206 relations: Abdul Wahid al Nur, Abu Nidal, Addis Ababa, African Union, African Union Mission in Sudan, Ahmed al-Mirghani, Aid agency, Akua Kuenyehia, Al Jazeera, Al Jazeera English, Al-Qaeda, Al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory, Alfred de Montesquiou, Alhaj Adam Yousef, Ali Abdullah Saleh, Ali Osman Taha, Amnesty International, Amr Moussa, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, Anita Ušacka, Anti-Gaddafi forces, Arab League, Arabs, Arrest warrant, Bakri Hassan Saleh, BBC News, Bedouin, Belfast Telegraph, Bloomberg News, Brigadier, Cairo, Carlos the Jackal, Central Intelligence Agency, Chad–Sudan relations, Chargé d'affaires, Chemical weapon, CNN, Coalition for the International Criminal Court, Colin Powell, Command responsibility, Comprehensive Peace Agreement, Consociationalism, Constitution of Kenya, Copenhagen, Coup d'état, Crimes against humanity, Cruise missile, Darfur, Darfur Peace Agreement, Darfur Regional Authority, ..., Darfurian status referendum, 2016, David Frost, David Smith (journalist), Defence minister, Deportation, Dissenting opinion, Egyptian Army, Egyptian Islamic Jihad, Egyptian Military Academy, Elections in Sudan, Elias Kifle, Encarta, Ethiopian Review, Ethnic cleansing, European Space Agency, European Union Institute for Security Studies, Federal government of the United States, Field marshal, First Sudanese Civil War, France 24, Fred Bridgland, Frost Over the World, Fur people, Gaafar Nimeiry, Genocide, Genocide Intervention Network, Guerrilla warfare, Gulf War, Haaretz, Hassan Al-Turabi, Hassan Rouhani, Head of state, History Commons, History of Sudan, Hosh Bannaga, Houthis, Human Rights Watch, International Criminal Court, International isolation, International Press Institute, IRIN, Islam, Islamic fundamentalism, Ismaïl Omar Guelleh, Ja'alin tribe, Janjaweed, Jeffrey Gettleman, John Garang, Jurisdiction, Justice and Equality Movement, Kampala, Khartoum, Kofi Annan, Lee H. Hamilton, Liberal Democrats (Sudan), Liberation and Justice Movement, Library of Congress, List of current heads of state and government, List of heads of state of Sudan, Lloyds Bank, Looting, Los Angeles Times, Luis Moreno Ocampo, Mail & Guardian, Mansoor Ijaz, Martin Luther Agwai, Masalit people, Mass grave, Mercy Corps, Mikhail Margelov, Military attaché, Minni Minnawi, Muammar Gaddafi, Nairobi, Najib Balala, NASA, National Congress (Sudan), National Islamic Front, NATO, NBC News, Non-Aligned Movement, Nonviolent revolution, Operation Infinite Reach, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Osama bin Laden, Oxfam, Paratrooper, PDF, Peacekeeping, Phyllis E. Oakley, Politician, Politics of Sudan, Press TV, Radio Dabanga, Radio Netherlands Worldwide, Reuters, Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation, Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Sadiq al-Mahdi, Salva Kiir Mayardit, Sandy Berger, Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen, Save Darfur Coalition, Second Sudanese Civil War, Sharia, Shia Islam, Simon Tisdall, South Sudan, South Sudan People's Defense Forces, Square Kilometre Array, State of emergency, State Sponsors of Terrorism (U.S. list), Sudan, Sudan Liberation Movement/Army, Sudan People's Liberation Movement, Sudan Tribune, Sudanese Air Force, Sudanese Arabs, Sudanese Armed Forces, Sudanese dinar, Sudanese general election, 1996, Sudanese general election, 2000, Sudanese general election, 2010, Sylvia Steiner, The Australian, The Economist, The Globe and Mail, The Guardian, The Nation (Pakistan), The New York Times, The Scotsman, The Times, The Washington Post, Theft, Timothy M. Carney, Tokyo International Conference on African Development, Uhuru Park, Umaru Musa Yar'Adua, United Nations Security Council, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1593, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1706, United Nations–African Union Mission in Darfur, United States Department of State, United States Institute of Peace, Uppsala Conflict Data Program, Vanity Fair (magazine), Voice of America, War crime, War in Darfur, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War, Yoweri Museveni, Zaghawa people, Zubair Mohamed Salih, 1989 Sudanese coup d'état, 9/11 Commission Report. Expand index (156 more) » « Shrink index
Abdul Wahid Mohamed al Nur (also Abdel Wahid el-Nur and Abdulwahid Mohammed Nour) (1968 &ndash) is the leader of the rebel Sudan Liberation Movement (al Nur) faction.
