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Open-source model

Index Open-source model

The open-source model is a decentralized software-development model that encourages open collaboration. [1]

272 relations: American Revolution, Android (operating system), Apache Hadoop, Apache HTTP Server, Apache Software Foundation, Appropriate technology, Arduino, ARPANET, Association of Internet Researchers, Automobile Manufacturers Association, Benjamin Franklin, Berkeley Software Distribution, Bifocals, Biotechnology, BitTorrent, Blog, Blueprint, Brian Behlendorf, Browser wars, Bruce Perens, Budapest Open Access Initiative, Business models for open-source software, CAMBIA, Canadian Electroacoustic Community, CcMixter, CERN Open Hardware Licence, Chilling effect, Christine Peterson, COBOL, Coca-Cola, Collaboration, Collaborative intelligence, Commons-based peer production, Community source, Comparison of open-source and closed-source software, Computer program, Consumers' co-operative, Convergence (journal), Copenhagen, Copyleft, Copyright, Creative Commons, Creative Commons license, Decentralization, Defense Distributed, Derivative work, Digital journalism, Digital Millennium Copyright Act, Digital rights, Diseconomies of scale, ..., Document file format, Domain name, E-book, Eclipse (software), Elephants Dream, Elon Musk, Embrace, extend, and extinguish, Enterprise software, Eric Allman, Eric S. Raymond, Eugene Thacker, Eyewear, Fair use, Fast Company (magazine), File transfer, Food science, Footage, Fortran, Franklin stove, Free and open-source software, Free Beer, Free license, Free software, Free software movement, Free-culture movement, Free-rider problem, Freemium, Gastronomy, George B. Selden, Gift economy, GNU General Public License, GNU Lesser General Public License, Gnutella, Google Scholar, Gopher (protocol), Government of South Korea, Guido van Rossum, Halloween documents, Henry Ford, House, Hyperloop, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, IBM, IBM 7090/94 IBSYS, India, Information good, InfoWorld, Internet, Internet forum, Internet protocol suite, Internet Relay Chat, IPTV, IT University of Copenhagen, ITIL, Jamie Zawinski, Jisc, Jon Hall (programmer), Khan Academy, Larry Augustin, Larry Wall, Laser cutting, Lasersaur, LEON, License, Lightning rod, Linus Torvalds, Linux, Linux Journal, List of commercial open-source applications and services, List of formerly proprietary software, List of free and open-source Android applications, List of free and open-source software packages, List of open-source health software, List of open-source video games, List of trademarked open-source software, LiveJournal, Marginal cost, Mass collaboration, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MC Entertainment, MediaWiki, Michael Tiemann, MicroTiles, MIT OpenCourseWare, Mobile device, Mobile phone, Monopoly, Mozilla Public License, Multi-licensing, National Institutes of Health, Netscape, Netscape Navigator, Netscape Public License, Network effect, Online encyclopedia, Open access, Open collaboration, Open Compute Project, Open content, Open Content License, Open data, Open design, Open Design Alliance, Open Energy Modelling Initiative, Open format, Open Icecat, Open implementation, Open innovation, Open research, Open security, Open Source Ecology, Open Source Initiative, Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution, Open standard, Open system (computing), Open-source appropriate technology, Open-source cola, Open-source curriculum, Open-source economics, Open-source film, Open-source governance, Open-source hardware, Open-source intelligence, Open-source journalism, Open-Source Lab (book), Open-source license, Open-source model, Open-source political campaign, Open-source record label, Open-source religion, Open-source robotics, Open-source software, Open-source software development, Open-source software movement, OpenCourseWare, OpenDocument, OpenEMR, OpenJDK, Openmoko, Openness, OpenRISC, OpenSolaris, OpenSPARC, OpenStax CNX, Operating system, OSS Watch, P2P Foundation, Palo Alto, California, Patent, Paul Vixie, Peer production, Peer-to-peer, Pepsi, Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act, Pharmaceutical industry, Photovoltaics, PhpBB, Pirate Party of Russia, Project Gutenberg, Proprietary software, Public broadcasting, Public domain, Remix, RepRap project, Reproducibility, Request for Comments, Rice University, Richard Stallman, Robert K. Merton, Robot, Sal Khan, Science Commons, Semiconductor intellectual property core, Service-learning, SHARE (computing), Shared source, Shareware, Sharing economy, Simputer, SketchUp, Slate (magazine), Social network, Social peer-to-peer processes, Software license, Source code, Spamming, SPARC, Spreadsheet, Stop Online Piracy Act, Street performance, Sun Microsystems, Superflex, Sustainability, TAACCCT, Telephone, Television, The Cathedral and the Bazaar, The Economist, The Free Software Definition, The Open Solar Outdoors Test Field, The Slate Group, The Zeitgeist Movement, Tim O'Reilly, Tinkerforge, Todd Anderson, Transparency (behavior), Two-stroke engine, United States, University of Waterloo Stratford Campus, Usenet, User-generated content, UUCP, Vendor lock-in, Web literacy, WikiHouse, Wikipedia, Wikisource, Wikiversity, WordPress, World War II, 2011 Germany E. coli O104:H4 outbreak, 3D printing. Expand index (222 more) »

American Revolution

The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.

