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S. Gilbert, Waltz, War and Peace (opera), Welsh National Opera, West Side Story, Willi Glasauer, William Davenant, William Shakespeare, William Tell (opera), Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Wozzeck, Wreckamovie, Yevstigney Fomin, Yuliy Meitus, Zacharia Paliashvili, Zaporozhets za Dunayem, Zarzuela, Zheng Lücheng. Expand index (558 more) » « Shrink index
La or A is the sixth note of the fixed-do solfège.
A Life for the Tsar (italic, Zhizn' za tsarya), is a "patriotic-heroic tragic opera" in four acts with an epilogue by Mikhail Glinka.
Abdylas Maldybaevich Maldybaev (Абдылас Малдыбаев, Abdılas Maldıbayev/Aвdьlas Maldьвajev; July 7, 1906 – June 1, 1978) was a Kyrgyz composer, actor, and operatic tenor singer.
The Accademia degli Arcadi or Accademia dell'Arcadia, "Academy of Arcadia" or "Academy of the Arcadians", was an Italian literary academy founded in Rome in 1690.
Acoustic enhancement is a subtle type of sound reinforcement system used to augment direct, reflected, or reverberant sound.
Acting is an activity in which a story is told by means of its enactment by an actor or actress who adopts a character—in theatre, television, film, radio, or any other medium that makes use of the mimetic mode.
Adolphe Charles Adam (24 July 1803 – 3 May 1856) was a French composer and music critic.
Alban Maria Johannes Berg (February 9, 1885 – December 24, 1935) was an Austrian composer of the Second Viennese School.
Gustav Albert Lortzing (23 October 1801 – 21 January 1851) was a German composer, actor and singer.
Albert Charles Paul Marie Roussel (5 April 1869 – 23 August 1937) was a French composer.
Alberto Evaristo Ginastera (April 11, 1916June 25, 1983) was an Argentine composer of classical music.
Pietro Alessandro Gaspare Scarlatti (2 May 1660 – 22 October 1725) was an Italian Baroque composer, known especially for his operas and chamber cantatas.
Alexander Porfiryevich Borodin (a; 12 November 183327 February 1887) was a Russian Romantic composer of Georgian-Russian origin, as well as a doctor and chemist.
Alexander Sergeyevich Dargomyzhsky (Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Даргомы́жский) was a 19th-century Russian composer.
Alexander Zemlinsky or Alexander von Zemlinsky (14 October 1871 – 15 March 1942) was an Austrian composer, conductor, and teacher.
Alexey Nikolayevich Verstovsky (Алексéй Никола́евич Верстóвский) was a Russian composer, musical bureaucrat and rival of Mikhail Glinka.
Alfred Garrievich Schnittke (Альфре́д Га́рриевич Шни́тке, Alfred Garrievich Shnitke; November 24, 1934 – August 3, 1998) was a Soviet and German composer.
Alfredo Kraus Trujillo (24 November 192710 September 1999) was a distinguished Spanish tenor from the Canary islands (known professionally as Alfredo Kraus), particularly known for the artistry he brought to opera's bel canto roles.
The musical term alto, meaning "high" in Italian (Latin: altus), refers to the second highest part of a contrapuntal musical texture and is also applied to its associated vocal range, especially in choral music.
Amahl and the Night Visitors is an opera in one act by Gian Carlo Menotti with an original English libretto by the composer.
Amanda Juliet Holden (born 19 January 1948) is a British musician, librettist and translator.
Amelita Galli-Curci (18 November 1882 – 26 November 1963) was an Italian coloratura soprano.
André Ernest Modeste Grétry (baptised 11 February 1741; died 24 September 1813) was a composer from the Prince-Bishopric of Liège (present-day Belgium), who worked from 1767 onwards in France and took French nationality.
André George Previn, KBE (born Andreas Ludwig Priwin; April 6, 1929) is a German-American pianist, conductor, and composer.
Anna Nicole is an English opera in 2 acts and 16 scenes, with music by Mark-Anthony Turnage to an English libretto by Richard Thomas.
Anna Renzi (– after 1661) was an Italian soprano renowned for her acting ability as well as her voice, who has been described as the first diva in the history of opera.
Antônio Carlos Gomes (Campinas, July 11, 1836 – Belém, September 16, 1896) was the first New World composer whose work was accepted by Europe.
Anthony "Tony" Tommasini (born 1948) is chief music critic for The New York Times, and has authored three books.