Sabri Khalil al-Banna (May 1937 – 16 August 2002), known as Abu Nidal, was the founder of Fatah: The Revolutionary Council, a militant Palestinian splinter group more commonly known as the Abu Nidal Organization (ANO).
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Addis Ababa (አዲስ አበባ,, "new flower"; or Addis Abeba (the spelling used by the official Ethiopian Mapping Authority); Finfinne "natural spring") is the capital and largest city of Ethiopia.
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The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of all 55 countries on the African continent, extending slightly into Asia via the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt.
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The African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) was an African Union (AU) peacekeeping force operating primarily in the country's western region of Darfur with the aim of performing peacekeeping operations related to the Darfur conflict.
Ahmad Ali Al-Mirghani (أحمد الميرغني; 16 August 1941 – 2 November 2008) was the Head of State of Sudan from May 6, 1986, to June 30, 1989, when the democratically elected government was toppled by a military coup led by the current President Omar al-Bashir.
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An aid agency is an organization dedicated to distributing aid.
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Akua Kuenyehia (born 1947) is a Ghanaian lawyer who served a judge of the International Criminal Court (ICC) from 2003 to 2015.
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Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
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Al Jazeera English (AJE) is an international state-funded 24-hour English-language news and current affairs TV channel owned and operated by Al Jazeera Media Network, headquartered in Doha, Qatar.
Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.
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The Al-Shifa (الشفاء, Arabic for "healing") pharmaceutical factory in Khartoum North, Sudan, was constructed between 1992 and 1996 with components imported from Germany, India, Italy, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand and the United States.
Alfred de Montesquiou (born 1978) is a contemporary French reporter and author.
ELhaj Adam Yousif (also spelled al-Haj Adam Youssef) was the Second Vice President of Sudan from September 13, 2011 to December 7, 2013.
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Ali Abdullah Saleh (ʿAlī ʿAbdullāh Ṣāliḥ; 21 March 1947There is a dispute as to Saleh's date of birth, some saying that it was on 21 March 1942. See:. However, by Saleh's own confession, he was born in 1947. – 4 December 2017) was a Yemeni politician who served as the first President of Yemen, from Yemeni unification on 22 May 1990 to his resignation on 25 February 2012, following the Yemeni Revolution.
Ali Osman Mohammed Taha (علي عثمان محمد طه, also transliterated "Othman" or "Uthman") is a Sudanese politician who was First Vice President of Sudan from July 2011 to December 2013.
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Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
Amr Moussa (عمرو محمد موسى,, Amr Muhammad Moussa; born 3 October 1936) is an Egyptian politician and diplomat who was the Secretary-General of the Arab League, a 22-member forum representing Arab states, from 1 June 2001 to 1 June 2011.
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The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (السودان الإنجليزي المصري) was a condominium of the United Kingdom and Egypt in the eastern Sudan region of northern Africa between 1899 and 1956, but in practice the structure of the condominium ensured full British control over the Sudan.
Anita Ušacka (born April 26, 1952) is a Latvian and international judge and legal academic.
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The anti-Gaddafi forces were Libyan groups that opposed and militarily defeated the government of Muammar Gaddafi, killing him in the process.
The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.
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Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
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An arrest warrant is a warrant issued by a judge or magistrate on behalf of the state, which authorizes the arrest and detention of an individual, or the search and seizure of an individual's property.