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Android (operating system)

Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google, based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software and designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets.

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Apache Hadoop

Apache Hadoop is a collection of open-source software utilities that facilitate using a network of many computers to solve problems involving massive amounts of data and computation.

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Apache HTTP Server

The Apache HTTP Server, colloquially called Apache, is a free and open-source cross-platform web server, released under the terms of Apache License 2.0.

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Apache Software Foundation

The Apache Software Foundation (ASF) is an American non-profit corporation (classified as 501(c)(3) in the United States) to support Apache software projects, including the Apache HTTP Server.

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Appropriate technology

Appropriate technology is a movement (and its manifestations) encompassing technological choice and application that is small-scale, decentralized, labor-intensive, energy-efficient, environmentally sound, and locally autonomous.

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Arduino is an open source computer hardware and software company, project, and user community that designs and manufactures single-board microcontrollers and microcontroller kits for building digital devices and interactive objects that can sense and control objects in the physical and digital world.

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The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was an early packet switching network and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP.

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Association of Internet Researchers

The Association of Internet Researchers (AoIR) is a learned society dedicated to the advancement of the transdisciplinary field of Internet studies.

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Automobile Manufacturers Association

The Automobile Manufacturers Association was a trade group of automobile manufacturers which operated under various names in the United States from 1911 to 1999.

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Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.

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Berkeley Software Distribution

Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) was a Unix operating system derivative developed and distributed by the Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG) of the University of California, Berkeley, from 1977 to 1995.

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Bifocals are eyeglasses with two distinct optical powers.

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Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).

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BitTorrent (abbreviated to BT) is a communication protocol for peer-to-peer file sharing (P2P) which is used to distribute data and electronic files over the Internet.

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A blog (a truncation of the expression "weblog") is a discussion or informational website published on the World Wide Web consisting of discrete, often informal diary-style text entries ("posts").

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A blueprint is a reproduction of a technical drawing, an architectural plan, or an engineering design, using a contact print process on light-sensitive sheets.

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Brian Behlendorf

Brian Behlendorf (born March 30, 1973) is a technologist, executive, computer programmer and leading figure in the open-source software movement.

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Browser wars

A browser war is competition for dominance in the usage share of web browsers.

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Bruce Perens

Bruce Perens (born Oct 24, 1957) is an American computer programmer and advocate in the free software movement.

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Budapest Open Access Initiative

The Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) is a public statement of principles relating to open access to the research literature, which was released to the public February 14, 2002.

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Business models for open-source software

Open-source software is widely used both as independent applications and as components in non-open-source applications.

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Cambia is an Australian-based global non-profit social enterprise focusing on open science, biology, innovation system reform and intellectual property.

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Canadian Electroacoustic Community

Founded in 1986, La Communauté électroacoustique canadienne / The Canadian Electroacoustic Community (CEC) is Canada’s national electroacoustic / computer music / sonic arts organization and as such is dedicated to promoting this progressive art form in its broadest definition: from “pure” acousmatic and computer music to soundscape and sonic art to hardware hacking and beyond.

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ccMixter is a produsage community music site that promotes remix culture and makes samples, remixes, and a cappella tracks licensed under Creative Commons available for download and re-use in creative works.

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CERN Open Hardware Licence

The CERN Open Hardware Licence (OHL or CERN OHL) is a license used in open-source hardware projects.

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Chilling effect

In a legal context, a chilling effect is the inhibition or discouragement of the legitimate exercise of natural and legal rights by the threat of legal sanction.

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Christine Peterson

Christine Peterson is an American nanotechnologist, futurist, and the co-founder of Foresight Institute.

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COBOL (an acronym for "common business-oriented language") is a compiled English-like computer programming language designed for business use.

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Coca-Cola, or Coke (also Pemberton's Cola at certain Georgian vendors), is a carbonated soft drink produced by The Coca-Cola Company.

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Collaboration occurs when two or more people or organizations work together--> to realize or achieve a goal.

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Collaborative intelligence

Collaborative intelligence characterizes multi-agent, distributed systems where each agent, human or machine, is uniquely positioned, with autonomy to contribute to a problem-solving network.

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Commons-based peer production

Commons-based peer production (CBPP) is a term coined by Harvard Law School professor Yochai Benkler.

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Community source

Community Source is a type of software development used in colleges and universities that builds on the practices of open source software communities.

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Comparison of open-source and closed-source software

Free/open-source software – the source availability model used by free and open-source software (FOSS) – and closed source are two approaches to the distribution of software.

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Computer program

A computer program is a collection of instructions for performing a specific task that is designed to solve a specific class of problems.

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Consumers' co-operative

Consumers' co-operatives are enterprises owned by consumers and managed democratically which aim at fulfilling the needs and aspirations of their members.

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Convergence (journal)

Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the fields of communications and media.

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Copenhagen (København; Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.

