympic Games held in Canada.
The 1980 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXII Olympiad (r), was an international multi-sport event held in Moscow, Soviet Union, in present-day Russia.
The 1984 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that was held from July 28 to August 12, 1984, in Los Angeles (LA), California, United States.
The 1988 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIV Olympiad (Korean), were an international multi-sport event celebrated from 17 September to 2 October 1988 in Seoul, South Korea.
The 1988 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XV Olympic Winter Games (Les XVes Jeux olympiques d'hiver), was a Winter Olympics multi-sport event celebrated in and around Calgary, Alberta, Canada, between February 13 and 28, 1988 and were the first Winter Olympics to be held over a whole two week period.
The 1988 Winter Paralympic Games (German: Paralympische Winterspiele 1988) were the fourth Winter Paralympics, held again in Innsbruck, Austria.
The 1991 Vic bombing was an attack carried out by the Basque separatist group ETA which occurred on 29 May 1991 when a car bomb carrying more than 200 kg of explosive went off outside a Civil Guard barracks in the Catalan city of Vic, Spain.
The 1992 Summer Olympic Games (Spanish: Juegos Olímpicos de Verano de 1992; Catalan: Jocs Olímpics d'estiu de 1992), officially known as the Games of the XXV Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event celebrated in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain in 1992.
The 1992 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XVI Olympic Winter Games (Les XVIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver), were a winter multi-sport event celebrated from 8 to 23 February 1992 in Albertville, France.
The 1994 Winter Olympics (Olympiske vinterleker 1994), officially known as the XVII Olympic Winter Games (French: Les XVIIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver), was a winter multi-sport event celebrated from 12 to 27 February 1994 in and around Lillehammer, Norway.
The 1996 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXVI Olympiad and unofficially referred to as the Centennial Olympic Games, was an international multi-sport event that was celebrated from July 19 to August 4, 1996, in Atlanta, Georgia, United States.
The 1998 Winter Olympics, officially the, and commonly known as Nagano 1998, was a winter multi-sport event celebrated from 7 to 22 February 1998 in Nagano, Japan.
The 2000 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXVII Olympiad and commonly known as Sydney 2000 or the Millennium Olympic Games/Games of the New Millennium, were an international multi-sport event which was held between 15 September and 1 October 2000 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
The 2002 Olympic Winter Games bid scandal was a scandal involving allegations of bribery used to win the rights to host the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States.
The 2002 Winter Olympics, officially the XIX Olympic Winter Games and commonly known as Salt Lake 2002, were a winter multi-sport event that was celebrated from 8 to 24 February 2002 in and around Salt Lake City, Utah, United States.
The 2004 Summer Olympic Games (Θερινοί Ολυμπιακοί Αγώνες 2004), officially known as the Games of the XXVIII Olympiad and commonly known as Athens 2004, was a premier international multi-sport event held in Athens, Greece, from 13 to 29 August 2004 with the motto Welcome Home. 10,625 athletes competed, some 600 more than expected, accompanied by 5,501 team officials from 201 countries.
The 2008 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad and commonly known as Beijing 2008, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 8 to 24 August 2008 in Beijing, China.
The 2008 Tibetan unrest, also referred to as the 3-14 Riots in Chinese media, was a series of riots, protests, and demonstrations that started in the Tibetan regional capital of Lhasa.
The 2010 Summer Youth Olympics (2010 கோடைக்கால இளையோர் ஒலிம்பிக் விளையாட்டுக்கள் Sukan Olimpik Belia Musim Panas 2010) were the first edition of the Youth Olympic Games (YOG), an international multi-sport and cultural event for youths based on the tradition of the Olympic Games.
The 2010 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXI Olympic Winter Games (Les XXIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) and commonly known as Vancouver 2010, informally the 21st Winter Olympics, was an international winter multi-sport event that was held from 12 to 28 February 2010 in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, with some events held in the surrounding suburbs of Richmond, West Vancouver and the University Endowment Lands, and in the nearby resort town of Whistler.