Antonín Leopold Dvořák (8 September 1841 – 1 May 1904) was a Czech composer.
Antonio Lucio Vivaldi (4 March 1678 – 28 July 1741) was an Italian Baroque musical composer, virtuoso violinist, teacher and cleric.
An aria (air; plural: arie, or arias in common usage, diminutive form arietta or ariette) in music was originally any expressive melody, usually, but not always, performed by a singer.
In classical music, arioso (also aria parlante) is a type of solo vocal piece, usually occurring in an opera or oratorio, falling somewhere between recitative and aria in style.
Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class.
Arlecchino, oder Die Fenster (Harlequin, or The Windows, is a one-act opera with spoken dialog by Ferruccio Busoni, with a libretto in German, composed in 1913.
Arnold Franz Walter Schoenberg or Schönberg (13 September 187413 July 1951) was an Austrian-American composer, music theorist, teacher, writer, and painter.
Arrigo Boito (24 February 1842 10 June 1918) (whose original name was Enrico Giuseppe Giovanni Boito and who wrote essays under the anagrammatic pseudonym of Tobia Gorrio), was an Italian poet, journalist, novelist, librettist and composer, best known today for his libretti, especially those for Giuseppe Verdi's operas Otello and Falstaff, and his own opera Mefistofele.
Arshak II is the first Armenian classical opera, written by Dikran Tchouhadjian and T. Terzian in 1868.
Artaxerxes is an opera in three acts composed by Thomas Arne set to an English adaptation (probably by Arne himself) of Metastasio's 1729 libretto Artaserse.
Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan MVO (13 May 1842 – 22 November 1900) was an English composer.
Arts Council England is a non-departmental public body of the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.
Atonality in its broadest sense is music that lacks a tonal center, or key.
Aurora is an opera in three acts by the Argentine composer Héctor Panizza (also known as Ettore Panizza) set to an Italian libretto by Luigi Illica and Hector Quesada.
Étienne Nicolas Méhul (22 June 1763 – 18 October 1817) was a French composer, "the most important opera composer in France during the Revolution".
Baldassare Galuppi (18 October 17063 January 1785) was an Italian composer, born on the island of Burano in the Venetian Republic.
The ballad opera is a genre of English stage entertainment that originated in the early 18th century, and continued to develop over the following century and later.
Ballet is a type of performance dance that originated during the Italian Renaissance in the 15th century and later developed into a concert dance form in France and Russia.
Barbara Russano Hanning (born 1940) is an American musicologist who specializes in 16th- and 17th-century Italian music.
Barcelona is a city in Spain.
A baritone is a type of classical male singing voice whose vocal range lies between the bass and the tenor voice types.
A bass is a type of classical male singing voice and has the lowest vocal range of all voice types.
A bass-baritone is a high-lying bass or low-lying "classical" baritone voice type which shares certain qualities with the true baritone voice.
Bayreuth (Bavarian: Bareid) is a medium-sized town in northern Bavaria, Germany, on the Red Main river in a valley between the Franconian Jura and the Fichtelgebirge Mountains.
The Bayreuth Festspielhaus or Bayreuth Festival Theatre (Bayreuther Festspielhaus) is an opera house north of Bayreuth, Germany, dedicated solely to the performance of stage works by the 19th-century German composer Richard Wagner.
Bánk bán is an opera in 3 Acts by composer Ferenc Erkel.
Béla Viktor János Bartók (25 March 1881 – 26 September 1945) was a Hungarian composer, pianist and an ethnomusicologist.
Bedřich Smetana (2 March 1824 – 12 May 1884) was a Czech composer who pioneered the development of a musical style that became closely identified with his country's aspirations to independent statehood.
Bel canto (Italian for "beautiful singing" or "beautiful song"), along with a number of similar constructions ("bellezze del canto"/"bell'arte del canto"), is a term relating to Italian singing.
Benjamin Jonson (c. 11 June 1572 – 6 August 1637) was an English playwright, poet, actor, and literary critic, whose artistry exerted a lasting impact upon English poetry and stage comedy.
Beniamino Gigli (20 March 1890 – 30 November 1957) was an Italian opera singer.
Edward Benjamin Britten, Baron Britten of Aldeburgh (22 November 1913 – 4 December 1976) was an English composer, conductor and pianist.
