113 relations: American Astronomical Society, Ames Research Center, Apparent magnitude, Armin Otto Leuschner, Artist's impression, ArXiv, Astronomical survey, Astronomical unit, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Brown dwarf, Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, Carbon monoxide, Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy, Centaur (minor planet), Circumstellar disc, Circumstellar envelope, Comet, Comet Hale–Bopp, Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9, Cosmography, Crater counting, D-type asteroid, Daedalus (journal), Discovery Program, Dutch people, Dynamics (mechanics), Earth, Moon, and Planets, Ecliptic, Electromagnetic radiation, Elliptic orbit, Ernst Öpik, Estonia, Ethane, Formation and evolution of the Solar System, Galactic tide, Gas giant, Giant planet, Gliese 710, Gravity, Halley's Comet, Harold F. Levison, Heliosphere, Hill sphere, Hills cloud, Hydrogen cyanide, Hyperbola, IAU Circular, Icarus (journal), International Astronomical Union, Interstellar object, ..., Isotope, Isotropy, Jack G. Hills, Jan Oort, Julio Ángel Fernández, Jupiter, Kepler (spacecraft), Kuiper belt, List of periodic comets, List of possible dwarf planets, List of trans-Neptunian objects, Logarithmic scale, Methane, Milky Way, Millennium, Minor planet, Molecular cloud, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Moon, NASA, Nature (journal), Nemesis (hypothetical star), Neptune, Open cluster, Outer planets, Outgassing, Parabolic trajectory, Parallax, Perihelion and aphelion, Perturbation (astronomy), Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, Physics, Planet, Planetesimal, Planets beyond Neptune, Protoplanetary disk, Radioisotope thermoelectric generator, Red dwarf, Richard A. Muller, Royal Society, Scattered disc, Scholz's Star, Science (journal), Scientific American, Scientific theory, Semi-major and semi-minor axes, Solar System, Space probe, Star cluster, Sun, TAU (spacecraft), Tempel 1, The Astronomical Journal, The Astrophysical Journal, Tidal force, Torus, Trans-Neptunian object, Tyche (hypothetical planet), University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Volatiles, Voyager 1, Whipple (spacecraft), Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. Expand index (63 more) » « Shrink index
The American Astronomical Society (AAS, sometimes spoken as "double-A-S") is an American society of professional astronomers and other interested individuals, headquartered in Washington, DC.
Ames Research Center (ARC), also known as NASA Ames, is a major NASA research center at Moffett Federal Airfield in California's Silicon Valley.
The apparent magnitude of a celestial object is a number that is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth.
Armin Otto Leuschner (January 16, 1868 – April 22, 1953) was an American astronomer and educator.
An artist's impression or artist's interpretation is the representation of an object or a scene created by an artist, when no other accurate representation is available.
arXiv (pronounced "archive") is a repository of electronic preprints (known as e-prints) approved for publication after moderation, that consists of scientific papers in the fields of mathematics, physics, astronomy, computer science, quantitative biology, statistics, and quantitative finance, which can be accessed online.
An astronomical survey is a general map or image of a region of the sky which lacks a specific observational target.
The astronomical unit (symbol: au, ua, or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun.
Astronomy & Astrophysics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering theoretical, observational, and instrumental astronomy and astrophysics.
Brown dwarfs are substellar objects that occupy the mass range between the heaviest gas giant planets and the lightest stars, having masses between approximately 13 to 75–80 times that of Jupiter, or approximately to about.
Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society (BAAS; Bull. Am. Astron. Soc.) is the journal of record for the American Astronomical Society established in 1969.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy is a scientific journal covering the fields of astronomy and astrophysics.
Centaurs are small solar system bodies with a semi-major axis between those of the outer planets.
A circumstellar disc (or circumstellar disk) is a torus, pancake or ring-shaped accumulation of matter composed of gas, dust, planetesimals, asteroids or collision fragments in orbit around a star.
A circumstellar envelope (CSE) is a part of a star that has a roughly spherical shape and is not gravitationally bound to the star core.
A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.
Comet Hale–Bopp (formally designated C/1995 O1) is a comet that was perhaps the most widely observed of the 20th century, and one of the brightest seen for many decades.
Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9 (formally designated D/1993 F2) was a comet that broke apart in July 1992 and collided with Jupiter in July 1994, providing the first direct observation of an extraterrestrial collision of Solar System objects.
Cosmography is the science that maps the general features of the cosmos or universe, describing both heaven and Earth (but without encroaching on geography or astronomy).
Crater counting is a method for estimating the age of a planet's surface.
D-type asteroids have a very low albedo and a featureless reddish spectrum.
Dædalus is a peer-reviewed academic journal founded in 1955 as a replacement for the Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the volume and numbering system of which it continues.
NASA's Discovery Program is a series of lower-cost (as compared to New Frontiers or Flagship Programs), highly focused American scientific space missions that are exploring the Solar System.