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Bakri Hassan Saleh (بكري حسن صالح) is a Sudanese politician who has been Prime Minister of Sudan since 2017 (the first in almost 28 years) and First Vice President of Sudan since 2013.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
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The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.
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The Belfast Telegraph is a daily newspaper published in Belfast, Northern Ireland, by Independent News & Media.
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Bloomberg News is an international news agency headquartered in New York, United States and a division of Bloomberg L.P. Content produced by Bloomberg News is disseminated through Bloomberg Terminals, Bloomberg Television, Bloomberg Radio, Bloomberg Businessweek, Bloomberg Markets, Bloomberg.com and Bloomberg's mobile platforms.
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Brigadier is a military rank, the seniority of which depends on the country.
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Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
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Ilich Ramírez Sánchez (born 12 October 1949), also known as Carlos the Jackal, is a Venezuelan terrorist currently serving a life sentence in France for the 1975 murder of an informant for the French government and two French counter-intelligence agents.
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The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The populations of eastern Chad and western Sudan established social and religious ties long before either nation's independence, and these remained strong despite disputes between governments.
A chargé d'affaires, often shortened to chargé (French) and sometimes to charge-D (abbreviated in colloquial English), is a diplomat who heads an embassy in the absence of the ambassador.
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A chemical weapon (CW) is a specialized munition that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on humans.
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Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
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The Coalition for the International Criminal Court (CICC) is an international non-governmental organisation (NGO) with a membership of over 2,500 organizations worldwide advocating for a fair, effective and independent International Criminal Court (ICC).
Colin Luther Powell (born April 5, 1937) is an American statesman and a retired four-star general in the United States Army.
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Command responsibility, sometimes referred to as the Yamashita standard or the Medina standard, and also known as superior responsibility, is the legal doctrine of hierarchical accountability for war crimes.
The Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA, اتفاقية السلام الشامل, Ittifāqiyyah al-salām al-šāmil), also known as the Naivasha Agreement, was an accord signed on January 9, 2005, by the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) and the Government of Sudan.
Consociationalism is often viewed as synonymous with power-sharing, although it is technically only one form of power-sharing.
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The Constitution of Kenya is the supreme law of the Republic of Kenya.
Copenhagen (København; Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.
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A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
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Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack or individual attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population.
A cruise missile is a guided missile used against terrestrial targets that remains in the atmosphere and flies the major portion of its flight path at approximately constant speed.
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Darfur (دار فور, Fur) is a region in western Sudan.
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The Darfur Peace Agreement may refer to one of two Darfur Peace Agreements that have been signed by the Government of Sudan and Darfur-based rebel groups with the intention of ending the Darfur Conflict.
The Darfur Regional Authority (السلطة الإنتقالية الإقليمية لدارفور, al-slTa al-intqalia al-iqlimia al-darfor) was an interim governing body for the Darfur region of the Republic of Sudan.
A referendum on the permanent status of the Darfur within Sudan was held on 11–13 April 2016.
Sir David Paradine Frost (7 April 1939 – 31 August 2013) was an English television host, media personality, journalist, comedian, and writer.
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David Richard Smith (born c. 1975) is the Washington correspondent of The Guardian.
The title Defence Minister, Minister for Defence, Minister of National Defense, Secretary of Defence, Secretary of State for Defense or some similar variation, is assigned to the person in a cabinet position in charge of a Ministry of Defence, which regulates the armed forces in sovereign states.
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Deportation is the expulsion of a person or group of people from a place or country.
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A dissenting opinion (or dissent) is an opinion in a legal case in certain legal systems written by one or more judges expressing disagreement with the majority opinion of the court which gives rise to its judgment.
The Egyptian Army is the largest service branch within the Egyptian Armed Forces.
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The Egyptian Islamic Jihad (الجهاد الإسلامي المصري) (EIJ), formerly called simply Islamic Jihad (الجهاد الإسلامي and "Liberation Army for Holy Sites"), originally referred to as al-Jihad, and then the Jihad Group, or the Jihad Organization, is an Egyptian Islamist terrorist group active since the late 1970s.