Betrothal in a Monastery (original Russian title Обручение в монастыре; Obrucheniye v monastïre), Op. 86 is an opera by Sergei Prokofiev, his sixth with an opus number. The libretto, in Russian, was by the composer and Mira Mendelson (his companion in later life), after Richard Brinsley Sheridan's ballad opera libretto for Thomas Linley the younger's The Duenna. Prokofiev began the work in 1940, and it was in rehearsal that year, but World War II halted production of the opera. The composer revised the score in Almaty in 1943. The first performance did not occur until 3 November 1946 at the Kirov Theatre with Boris Khaikin conducting. The producer was I. Shlepianov. Commentators have noted that, given the context of its creation in the 1940s in the Soviet Union, this opera lacks any particular political or social comment, except perhaps for a scene involving drunken monks.
Märta Birgit Nilsson (17 May 1918 – 25 December 2005) was a celebrated Swedish dramatic soprano who specialized in operatic works of Wagner and Richard Strauss, though she sang the operas of many other composers, including Verdi and Puccini.
Birmingham Royal Ballet (BRB) is one of the three major ballet companies of the United Kingdom, alongside The Royal Ballet and the English National Ballet.
Bluebeard's Castle (A kékszakállú herceg vára; literally: The Blue-Bearded Duke's Castle) is a one-act opera by Hungarian composer Béla Bartók.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
The Bolshoi Theatre (p) is a historic theatre in Moscow, Russia, originally designed by architect Joseph Bové, which holds ballet and opera performances.
Boris Godunov (Борис Годунов, Borís Godunóv) is an opera by Modest Mussorgsky (1839–1881).
A breeches role (also pants role or trouser role, travesti or "Hosenrolle") is a role in which an actress appears in male clothing.
Brigadoon is a musical with a book and lyrics by Alan Jay Lerner, and music by Frederick Loewe.
Broadway theatre,Although theater is the generally preferred spelling in the United States (see American and British English spelling differences), many Broadway venues, performers and trade groups for live dramatic presentations use the spelling theatre.
C (Do, Do, C) is the first note of the C major scale, the third note of the A minor scale (the relative minor of C major), and the fourth note (F, A, B, C) of the Guidonian hand, commonly pitched around 261.63 Hz.
Cadmus et Hermione is a tragédie en musique in a prologue and five acts by Jean-Baptiste Lully.
Charles-Camille Saint-Saëns (9 October 183516 December 1921) was a French composer, organist, conductor and pianist of the Romantic era.
Candide is an operetta with music composed by Leonard Bernstein, based on the 1759 novella of the same name by Voltaire.
Carl Heinrich Graun (7 May 1704 – 8 August 1759) was a German composer and tenor singer.
Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst von Weber (18 or 19 November 1786 5 June 1826) was a German composer, conductor, pianist, guitarist and critic, and was one of the first significant composers of the Romantic school.
Carlisle Floyd (born June 11, 1926) is an American opera composer.
Carmen is an opera in four acts by French composer Georges Bizet.
Carnival (see other spellings and names) is a Western Christian and Greek Orthodox festive season that occurs before the liturgical season of Lent.
Castration (also known as gonadectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the testicles.
A castrato (Italian, plural: castrati) is a type of classical male singing voice equivalent to that of a soprano, mezzo-soprano, or contralto.
Cavalleria rusticana (Italian for "rustic chivalry") is an opera in one act by Pietro Mascagni to an Italian libretto by Giovanni Targioni-Tozzetti and Guido Menasci, adapted from an 1880 and subsequent play by Giovanni Verga.
Charles Burney FRS (7 April 1726 – 12 April 1814) was an English music historian, composer and musician.
Charles-François Gounod (17 June 181817 or 18 October 1893) was a French composer, best known for his Ave Maria, based on a work by Bach, as well as his opera Faust.
Chinese contemporary classical opera (Chinese: 当今古典歌剧; dāngjīn gŭdiăn gējù; "contemporary classical opera") is a musical art form drawing on western opera traditions - distinct from modern developments of traditional Chinese opera.
Traditional Chinese opera, or Xiqu, is a popular form of drama and musical theatre in China with roots going back to the early periods in China.
Christoph Willibald (Ritter von) Gluck (born on 2 July, baptized 4 July 1714As there is only a documentary record with Gluck's date of baptism, 4 July. According to his widow, he was born on 3 July, but nobody in the 18th century paid attention to the birthdate until Napoleon introduced it. A birth date was only known if the parents kept a diary. The authenticity of the 1785 document (published in the Allgemeinen Wiener Musik-Zeitung vom 6. April 1844) is disputed, by Robl. (Robl 2015, pp. 141–147).--> – 15 November 1787) was a composer of Italian and French opera in the early classical period.