The Dutch (Dutch), occasionally referred to as Netherlanders—a term that is cognate to the Dutch word for Dutch people, "Nederlanders"—are a Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands.
Dynamics is the branch of applied mathematics (specifically classical mechanics) concerned with the study of forces and torques and their effect on motion, as opposed to kinematics, which studies the motion of objects without reference to these forces.
Earth, Moon, and Planets is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, published approximately ten times per year by Springer Science+Business Media.
The ecliptic is the circular path on the celestial sphere that the Sun follows over the course of a year; it is the basis of the ecliptic coordinate system.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics, an elliptic orbit or elliptical orbit is a Kepler orbit with an eccentricity of less than 1; this includes the special case of a circular orbit, with eccentricity equal to 0.
Ernst Julius Öpik (– 10 September 1985) was an Estonian astronomer and astrophysicist who spent the second half of his career (1948–1981) at the Armagh Observatory in Northern Ireland.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
Ethane is an organic chemical compound with chemical formula.
The formation and evolution of the Solar System began 4.6 billion years ago with the gravitational collapse of a small part of a giant molecular cloud.
A galactic tide is a tidal force experienced by objects subject to the gravitational field of a galaxy such as the Milky Way.
A gas giant is a giant planet composed mainly of hydrogen and helium.
A giant planet is any massive planet.
Gliese 710 or HIP 89825 is a orange 0.6 solar mass star in the constellation Serpens Cauda.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
Halley's Comet or Comet Halley, officially designated 1P/Halley, is a short-period comet visible from Earth every 74–79 years.
Harold F. (Hal) Levison is a planetary scientist specializing in planetary dynamics.
The heliosphere is the bubble-like region of space dominated by the Sun, which extends far beyond the orbit of Pluto.
An astronomical body's Hill sphere is the region in which it dominates the attraction of satellites.
In astronomy, the Hills cloud (also called the inner Oort cloud and inner cloud) is a vast theoretical circumstellar disc, interior to the Oort cloud, whose outer border would be located at around 20,000 to 30,000 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun, and whose inner border, less well-defined, is hypothetically located at, well beyond planetary and Kuiper Belt object orbits - but distances might be much greater.
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), sometimes called prussic acid, is a chemical compound with the chemical formula HCN.
In mathematics, a hyperbola (plural hyperbolas or hyperbolae) is a type of smooth curve lying in a plane, defined by its geometric properties or by equations for which it is the solution set.
The International Astronomical Union Circulars (IAUCs) are notices that give information about astronomical phenomena.
Icarus is a scientific journal dedicated to the field of planetary science.
The International Astronomical Union (IAU; Union astronomique internationale, UAI) is an international association of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy.
An interstellar object is a body other than a star or substar located in interstellar space, and not gravitationally bound to a star.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Isotropy is uniformity in all orientations; it is derived from the Greek isos (ἴσος, "equal") and tropos (τρόπος, "way").
Jack G. Hills is a theorist of stellar dynamics.
Jan Hendrik Oort (or; 28 April 1900 – 5 November 1992) was a Dutch astronomer who made significant contributions to the understanding of the Milky Way and who was a pioneer in the field of radio astronomy.
Julio Ángel Fernández Alves (born Montevideo, 5 April 1946) is a Uruguayan astronomer and teacher, member of the department of astronomy at the Universidad de la República in Montevideo.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
Kepler is a space observatory launched by NASA to discover Earth-size planets orbiting other stars.
The Kuiper belt, occasionally called the Edgeworth–Kuiper belt, is a circumstellar disc in the outer Solar System, extending from the orbit of Neptune (at 30 AU) to approximately 50 AU from the Sun.
Periodic comets (also known as short-period comets) are comets having orbital periods of less than 200 years or that have been observed during more than a single perihelion passage (e.g. 153P/Ikeya–Zhang).
It is estimated that there may be 200 dwarf planets in the Kuiper belt of the outer Solar System and possibly more than 10,000 in the region beyond.
This is a list of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs), which are minor planets in the Solar System that orbit the Sun at a greater distance on average than Neptune, that is, their orbit has a semi-major axis greater than 30.1 astronomical units (AU).
A logarithmic scale is a nonlinear scale used when there is a large range of quantities.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.
A millennium (plural millennia or, rarely, millenniums) is a period equal to 1000 years, also called kiloyears.
A minor planet is an astronomical object in direct orbit around the Sun (or more broadly, any star with a planetary system) that is neither a planet nor exclusively classified as a comet.
A molecular cloud, sometimes called a stellar nursery (if star formation is occurring within), is a type of interstellar cloud, the density and size of which permit the formation of molecules, most commonly molecular hydrogen (H2).
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in astronomy and astrophysics.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Nemesis is a hypothetical red dwarf or brown dwarf, originally postulated in 1984 to be orbiting the Sun at a distance of about 95,000 AU (1.5 light-years), somewhat beyond the Oort cloud, to explain a perceived cycle of mass extinctions in the geological record, which seem to occur more often at intervals of 26 million years.
Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System.
An open cluster is a group of up to a few thousand stars that were formed from the same giant molecular cloud and have roughly the same age.
The outer planets are those planets in the Solar System beyond the asteroid belt, and hence refers to the gas giants and ice giants, which are in order of their distance from the Sun.
Outgassing (sometimes called offgassing, particularly when in reference to indoor air quality) is the release of a gas that was dissolved, trapped, frozen or absorbed in some material.
In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics a parabolic trajectory is a Kepler orbit with the eccentricity equal to 1.
Parallax is a displacement or difference in the apparent position of an object viewed along two different lines of sight, and is measured by the angle or semi-angle of inclination between those two lines.
The perihelion of any orbit of a celestial body about the Sun is the point where the body comes nearest to the Sun.
In astronomy, perturbation is the complex motion of a massive body subject to forces other than the gravitational attraction of a single other massive body.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences is a fortnightly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Royal Society.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
Planetesimals are solid objects thought to exist in protoplanetary disks and in debris disks.
Following the discovery of the planet Neptune in 1846, there was considerable speculation that another planet might exist beyond its orbit.
A protoplanetary disk is a rotating circumstellar disk of dense gas and dust surrounding a young newly formed star, a T Tauri star, or Herbig Ae/Be star.
A Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG, RITEG) is an electrical generator that uses an array of thermocouples to convert the heat released by the decay of a suitable radioactive material into electricity by the Seebeck effect.
A red dwarf (or M dwarf) is a small and relatively cool star on the main sequence, of M spectral type.
Richard A. Muller (born January 6, 1944) is an American physicist and professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
The scattered disc (or scattered disk) is a distant circumstellar disc in the Solar System that is sparsely populated by icy small solar system bodies, and are a subset of the broader family of trans-Neptunian objects.
Scholz's Star (WISE designation WISE 0720−0846 or fully WISE J072003.20−084651.2) is a dim binary stellar system about from the Sun in the southern constellation Monoceros near the galactic plane.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
A scientific theory is an explanation of an aspect of the natural world that can be repeatedly tested, in accordance with the scientific method, using a predefined protocol of observation and experiment.
In geometry, the major axis of an ellipse is its longest diameter: a line segment that runs through the center and both foci, with ends at the widest points of the perimeter.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
A space probe is a robotic spacecraft that does not orbit the Earth, but, instead, explores further into outer space.
Star clusters are groups of stars.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
TAU (Thousand Astronomical Units) was a proposed unmanned space probe that would go to a distance of one thousand astronomical units (1000 AU) from the Earth and Sun by NASA/JPL in 1987 using tested technology.
Tempel 1 (official designation: 9P/Tempel) is a periodic Jupiter-family comet discovered by Wilhelm Tempel in 1867.
The Astronomical Journal (often abbreviated AJ in scientific papers and references) is a peer-reviewed monthly scientific journal owned by the American Astronomical Society and currently published by IOP Publishing.
The Astrophysical Journal, often abbreviated ApJ (pronounced "ap jay") in references and speech, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astrophysics and astronomy, established in 1895 by American astronomers George Ellery Hale and James Edward Keeler.
The tidal force is an apparent force that stretches a body towards the center of mass of another body due to a gradient (difference in strength) in gravitational field from the other body; it is responsible for the diverse phenomena, including tides, tidal locking, breaking apart of celestial bodies and formation of ring systems within Roche limit, and in extreme cases, spaghettification of objects.
In geometry, a torus (plural tori) is a surface of revolution generated by revolving a circle in three-dimensional space about an axis coplanar with the circle.
A trans-Neptunian object (TNO, also written transneptunian object) is any minor planet in the Solar System that orbits the Sun at a greater average distance (semi-major axis) than Neptune, 30 astronomical units (AU).
Tyche is a hypothetical gas giant located in the Solar System's Oort cloud, first proposed in 1999 by astrophysicists John Matese, Patrick Whitman and Daniel Whitmire of the University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
The University of Louisiana at Lafayette (UL Lafayette, ULL, or UL) is a coeducational, public, research university in Lafayette, in the U.S. state of Louisiana.
In planetary science, volatiles are the group of chemical elements and chemical compounds with low boiling points that are associated with a planet's or moon's crust or atmosphere.
Voyager 1 is a space probe launched by NASA on September 5, 1977.
Whipple mission is a proposal for a space observatory in the NASA Discovery Program 2014 announcement of opportunity.
Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is a NASA infrared-wavelength astronomical space telescope launched in December 2009, and placed in hibernation in February 2011.
Cometary cloud, Hills Cloud, Inner Oort Cloud, Inner Oort cloud, Oort Cloud, Oort Cloud Object, Oort Cometary Cloud, Oort cloud object, Opik-Oort Cloud, Opik-Oort cloud, Ort cloud, The Oort cloud, Öpik cloud, Öpik-Oort Cloud, Öpik-Oort cloud, Öpik–Oort Cloud, Öpik–Oort cloud.