The Egyptian Military Academy (الكلية الحربية) is the oldest and most prominent military academy in Egypt and Africa.
Sudan elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature.
Elias Kifle (Amharic: ኤልያስ ክፍሌ) is the publisher and editor-in-chief of the Washington D.C.-based Ethiopian Review, an English/Amharic language Ethiopian news and opinion journal that was launched in January 1991.
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Microsoft Encarta was a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation from 1993 to 2009.
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Ethiopian Review is an Ethiopian news and opinion journal published in English and Amharic.
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Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic or racial groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, often with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous.
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The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
The European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS) is a Paris-based agency of the European Union.
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
Field marshal (or field-marshal, abbreviated as FM) is a very senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the general officer ranks.
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The First Sudanese Civil War (also known as the Anyanya Rebellion or Anyanya I, after the name of the rebels, a term in the Madi language which means 'snake venom') was a conflict from 1955 to 1972 between the northern part of Sudan and the southern Sudan region that demanded representation and more regional autonomy. Half a million people died over the 17 years of war, which may be divided into three stages: initial guerrilla war, Anyanya, and South Sudan Liberation Movement. However, the agreement that ended the First Sudanese Civil War's fighting in 1972 failed to completely dispel the tensions that had originally caused it, leading to a reigniting of the north-south conflict during the Second Sudanese Civil War, which lasted from 1983 to 2005. The period between 1955 and 2005 is thus sometimes considered to be a single conflict with an eleven-year ceasefire that separates two violent phases.
France 24 (pronounced "France vingt-quatre") is a state-owned 24-hour international news and current affairs television network based in Paris.
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Fred Bridgland is a British writer and biographer.
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Frost Over the World was a television interview and news talk show, with Sir David Frost as host.
The Fur (Fur: fòòrà, Arabic: فور Fūr) are an ethnic group inhabiting western Sudan.
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Gaafar Muhammad an-Nimeiry (otherwise spelled in English as Jaafar Nimeiry, Gaafar Nimeiry or Ga'far Muhammad Numayri; جعفر محمد نميري; 1 January 193030 May 2009) was the President of Sudan from 1969 to 1985.
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Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
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Genocide Intervention Network logo The Genocide Intervention Network (or GI-NET) was a non-profit organization aiming to "empower individuals and communities with the tools to prevent and stop genocide".
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
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The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
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Haaretz (הארץ) (lit. "The Land ", originally Ḥadashot Ha'aretz – חדשות הארץ, – "News of the Land ") is an Israeli newspaper.
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Hassan 'Abd Allah al-Turabi (1 February 1932 – 5 March 2016) was a religious and Islamist political leader in Sudan.
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Hassan Rouhani (حسن روحانی,, Standard Persian:; born Hassan Fereydoun (حسن فریدون) on 12 November 1948) is an Iranian politician serving as the current and seventh President of Iran since 3 August 2013.
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A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
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The History Commons is a web site and organization that documents events and issues of great social and political significance, focusing primarily on events and issues from the 1970s to the present day.
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The history of Sudan includes that of both the territory that composes Republic of the Sudan as well as that of a larger region known by the term "Sudan".
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Hosh Bannaga (حوش بانقا), 150 kilometres north of the capital Khartoum, is located in the outskirts of Shendi in the River Nile state.
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The Houthis (الحوثيون al-Ḥūthiyyūn), officially called Ansar Allah (أنصار الله "Supporters of God"), are members of an Islamic religious-political-armed movement that emerged from Sa'dah in northern Yemen in the 1990s.
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Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt) is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague in the Netherlands.
International isolation is a penalty applied by the international community or a sizeable or powerful group of countries, like the United Nations, towards one nation, government or people group.
International Press Institute (IPI) is a global organisation dedicated to the promotion and protection of press freedom and the improvement of journalism practices.
IRIN (formerly Integrated Regional Information Networks) is a news agency focusing on humanitarian stories in regions that are often forgotten, under-reported, misunderstood or ignored.