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Copyleft (a play on the word copyright) is the practice of offering people the right to freely distribute copies and modified versions of a work with the stipulation that the same rights be preserved in derivative works down the line.

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Copyright is a legal right, existing globally in many countries, that basically grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to determine and decide whether, and under what conditions, this original work may be used by others.

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Creative Commons

Creative Commons (CC) is an American non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon legally and to share.

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Creative Commons license

A Creative Commons (CC) license is one of several public copyright licenses that enable the free distribution of an otherwise copyrighted work.

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Decentralization is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding planning and decision-making, are distributed or delegated away from a central, authoritative location or group.

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Defense Distributed

Defense Distributed is an online, open-source organization that designs ghost gun firearms, or "wiki weapons", that may be downloaded from the Internet and "printed" with a 3D printer.

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Derivative work

In copyright law, a derivative work is an expressive creation that includes major copyright-protected elements of an original, previously created first work (the underlying work).

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Digital journalism

Digital journalism also known as online journalism is a contemporary form of journalism where editorial content is distributed via the Internet as opposed to publishing via print or broadcast.

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Digital Millennium Copyright Act

The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) is a United States copyright law that implements two 1996 treaties of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).

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Digital rights

The term digital rights describes the human rights that allow individuals to access, use, create, and publish digital media or to access and use computers, other electronic devices, or communications networks.

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Diseconomies of scale

In microeconomics, diseconomies of scale are the cost disadvantages that firms and governments accrue due to increase in firm size or output, resulting in production of goods and services at increased per-unit costs.

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Document file format

A document file format is a text or binary file format for storing documents on a storage media, especially for use by computers.

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Domain name

A domain name is an identification string that defines a realm of administrative autonomy, authority or control within the Internet.

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An electronic book (or e-book or eBook) is a book publication made available in digital form, consisting of text, images, or both, readable on the flat-panel display of computers or other electronic devices.

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Eclipse (software)

Eclipse is an integrated development environment (IDE) used in computer programming, and is the most widely used Java IDE.

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Elephants Dream

Elephants Dream (code-named Orange and originally titled Machina) is a 2006 English-language and Dutch-produced 3D CGI animated science fiction 9-minute short film that was produced almost completely using the free software 3D suite Blender (except for the modular sound studio Reaktor and the cluster that rendered the final production which ran Mac OS X).

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Elon Musk

Elon Reeve Musk (born June 28, 1971) is an American business magnate, investor and engineer.

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Embrace, extend, and extinguish

"Embrace, extend, and extinguish", also known as "Embrace, extend, and exterminate", is a phrase that the U.S. Department of Justice found was used internally by Microsoft to describe its strategy for entering product categories involving widely used standards, extending those standards with proprietary capabilities, and then using those differences to strongly disadvantage its competitors.

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Enterprise software

Enterprise software, also known as enterprise application software (EAS), is computer software used to satisfy the needs of an organization rather than individual users.

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Eric Allman

Eric Paul Allman (born September 2, 1955) is an American computer programmer who developed sendmail and its precursor delivermail in the late 1970s and early 1980s at UC Berkeley.

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Eric S. Raymond

Eric Steven Raymond (born December 4, 1957), often referred to as ESR, is an American software developer, author of the widely cited 1997 essay and 1999 book The Cathedral and the Bazaar and other works, and open-source software advocate.

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Eugene Thacker

Eugene Thacker is an author and Professor at The New School in New York City.

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Eyewear consists of items and accessories worn on or over the eyes, for fashion or adornment, protection against the environment, and to improve or enhance visual acuity.

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Fair use

Fair use is a doctrine in the law of the United States that permits limited use of copyrighted material without having to first acquire permission from the copyright holder.

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Fast Company (magazine)

Fast Company is a monthly American business magazine published in print and online that focuses on technology, business, and design.

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File transfer

File transfer is the transmission of a computer file through a communication channel from one computer system to another.

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Food science

Food science is the applied science devoted to the study of food.

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In filmmaking and video production, footage is raw, unedited material as originally filmed by a movie camera or recorded by a video camera, which typically must be edited to create a motion picture, video clip, television show or similar completed work.

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Fortran (formerly FORTRAN, derived from Formula Translation) is a general-purpose, compiled imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing.

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Franklin stove

The Franklin stove is a metal-lined fireplace named after Benjamin Franklin, who invented it in 1741.

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Free and open-source software

Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software that can be classified as both free software and open-source software.

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Free Beer

Free Beer, originally known as Vores øl - An open source beer (Danish for: Our Beer), is the first brand of beer with an "open"/"free" brand and recipe.

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Free license

A free license or open license is a license agreement which contains conditions permitted to the user from the holder on a specific list of uses for his work, which gives him four major freedoms.

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Free software

Free software or libre software is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any adapted versions.

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Free software movement

The free software movement (FSM) or free / open source software movement (FOSSM) or free / libre open source software (FLOSS) is a social movement with the goal of obtaining and guaranteeing certain freedoms for software users, namely the freedom to run the software, to study and change the software, and to redistribute copies with or without changes.