The 2012 Summer Olympics, formally the Games of the XXX Olympiad and commonly known as London 2012, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 27 July to 12 August 2012 in London, United Kingdom.
The 2012 Summer Paralympics, the 14th Summer Paralympic Games, and also more generally known as the London 2012 Paralympic Games, were a major international multi-sport event for athletes with disabilities governed by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC), that took place in London, United Kingdom from 29 August to 9 September 2012.
The 2012 Winter Youth Olympic Games (German: Olympische Jugend-Winterspiele 2012), officially known as the I Winter Youth Olympic Games (YOG), were an international multi-sport event for youths that took place in Innsbruck, on 13–22 January 2012.
The 2014 Summer Youth Olympic Games (officially known as II Summer Youth Olympic Games) (Chinese: 第二届夏季青年奧林匹克运动会) were the second Summer Youth Olympic Games, an international sports, education and cultural festival for teenagers, held from 16 to 28 August 2014 in Nanjing, China.
The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially called the XXII Olympic Winter Games (Les XXIIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) (r) and commonly known as Sochi 2014, was an international winter multi-sport event that was held from 7 to 23 February 2014 in Sochi, Krasnodar Krai, Russia, with opening rounds in certain events held on the eve of the opening ceremony, 6 February 2014.
The 2014 Winter Paralympics (r), the 11th Paralympic Winter Games, and also more generally known as the Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games, were an international multi-sport event for athletes with disabilities governed by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC), held in Sochi, Krasnodar Krai, Russia on 7–16 March 2014.
The 2016 Summer Olympics (Jogos Olímpicos de Verão de 2016), officially known as the Games of the XXXI Olympiad and commonly known as Rio 2016, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 5 to 21 August 2016 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with preliminary events in some sports beginning on 3 August.
The 2016 Summer Paralympics, the 15th Summer Paralympic Games, were a major international multi-sport event for athletes with disabilities governed by the International Paralympic Committee, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 7 September to 18 September 2016.
The 2018 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXIII Olympic Winter Games (Jeisipsamhoe Donggye Ollimpik) and commonly known as PyeongChang 2018, was an international winter multi-sport event that was held between 9 and 25 February 2018 in Pyeongchang County, Gangwon Province, South Korea, with the opening rounds for certain events held on 8 February 2018, the eve of the opening ceremony.
The 2020 Summer Olympics, officially known as the and commonly known as Tokyo 2020, is a forthcoming international multi-sport event that is scheduled to take place from 24 July to 9 August 2020.
The 2022 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXIV Olympic Winter Games (Les XXIVème Jeux olympiques d'hiver), and commonly known as Beijing 2022, is an international winter multi-sport event that is scheduled to take place from 4 to 20 February 2022, in Beijing and towns in the neighbouring Hebei province, People's Republic of China.
The 2024 Summer Olympics (Jeux olympiques d'été de 2024), officially known as the Games of the XXXIII Olympiad, and commonly known as Paris 2024, is a forthcoming international multi-sport event that is scheduled to take place from 26 July to 11 August 2024 in Paris, France.
The 2028 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXXIV Olympiad, and commonly known as LA 2028, is a forthcoming international multi-sport event that is scheduled to take place from July 21 to August 6, 2028, in Los Angeles, California, United States.
Competitor at the Olympic Games, History of the Modern Olympics, History of the modern Olympic Games, History of the modern Olympics, History of the modern olympic games, History of the modern olympics, Jeux olympiques, Les Jeux Olympiques, Modern Olympic Games, Modern Olympics, Olimpic games, Olimpics, Olymics, Olympic games, Olympic history, OlympicGames, Olympick games, Olympics, Olympics Games, Olympionike, The Games (Olympics), The Olympic Games, The Olympics, The greek olympics, Unannounced Olympiads.