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IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
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Islamic fundamentalism has been defined as a movement of Muslims who think back to earlier times and seek to return to the fundamentals of the religion and live similarly to how the prophet Muhammad and his companions lived.
Ismaïl Omar Guelleh (Ismaaciil Cumar Geelle; إسماعيل عمر جليه) (born 27 November 1946).
Ja'alin or Ja'al are an Arabic speaking, Semitic tribe.
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The Janjaweed (Arabic: جنجويد janjawīd; also transliterated Janjawid) (English: a man with a gun on a horse.") are a militia that operate in western Sudan and eastern Chad.
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Jeffrey A. Gettleman (born 1971) is an American journalist.
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John Garang de Mabior (June 23, 1945 – July 30, 2005) was a Sudanese politician and leader.
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Jurisdiction (from the Latin ius, iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak") is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice within a defined field of responsibility, e.g., Michigan tax law.
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The Justice and Equality Movement (abbreviated JEM; حركة العدل والمساواة) is a Sudanese opposition group founded by Khalil Ibrahim, the group has been led since January 2012 by his brother Gibril Ibrahim, as Khalil was killed in December 2011.
Kampala is the capital and largest city of Uganda.
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Khartoum is the capital and largest city of Sudan.
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Kofi Atta Annan (born 8 April 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1997 to December 2006.
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Lee Herbert Hamilton (born April 20, 1931) is a former member of the United States House of Representatives and currently a member of the U.S. Homeland Security Advisory Council.
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The Liberal Democrats (Arabic: حِزب الديمقراطيين الأحرار, Hizb Al-Demokhrateen AL-Ahrar) is a political party in Sudan.
The Liberation and Justice Movement is a rebel group in the Darfur conflict in Sudan, led by Dr Tijani Sese.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
This is a list of current heads of state and heads of government.
This article lists the heads of state of Sudan since the country's independence in 1956.
Lloyds Bank plc is a British retail and commercial bank with branches across England and Wales.
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Looting, also referred to as sacking, ransacking, plundering, despoiling, despoliation, and pillaging, is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe, such as war, natural disaster (where law and civil enforcement are temporarily ineffective), or rioting.
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The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
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Luis Gabriel Moreno OcampoMoreno Ocampo's surnames are often hyphenated in English-language media to distinguish Moreno as a surname, rather than a given name.
The Mail & Guardian is a South African weekly newspaper, published by M&G Media in Johannesburg, South Africa.
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Mansoor Ijaz (born August 1961) is a Pakistani-American venture financier and hedge-fund manager.
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General Martin Luther Agwai CFR GSS psc(+) fwc is a retired Nigerian army officer who served as Chief of Defence Staff and Chief of Army Staff.
The Masalit (Masalit: masala/masara; ماساليت) are an ethnic group inhabiting western Sudan and eastern Chad.
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A mass grave is a grave containing multiple human corpses, which may or may not be identified prior to burial.
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Mercy Corps is a global non-governmental, humanitarian aid organization operating in transitional contexts that have undergone, or have been undergoing, various forms of economic, environmental, social and political instabilities.
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Mikhail Vitalievich Margelov (Михаил Витальевич Маргелов) (born December 22, 1964 in Moscow, Russia),a Russian public figure and politician, Vice President, JSC “Transneft”, the ex-Chairman of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the Federation Council of Russia.
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A military attaché is a military expert who is attached to a diplomatic mission (an attaché).
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Suliman Arcua Minnawi, known as "Minni Minnawi" (born 1968 in Furawiyya, North Darfur), is a Sudanese politician who was the leader of the largest faction of the Sudanese Liberation Army.
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Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi (20 October 2011), commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi, was a Libyan revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
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Nairobi is the capital and the largest city of Kenya.
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Najib Balala (born 20 September 1967) is a Kenyan politician and the current Cabinet Secretary for Tourism, and the immediate former M.P. for Mvita Constituency.