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Free-culture movement

The free-culture movement is a social movement that promotes the freedom to distribute and modify creative works in the form of free content or open content by using the Internet and other forms of media.

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Free-rider problem

In economics, the free-rider problem occurs when those who benefit from resources, public goods, or services do not pay for them, which results in an underprovision of those goods or services.

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Freemium is a pricing strategy by which a product or service (typically a digital offering or an application such as software, media, games or web services) is provided free of charge, but money (premium) is charged for additional features, services, or virtual goods.

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Gastronomy is the study of the relationship between food and culture, the art of preparing and serving rich or delicate and appetizing food, the cooking styles of particular regions, and the science of good eating.

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George B. Selden

George Baldwin Selden (September 14, 1846 in Clarkson, New York – January 17, 1922 in Rochester, New York) was a patent lawyer and inventor who was granted a U.S. patent for an automobile in 1895.

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Gift economy

A gift economy, gift culture, or gift exchange is a mode of exchange where valuables are not traded or sold, but rather given without an explicit agreement for immediate or future rewards.

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GNU General Public License

The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or GPL) is a widely used free software license, which guarantees end users the freedom to run, study, share and modify the software.

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GNU Lesser General Public License

The GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) is a free software license published by the Free Software Foundation (FSF).

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Gnutella (possibly by analogy with the GNU Project) is a large peer-to-peer network.

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Google Scholar

Google Scholar is a freely accessible web search engine that indexes the full text or metadata of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines.

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Gopher (protocol)

The Gopher protocol is a TCP/IP application layer protocol designed for distributing, searching, and retrieving documents over the Internet.

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Government of South Korea

The Executive and Legislative branches operate primarily at the national level, although various ministries in the executive branch also carry out local functions.

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Guido van Rossum

Guido van Rossum (born 31 January 1956) is a Dutch programmer best known as the author of the Python programming language, for which he is the "Benevolent Dictator For Life" (BDFL), which means he continues to oversee Python development, making decisions when necessary.

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Halloween documents

The Halloween documents comprise a series of confidential Microsoft memoranda on potential strategies relating to free software, open-source software, and to Linux in particular, and a series of media responses to these memoranda.

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Henry Ford

Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was an American captain of industry and a business magnate, the founder of the Ford Motor Company, and the sponsor of the development of the assembly line technique of mass production.

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A house is a building that functions as a home.

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A Hyperloop is a proposed mode of passenger and/or freight transportation, first used to describe an open-source vactrain design released by a joint team from Tesla and SpaceX.

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Hypertext Transfer Protocol

The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, and hypermedia information systems.

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The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.

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IBM 7090/94 IBSYS

IBSYS is the discontinued tape-based operating system that IBM supplied with its IBM 7090 and IBM 7094 computers.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Information good

Information good in economics and law is a type commodity whose market value is derived from information it contains.

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InfoWorld (formerly The Intelligent Machines Journal) is an information technology media business.

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The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.

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Internet forum

An Internet forum, or message board, is an online discussion site where people can hold conversations in the form of posted messages.

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Internet protocol suite

The Internet protocol suite is the conceptual model and set of communications protocols used on the Internet and similar computer networks.

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Internet Relay Chat

Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is an application layer protocol that facilitates communication in the form of text.

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Internet Protocol television (IPTV) is the delivery of television content over Internet Protocol (IP) networks.

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IT University of Copenhagen

The IT University of Copenhagen (Danish: IT-Universitetet i København), often abbreviated and referred to as ITU (also in Danish), is a public university situated in Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark.

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ITIL (formerly an acronym for Information Technology Infrastructure Library) is a set of detailed practices for IT service management (ITSM) that focuses on aligning IT services with the needs of business.

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Jamie Zawinski

James Werner Zawinski (born November 3, 1968), commonly known as jwz, is an American computer programmer with contributions to the free software projects Mozilla and XEmacs, and early versions of the Netscape Navigator web browser.

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Jisc (formerly the Joint Information Systems Committee) is a United Kingdom not-for-profit company whose role is to support post-16 and higher education, and research, by providing relevant and useful advice, digital resources and network and technology services, while researching and developing new technologies and ways of working.

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Jon Hall (programmer)

Jon "maddog" Hall (born 7 August 1950) is the Board Chair for the Linux Professional Institute, and CEO of OptDyn, makers of Subutai P2P Cloud Platform.

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Khan Academy

Khan Academy is a non-profit educational organization created in 2006 by educator Salman Khan with a goal of creating a set of online tools that help educate students.

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Larry Augustin

Larry Augustin (born October 10, 1962) is the Chairman of SugarCRM.

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Larry Wall

Larry Wall (born September 27, 1954) is a computer programmer and author.

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Laser cutting

Laser cutting is a technology that uses a laser to cut materials, and is typically used for industrial manufacturing applications, but is also starting to be used by schools, small businesses, and hobbyists.

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Lasersaur is an open source laser cutter which was developed by NORTD Labs.