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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
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The National Congress or National Congress Party (NCP) (المؤتمر الوطني) is the political party that rules Sudan.
The National Islamic Front (الجبهة الإسلامية القومية; transliterated: al-Jabhah al-Islamiyah al-Qawmiyah) was an Islamist political organization founded in 1976 and led by Dr.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
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NBC News is the news division of the American broadcast television network NBC, formerly known as the National Broadcasting Company when it was founded on radio.
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The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.
A nonviolent revolution is a revolution using mostly campaigns with civil resistance, including various forms of nonviolent protest, to bring about the departure of governments seen as entrenched and authoritarian.
Operation Infinite Reach was the codename for American cruise missile strikes on al-Qaeda bases in Khost, Afghanistan, and the Al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory in Khartoum, Sudan, on August 20, 1998.
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; منظمة التعاون الإسلامي; Organisation de la coopération islamique) is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.3 billion as of 2009 with 47 countries being Muslim Majority countries.
Usama ibn Mohammed ibn Awad ibn Ladin (أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن), often anglicized as Osama bin Laden (March 10, 1957 – May 2, 2011), was a founder of, the organization responsible for the September 11 attacks in the United States and many other mass-casualty attacks worldwide.
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Oxfam is a confederation of 20 independent charitable organizations focusing on the alleviation of global poverty, founded in 1942 and led by Oxfam International.
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Paratroopers are military parachutists—military personnel trained in parachuting into an operation and usually functioning as part of an airborne force.
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The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
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Peacekeeping refers to activities intended to create conditions that favour lasting peace.
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Phyllis Elliott Oakley (born 1934 in Omaha, Nebraska) is a diplomat who served as U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for Population, Refugees, and Migration (1994–97) and Assistant Secretary of State for Intelligence and Research (1997–99).
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A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government.
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Officially, the politics of Sudan takes place in the framework of a presidential representative democratic consociationalist republic, where the President of Sudan is head of state, head of government and commander-in-chief of the Sudanese Armed Forces in a multi-party system.
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Press TV (stylised as PRESSTV) is a 24-hour English- and French-language news and documentary network affiliated with Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB).
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Radio Dabanga (also: Radio Darfur) is a shortwave radio station which serves the Darfur area of western Sudan.
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Radio Netherlands Worldwide (RNW; Radio Nederland Wereldomroep) was a public radio and television network based in Hilversum, producing and transmitting programmes for international audiences outside the Netherlands.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
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The Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation (RCCNS-Sudan) was the governing body of Sudan following the June 1989 coup.
The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (often referred to as the International Criminal Court Statute or the Rome Statute) is the treaty that established the International Criminal Court (ICC).
Sadiq al-Mahdi (الصادق المهدي) (also known as Sadiq Al Siddiq; born December 25, 1935) is a Sudanese political and religious figure who was Prime Minister of Sudan from 1966 to 1967 and again from 1986 to 1989.
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Salva Kiir Mayardit (born 13 September 1951) is a Dinka South Sudanese politician who has been President of South Sudan since its independence in 2011.
Samuel Richard "Sandy" Berger (October 28, 1945 – December 2, 2015) was an American political consultant who served as the United States National Security Advisor for President Bill Clinton from March 14, 1997, until January 20, 2001.
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The Save Darfur Coalition was an advocacy group that called “to raise public awareness and mobilize a massive response to the atrocities in Sudan’s western region of Darfur.” Headquartered in Washington, D.C., it was a coalition of more than 190 religious, political and human rights organizations designed to campaign for a response to the atrocities of the War in Darfur.
The Second Sudanese Civil War was a conflict from 1983 to 2005 between the central Sudanese government and the Sudan People's Liberation Army.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
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Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
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Simon Tisdall (born 1953) is a columnist for The Guardian newspaper and an assistant editor of the publication.
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South Sudan, officially known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa.
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The South Sudanese People's Defence Forces (SSPDF), formerly the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) until 2017, is the army of the Republic of South Sudan.
The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is a large multi radio telescope project aimed to be built in Australia and South Africa.