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LEON (from león, meaning lion) is a 32-bit CPU microprocessor core, based on the SuperSPARC SPARC-V8 RISC architecture and instruction set designed by Sun Microsystems.

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A license (American English) or licence (British English) is an official permission or permit to do, use, or own something (as well as the document of that permission or permit).

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Lightning rod

A lightning rod (US, AUS) or lightning conductor (UK) is a metal rod mounted on a structure and intended to protect the structure from a lightning strike.

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Linus Torvalds

Linus Benedict Torvalds (born December 28, 1969) is a Finnish-American software engineer who is the creator, and historically, the principal developer of the Linux kernel, which became the kernel for operating systems such as the Linux operating systems, Android, and Chrome OS.

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Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.

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Linux Journal

Linux Journal is a monthly technology magazine published by Linux Journal, LLC.

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List of commercial open-source applications and services

The purpose of this table is to provide reference information about the provenance and history of notable commercial open-source applications, adopting Business models for open-source software, alphabetized by the product/service name.

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List of formerly proprietary software

This is a list of notable software packages which were published under a proprietary software license but later released as free software or open source software, or into the public domain.

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List of free and open-source Android applications

This is an incomplete list of notable applications (apps) that run on the Android platform which meet guidelines for free software and open-source software.

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List of free and open-source software packages

This is a list of free and open-source software packages, computer software licensed under free software licenses and open-source licenses.

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List of open-source health software

The following is a list of software packages and applications licensed under an open-source license or in the public domain for use in the health care industry.

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List of open-source video games

This is a selected list of free/libre and open-source (FOSS) video games.

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List of trademarked open-source software

This is a list of free/open-source software whose names are covered by registered trademarks.

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LiveJournal (Живой Журнал), stylised as LiVEJOURNAL, is a Russian (originally American) social networking service where users can keep a blog, journal or diary.

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Marginal cost

In economics, marginal cost is the change in the opportunity cost that arises when the quantity produced is incremented by one unit, that is, it is the cost of producing one more unit of a good.

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Mass collaboration

Mass collaboration is a form of collective action that occurs when large numbers of people work independently on a single project, often modular in its nature.

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.

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MC Entertainment

MC Entertainment is a Russian distributor of anime and films from Japan, United States, Germany, Great Britain, China, Thailand and South Korea.

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MediaWiki is a free and open-source wiki software.

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Michael Tiemann

Michael Tiemann is vice president of open source affairs at Red Hat, Inc., and former President of the Open Source Initiative.

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The MicroTiles video display system from Christie Digital is composed of modular 16" × 12" (408 mm × 306 mm) rear projection cube units that can be built together into a large video wall-style display.

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MIT OpenCourseWare

MIT OpenCourseWare (MIT OCW) is an initiative of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to publish all of the educational materials from its undergraduateand graduate-level courses online, freely and openly available to anyone, anywhere.

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Mobile device

A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computing device small enough to hold and operate in the hand.

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Mobile phone

A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.

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A monopoly (from Greek μόνος mónos and πωλεῖν pōleîn) exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity.

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Mozilla Public License

The Mozilla Public License (MPL) is a free and open source software license developed and maintained by the Mozilla Foundation.

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Multi-licensing is the practice of distributing software under two or more different sets of terms and conditions.

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National Institutes of Health

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.

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Netscape is a brand name associated with the development of the Netscape web browser.

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Netscape Navigator

Netscape Navigator was a proprietary web browser, and the original browser of the Netscape line, from versions 1 to 4.08, and 9.x. It was the flagship product of the Netscape Communications Corp and was the dominant web browser in terms of usage share in the 1990s, but by 2002 its use had almost disappeared.

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Netscape Public License

The Netscape Public License (NPL) is a free software license, the license under which Netscape Communications Corporation originally released Mozilla.

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Network effect

A network effect (also called network externality or demand-side economies of scale) is the positive effect described in economics and business that an additional user of a good or service has on the value of that product to others.

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Online encyclopedia

An online encyclopedia is an encyclopedia accessible through the internet, such as Wikipedia.

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Open access

Open access (OA) refers to research outputs which are distributed online and free of cost or other barriers, and possibly with the addition of a Creative Commons license to promote reuse.

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Open collaboration

Open collaboration is "any system of innovation or production that relies on goal-oriented yet loosely coordinated participants who interact to create a product (or service) of economic value, which they make available to contributors and noncontributors alike." Levine, Sheen S., & Prietula, M. J. (2013).

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Open Compute Project

The Open Compute Project (OCP) is an organization that shares designs of data center products among companies, including Facebook, Intel, Nokia, Google, Microsoft, Seagate Technology, Dell, Rackspace, Cisco, Goldman Sachs, Fidelity, Lenovo and Alibaba Group.

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Open content

Open content is a neologism coined by David Wiley in 1998 which describes a creative work that others can copy or modify freely, without asking for permission.

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Open Content License

The Open Content License is a share-alike public copyright license by Open Content Project in 1998.

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Open data

Open data is the idea that some data should be freely available to everyone to use and republish as they wish, without restrictions from copyright, patents or other mechanisms of control.

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Open design

Open design is the development of physical products, machines and systems through use of publicly shared design information.

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Open Design Alliance

The Open Design Alliance is a nonprofit organization of over 1,250 members in 50 countries which develops Teigha, a software development platform used to create engineering applications including CAD.

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Open Energy Modelling Initiative

The Open Energy Modelling Initiative (openmod) is a grass roots community of energy system modellers from universities and research institutes across Europe and elsewhere.

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Open format

An open format is a file format for storing digital data, defined by a published specification usually maintained by a standards organization, and which can be used and implemented by anyone.

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Open Icecat

Open Icecat is an Open Content project under the Open Content License in which a worldwide open catalogue is created for product information.

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Open implementation

In computing, open implementation platforms are systems where the implementation is accessible.

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Open innovation

Open innovation is a term used to promote an information age mindset toward innovation that runs counter to the secrecy and silo mentality of traditional corporate research labs.

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Open research

Open research is research conducted in the spirit of free and open-source software.

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Open security

Open security is the use of open source philosophies and methodologies to approach computer security and other information security challenges.

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Open Source Ecology

Open Source Ecology (OSE) is a network of farmers, engineers, architects and supporters, whose main goal is the eventual manufacturing of the Global Village Construction Set (GVCS).

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Open Source Initiative

The Open Source Initiative (OSI) is a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting open-source software.

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Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution

Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution is a book published by O'Reilly Media.

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Open standard

An open standard is a standard that is publicly available and has various rights to use associated with it, and may also have various properties of how it was designed (e.g. open process).

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Open system (computing)

Open systems are computer systems that provide some combination of interoperability, portability, and open software standards.

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Open-source appropriate technology

Open-source appropriate technology (OSAT) is appropriate technology designed in the same fashion as free and open-source software.

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Open-source cola

Open-source cola is any cola soft drink produced according to a published and shareable recipe.

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Open-source curriculum

An open-source curriculum (OSC) is an online instructional resource that can be freely used, distributed and modified.

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Open-source economics

Open-source economics is an economic platform based on open collaboration for the production of software, services, or other products.

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Open-source film

Open-source films (also known as open-content films and free-content films) are films which are produced and distributed by using free and open-source and open content methodologies.

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Open-source governance

Open-source governance (also known as open politics) is a political philosophy which advocates the application of the philosophies of the open-source and open-content movements to democratic principles to enable any interested citizen to add to the creation of policy, as with a wiki document.

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Open-source hardware

Open-source hardware (OSH) consists of physical artifacts of technology designed and offered by the open design movement.

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Open-source intelligence

Open-source intelligence (OSINT) is data collected from publicly available sources to be used in an intelligence context.

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Open-source journalism

Open-source journalism, a close cousin to citizen journalism, is a term coined in the title of a 1999 article by Andrew Leonard of Salon.com.

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Open-Source Lab (book)

The Open-Source Lab: How to Build Your Own Hardware and Reduce Research Costs by Joshua M. Pearce was published in 2014 by Elsevier.

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Open-source license

An open-source license is a type of license for computer software and other products that allows the source code, blueprint or design to be used, modified and/or shared under defined terms and conditions.

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Open-source model

The open-source model is a decentralized software-development model that encourages open collaboration.

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Open-source political campaign

Open-source political campaigns, open-source politics, or Politics 2.0, is the idea that social networking and e-participation technologies will revolutionize our ability to follow, support, and influence political campaigns.

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Open-source record label

Open-source record labels are record labels that release music under copyleft licenses, that is, licenses that allow free redistribution and may allow free modification of the tracks.

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Open-source religion

Open-source religions employ open-source methods for the sharing, construction, and adaptation of religious belief systems, content, and practice.

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Open-source robotics

Open-source robotics (OSR) is where the physical artifacts of the subject are offered by the open design movement.

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Open-source software

Open-source software (OSS) is a type of computer software whose source code is released under a license in which the copyright holder grants users the rights to study, change, and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose.

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Open-source software development

Open-source software development is the process by which open-source software, or similar software whose source code is publicly available, is developed.

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Open-source software movement

The open-source software movement is a movement that supports the use of open-source licenses for some or all software, a part of the broader notion of open collaboration.

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OpenCourseWare (OCW) are course lessons created at universities and published for free via the Internet.

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The Open Document Format for Office Applications (ODF), also known as OpenDocument, is a ZIP-compressed XML-based file format for spreadsheets, charts, presentations and word processing documents.

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OpenEMR is a medical practice management software which also supports Electronic Medical Records (EMR).

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OpenJDK (Open Java Development Kit) is a free and open source implementation of the Java Platform, Standard Edition (Java SE).

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Openmoko was a project to create a family of open source mobile phones, including the hardware specification, the operating system (Openmoko Linux), and actual smartphone development implementation like the Neo 1973 and Neo FreeRunner.

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Openness is an overarching concept or philosophy that is characterized by an emphasis on transparency and free, unrestricted access to knowledge and information, as well as collaborative or cooperative management and decision-making rather than a central authority.