A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to perform actions that it would normally not be permitted.
"State Sponsors of Terrorism" is a designation applied by the United States Department of State to countries which the Department alleges to have "repeatedly provided support for acts of international terrorism".
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
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The Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (حركة تحرير السودان Ḥarakat Taḥrīr Al-Sūdān; abbreviated SLM, SLA or SLM/A) is a Sudanese rebel group active in Darfur, Sudan.
Logo of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement The Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) (الحركة الشعبية لتحرير السودان, Al-Ḥarakat ash-Shaʿbiyyat liTaḥrīr as-Sūdān) is a political party in South Sudan.
The Sudan Tribune is an electronic news portal on Sudan and South Sudan and neighbouring countries including news coverage, analyses and commentary, official reports and press releases from various organizations, and maps.
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The Sudanese Air Force (translit) is the air force operated by the Republic of the Sudan.
Sudanese Arabs are the majority population of Sudan.
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The Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF; القوات المسلحة السودانية) are the Armed Forces of the Republic of Sudan.
The dinar was the currency of Sudan between 1992 and 2007.
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General elections were held in Sudan to elect a President and National Assembly between 2 and 17 March 1996.
General elections were held in Sudan between 13 and 23 December 2000 to elect a President and National Assembly.
General elections were held in Sudan between 11 and 15 April 2010, extended from the original end date of 13 April.
Sylvia Helena de Figueiredo Steiner (born 1953) is a Brazilian judge who has been a member of the International Criminal Court since 2003.
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The Australian is a broadsheet newspaper published in Australia from Monday to Saturday each week since 14 July 1964.
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The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
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The Globe and Mail is a Canadian newspaper printed in five cities in western and central Canada.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
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The Nation is an English-language daily newspaper based in Lahore, Pakistan since 1986.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Scotsman is a Scottish compact newspaper and daily news website headquartered in Edinburgh.
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The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
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The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
In common usage, theft is the taking of another person's property or services without that person's permission or consent with the intent to deprive the rightful owner of it.
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Timothy Michael Carney (born July 12, 1944) is a retired American diplomat and consultant.
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is a conference held regularly with the objective "to promote high-level policy dialogue between African leaders and development partners." Japan is a co-host of these conferences.
Uhuru Park is a 12.9 hectare recreational park adjacent to the central business district of Nairobi, Kenya.
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Umaru Musa Yar'Adua (16 August 19515 May 2010) was the 13th president of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1593, adopted on 31 March 2005, after receiving a report by the International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur, the Council referred the situation in the Darfur region of Sudan to the International Criminal Court (ICC) and required Sudan to co-operate fully.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1706, adopted on August 31, 2006, after recalling previous resolutions on the situation in Sudan, including resolutions 1556 (2004), 1564 (2005), 1574 (2004), 1590 (2004), 1591 (2005), 1593 (2004), 1663 (2006), 1665 (2006) and 1679 (2006), the Council expanded the mandate of the United Nations Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS) to include deployments in Darfur to enforce the Darfur Peace Agreement.
The African Union/United Nations Hybrid operation in Darfur (known by its acronym UNAMID) is a joint African Union (AU) and United Nations (UN) peacekeeping mission formally approved by United Nations Security Council Resolution 1769 on 31 July 2007, to bring stability to the war-torn Darfur region of Sudan while peace talks on a final settlement continue.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The United States Institute of Peace (USIP) is an American non-partisan, independent, federal institution that provides analysis of and is involved in conflicts around the world.
The Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP) is a data collection project on organized violence housed at Uppsala University in Sweden that has been collecting information on armed conflict since 1946 and making it publicly available through its annual report, States in Armed Conflict. Beginning in Since 2004, the constantly-updated UCDP is also publicly available.
Vanity Fair is a magazine of popular culture, fashion, and current affairs published by Condé Nast in the United States.
Voice of America (VOA) is a U.S. government-funded international radio broadcast source that serves as the United States federal government's official institution for non-military, external broadcasting.