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OpenRISC is a project to develop a series of open source instruction set architectures based on established reduced instruction set computing (RISC) principles.

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OpenSolaris is a discontinued, open source computer operating system based on Solaris created by Sun Microsystems.

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OpenSPARC is an open-source hardware project started in December 2005.

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OpenStax CNX

OpenStax CNX, formerly called Connexions, is a global repository of educational content provided by volunteers.

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Operating system

An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.

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OSS Watch

OSS Watch is the United Kingdom's advisory service for issues relating to free software and open source software based at the University of Oxford.

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P2P Foundation

P2P Foundation: The Foundation for Peer to Peer Alternatives is an organization with the aim of studying the impact of peer to peer technology and thought on society.

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Palo Alto, California

Palo Alto is a charter city located in the northwest corner of Santa Clara County, California, in the San Francisco Bay Area of the United States.

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A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state or intergovernmental organization to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention.

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Paul Vixie

Paul Vixie is an American computer scientist whose technical contributions include Domain Name System (DNS) protocol design and procedure, mechanisms to achieve operational robustness of DNS implementations, and significant contributions to open source software principles and methodology.

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Peer production

Peer production (also known as mass collaboration) is a way of producing goods and services that relies on self-organizing communities of individuals.

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Peer-to-peer (P2P) computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers.

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Pepsi is a carbonated soft drink produced and manufactured by PepsiCo.

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Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act

The Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA) (the Act) is a Canadian law relating to data privacy.

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Pharmaceutical industry

The pharmaceutical industry (or medicine industry) is the commercial industry that discovers, develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as different types of medicine and medications.

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Photovoltaics (PV) is a term which covers the conversion of light into electricity using semiconducting materials that exhibit the photovoltaic effect, a phenomenon studied in physics, photochemistry, and electrochemistry.

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phpBB is an Internet forum package in the PHP scripting language.

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Pirate Party of Russia

The Pirate Party of Russia (Пиратская Партия России, ППР) is a political party in Russia based on the model of the Swedish Pirate Party.

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Project Gutenberg

Project Gutenberg (PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks".

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Proprietary software

Proprietary software is non-free computer software for which the software's publisher or another person retains intellectual property rights—usually copyright of the source code, but sometimes patent rights.

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Public broadcasting

Public broadcasting includes radio, television and other electronic media outlets whose primary mission is public service.

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Public domain

The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply.

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A remix is a piece of media which has been altered from its original state by adding, removing, and/or changing pieces of the item.

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RepRap project

The RepRap project started in England in 2005 as a University of Bath initiative to develop a low-cost 3D printer that can print most of its own components, but it is now made up of hundreds of collaborators world wide.

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Reproducibility is the closeness of the agreement between the results of measurements of the same measurand carried out under changed conditions of measurement.

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Request for Comments

In information and communications technology, a Request for Comments (RFC) is a type of publication from the technology community.

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Rice University

William Marsh Rice University, commonly known as Rice University, is a private research university located on a 300-acre (121 ha) campus in Houston, Texas, United States.

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Richard Stallman

Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16, 1953), often known by his initials, rms—is an American free software movement activist and programmer.

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Robert K. Merton

Robert King Merton (born Meyer Robert Schkolnick; 5 July 1910 – 23 February 2003) was an American sociologist.

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A robot is a machine—especially one programmable by a computer— capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically.

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Sal Khan

Salman Khan (born October 11, 1976) is a Bangladeshi-American educator and entrepreneur who founded the Khan Academy, a free online education platform and an organization with which he has produced over 6,500 video lessons teaching a wide spectrum of academic subjects, originally focusing on mathematics and sciences.

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Science Commons

Science Commons (SC) was a Creative Commons project for designing strategies and tools for faster, more efficient web-enabled scientific research.

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Semiconductor intellectual property core

In electronic design a semiconductor intellectual property core, IP core, or IP block is a reusable unit of logic, cell, or integrated circuit (commonly called a "chip") layout design that is the intellectual property of one party.

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Service-learning is an educational approach that combines learning objectives with community service in order to provide a pragmatic, progressive learning experience while meeting societal needs.

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SHARE (computing)

SHARE Inc. is a volunteer-run user group for IBM mainframe computers that was founded in 1955 by Los Angeles-area users of the IBM 701 computer system.

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Shared source

A shared source or source available software source code distribution model includes arrangements where the source can be viewed, and in some cases modified, but without necessarily meeting the criteria to be called open source.

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Shareware is a type of proprietary software which is initially provided free of charge to users, who are allowed and encouraged to make and share copies of the program.

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Sharing economy

Sharing economy is an umbrella term with a range of meanings, often used to describe economic activity involving online transactions.

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The Simputer was a self-contained, open hardware Linux-based handheld computer, first released in 2002.

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SketchUp, formerly Google Sketchup, is a 3D modeling computer program for a wide range of drawing applications such as architectural, interior design, landscape architecture, civil and mechanical engineering, film and video game design.

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Slate (magazine)

Slate is an online magazine that covers current affairs, politics, and culture in the United States from a liberal perspective.

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Social network

A social network is a social structure made up of a set of social actors (such as individuals or organizations), sets of dyadic ties, and other social interactions between actors.

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Social peer-to-peer processes

Social peer-to-peer processes are interactions with a peer-to-peer dynamic.

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Software license

A software license is a legal instrument (usually by way of contract law, with or without printed material) governing the use or redistribution of software.

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Source code

In computing, source code is any collection of code, possibly with comments, written using a human-readable programming language, usually as plain text.

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Electronic spamming is the use of electronic messaging systems to send an unsolicited message (spam), especially advertising, as well as sending messages repeatedly on the same site.

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SPARC, for Scalable Processor Architecture, is a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) originally developed by Sun Microsystems.

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A spreadsheet is an interactive computer application for organization, analysis and storage of data in tabular form.

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Stop Online Piracy Act

The Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) was a controversial United States bill introduced by U.S. Representative Lamar S. Smith (R-TX) to expand the ability of U.S. law enforcement to combat online copyright infringement and online trafficking in counterfeit goods.

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Street performance

Street performance or busking is the act of performing in public places for gratuities.

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Sun Microsystems

Sun Microsystems, Inc. was an American company that sold computers, computer components, software, and information technology services and created the Java programming language, the Solaris operating system, ZFS, the Network File System (NFS), and SPARC.

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Superflex is a Danish artists' group founded in 1993 by Jakob Fenger, Rasmus Nielsen and Bjørnstjerne Christiansen.

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Sustainability is the process of change, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations.

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The U.S. Department of Labor's Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and Career Training (TAACCCT) grant program is a major investment to increase the ability of community colleges to address the challenges of today's workforce.

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A telephone, or phone, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly.

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Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound.

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The Cathedral and the Bazaar

The Cathedral and the Bazaar: Musings on Linux and Open Source by an Accidental Revolutionary (abbreviated CatB) is an essay, and later a book, by Eric S. Raymond on software engineering methods, based on his observations of the Linux kernel development process and his experiences managing an open source project, fetchmail.

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The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.

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The Free Software Definition

The Free Software Definition written by Richard Stallman and published by Free Software Foundation (FSF), defines free software as being software that ensures that the end users have freedom in using, studying, sharing and modifying that software.

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The Open Solar Outdoors Test Field

The Open Solar Outdoors Test Field (OSOTF) is a project organized under open source principles, which is a fully grid-connected test system that continuously monitors the output of many solar photovoltaic modules and correlates their performance to a long list of highly accurate meteorological readings.

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The Slate Group

The Slate Group is a US online publishing entity established in June 2008 by Graham Holdings Company.

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The Zeitgeist Movement

The Zeitgeist Movement is a non-profit organization established in the United States in 2008 by Peter Joseph.

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Tim O'Reilly

Tim O'Reilly (born 6 June 1954) is the founder of O'Reilly Media (formerly O'Reilly & Associates).

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Tinkerforge is an open source hardware platform of stackable microcontroller building blocks (Bricks) that can control different modules (Bricklets).

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Todd Anderson

Todd Anderson is a retired Australian rugby league footballer of the 1990s.

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Transparency (behavior)

Transparency, as used in science, engineering, business, the humanities and in other social contexts, is operating in such a way that it is easy for others to see what actions are performed.

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Two-stroke engine

A two-stroke (or two-cycle) engine is a type of internal combustion engine which completes a power cycle with two strokes (up and down movements) of the piston during only one crankshaft revolution.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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University of Waterloo Stratford Campus

The University of Waterloo Stratford Campus is located in Stratford, Ontario, Canada.

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Usenet is a worldwide distributed discussion system available on computers.

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User-generated content

User-generated content (UGC), alternatively known as user-created content (UCC), is any form of content created by users of a system or service and made available publicly on that system.

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UUCP is an abbreviation of Unix-to-Unix Copy.

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Vendor lock-in

In economics, vendor lock-in, also known as proprietary lock-in or customer lock-in, makes a customer dependent on a vendor for products and services, unable to use another vendor without substantial switching costs.

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Web literacy

Web literacy comprises the skills and competencies needed for reading, writing and participating on the web.

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WikiHouse is an open-source project for designing and building houses.

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Wikipedia is a multilingual, web-based, free encyclopedia that is based on a model of openly editable content.

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Wikisource is an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation.

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Wikiversity is a Wikimedia Foundation project that supports learning communities, their learning materials, and resulting activities.

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WordPress is a free and open-source content management system (CMS) based on PHP and MySQL.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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2011 Germany E. coli O104:H4 outbreak

A novel strain of ''Escherichia coli'' O104:H4 bacteria caused a serious outbreak of foodborne illness focused in northern Germany in May through June 2011.

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3D printing

3D printing is any of various processes in which material is joined or solidified under computer control to create a three-dimensional object, with material being added together (such as liquid molecules or powder grains being fused together).

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open-source_model

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