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A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
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The War in Darfur is a major armed conflict in the Darfur region of Sudan, that began in February 2003 when the Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) rebel groups began fighting the government of Sudan, which they accused of oppressing Darfur's non-Arab population.
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WikiLeaks is an international non-profit organisation that publishes secret information, news leaks, and classified media provided by anonymous sources.
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The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War, or October War (or מלחמת יום כיפור,;,, or حرب تشرين), also known as the 1973 Arab–Israeli War, was a war fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, by a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel.
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Yoweri Museveni (born 15 September 1944) is a Ugandan politician who has been the President of Uganda since 1986.
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The Zaghawa people, also called Beri or Zakhawa, are a Central African Muslim ethnic group of eastern Chad and western Sudan, including Darfur.
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Major General Zubair Mohamed Salih (1944 – 12 February 1998) was a Sudanese soldier and politician.
The 1989 Sudanese coup d'état was a successful coup, led by Col.
The 9/11 Commission Report, formally named Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, is the official report of the events leading up to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks.
'Umar Hasan al-Bashir, Al bashir, Al-Bashir, Al-bashir, Bashir, Omar Hassan Ahmad al-, Brig. Umar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir, Brig. Umar Hasan al-Bashir, Brig. Umar al-Bashir, Brigadier Omar Hassan Ahman al-Bashir, Brigadier Omar Hassan al-Bashir, Brigadier Omer Al-Bashir, Brigadier Omer Hassan Ahmed Al-Bashir, Brigadier Omer Hassan Ahmed al-Bashir, Brigadier Omer Hassan Al-Bashir, Brigadier Omer Hassan al-Bashir, Brigadier Omer al-Bashir, Gen. Omer al Bashir, Lt Gen Omar Hassan al-Bashir, Lt-Gen Umar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir, Lt-Gen Umar Hasan al-Bashir, Lt-Gen Umar al-Bashir, Lt. Gen Omar El-Bashier, Lt. Gen Omar Hassan Ahmad El-Bashier, Lt. Gen Omar Hassan El-Bashier, Omar Al-Bachir, Omar Al-Basheer, Omar Al-Bashir, Omar AlBashir, Omar El-Bashier, Omar Hasan Ahmad Al Bashir, Omar Hasan Ahmad Al-Bashir, Omar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir, Omar Hassan Ahmad Al Bashir, Omar Hassan Ahmad El-Bashier, Omar Hassan Ahmad al- Bashir, Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir, Omar Hassan Ahmad el-Bechir, Omar Hassan Ahmad el-Béchir, Omar Hassan Ahmed Al Bashir, Omar Hassan Ahmed Al-Bashir, Omar Hassan Ahmed AlBashir, Omar Hassan Ahmed Bashir, Omar Hassan Al-Basheer, Omar Hassan AlBashir, Omar Hassan El-Bashier, Omar Hassan al-Bachir, Omar Hassan al-Bashi, Omar Hassan al-Bashir, Omar Hassan el-Bechir, Omar Hassan el-Béchir, Omar Hassen al Bachir, Omar al Baschir, Omar al Bashir, Omar al basheer, Omar al bashir, Omar al-Bachir, Omar al-Bashi, Omar al-Bechir, Omar al-Beshir, Omar al-Béchir, Omar el Baschir, Omar el Bashir, Omar el Bechir, Omar el Beshir, Omar el-Bashir, Omar el-Bechir, Omar el-Béchir, Omer Al-Bashir, Omer Bashir, Omer El-Bashir, Omer Hassan Ahmed Al-Bashir, Omer Hassan Ahmed El-Bashir, Omer Hassan Ahmed al-Bashir, Omer Hassan Al-Bashir, Omer Hassan El-Bashir, Omer Hassan al-Bashir, Omer al Bashir, Omer al-Bashir, Omer el-Bashir, Umar Bashir, Umar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir, Umar Hasan al-Bashir, Umar Hassan Ahmad al Bashir, Umar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir, Umar Hassan al-Bashir, Umar al-Bashir, عمر حسن أحمد البشير.