The cinema of the United States, often metonymously referred to as Hollywood, has had a profound effect on the film industry in general since the early 20th century.
Classic FM (stylised as Classic M) is one of the United Kingdom's three Independent National Radio stations.
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.
The Classical period was an era of classical music between roughly 1730 to 1820, associated with the style of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven.
Achille-Claude Debussy (22 August 1862 – 25 March 1918) was a French composer.
Claudio Giovanni Antonio Monteverdi (15 May 1567 (baptized) – 29 November 1643) was an Italian composer, string player and choirmaster.
The word coloratura is originally from Italian, literally meaning "coloring", and derives from the Latin word colorare ("to color").
Comic opera denotes a sung dramatic work of a light or comic nature, usually with a happy ending.
(comedy of the profession) was an early form of professional theatre, originating from Italy, that was popular in Europe from the 16th through the 18th century.
The Commonwealth was the period from 1649 to 1660 when England and Wales, later along with Ireland and Scotland, was ruled as a republic following the end of the Second English Civil War and the trial and execution of Charles I. The republic's existence was declared through "An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth", adopted by the Rump Parliament on 19 May 1649.
A composer (Latin ''compōnō''; literally "one who puts together") is a musician who is an author of music in any form, including vocal music (for a singer or choir), instrumental music, electronic music, and music which combines multiple forms.
The Concertmaster (from the German Konzertmeister) in the U.S. and Canada is the leader of the first violin section in an orchestra (or clarinet in a concert band) and the instrument-playing leader of the orchestra.
The concerto delle donne (lit. consort of ladies) was a group of professional female singers in the late Renaissance court of Ferrara, Italy, renowned for their technical and artistic virtuosity.
Henry Watson Fowler The Concise Oxford English Dictionary (officially titled The Concise Oxford Dictionary until 2002, and widely abbreviated COD or COED) is probably the best-known of the 'smaller' Oxford dictionaries.
Conducting is the art of directing a musical performance, such as an orchestral or choral concert.
A contralto is a type of classical female singing voice whose vocal range is the lowest female voice type.
Cornélie Falcon (28 January 1814 – 25 February 1897) was a French soprano who sang at the Opéra in Paris.
(Thus Do They All, or The School for Lovers), K. 588, is an Italian-language opera buffa in two acts by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart first performed on 26 January 1790 at the Burgtheater in Vienna, Austria.
Costume is the distinctive style of dress of an individual or group that reflects their class, gender, profession, ethnicity, nationality, activity or epoch.
A countertenor (also contra tenor) is a type of classical male singing voice whose vocal range is equivalent to that of the female contralto or mezzo-soprano voice types, generally extending from around G3 to D5 or E5, although a sopranist (a specific kind of countertenor) may match the soprano's range of around C4 to C6.
D is a musical note a whole tone above C, and is known as Re within the fixed-Do solfege system.
Dafne is the earliest known work that, by modern standards, could be considered an opera.
Die Dafne (1627) to a libretto by Martin Opitz (which survives), and music by Heinrich Schütz (which is lost), has traditionally been regarded as the first German opera, though it has also been proposed more recently that it was in fact a spoken drama with inserted song and ballet numbers.
Dance is a performing art form consisting of purposefully selected sequences of human movement.
Daniel François Esprit Auber (29 January 178212/13 May 1871) was a French composer.
Darius Milhaud (4 September 1892 – 22 June 1974) was a French composer, conductor, and teacher.
Das Rheingold (The Rhinegold), WWV 86A, is the first of the four music dramas that constitute Richard Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen, or in English, 'The Ring of the Nibelung'.
Dead Man Walking is the first opera by Jake Heggie, with a libretto by Terrence McNally.
Defamation, calumny, vilification, or traducement is the communication of a false statement that, depending on the law of the country, harms the reputation of an individual, business, product, group, government, religion, or nation.
, Op. 77, J. 277, (usually translated as The Marksman or The Freeshooter) is a German opera with spoken dialogue in three acts by Carl Maria von Weber with a libretto by Friedrich Kind.
(The Ring of the Nibelung), WWV 86, is a cycle of four German-language epic music dramas composed by Richard Wagner.
(The Knight of the Rose or The Rose-Bearer), Op.
Dialogues des Carmélites (Dialogues of the Carmelites) is a French opera in three acts, divided into twelve scenes with linking orchestral interludes, with music and libretto by Francis Poulenc, completed in 1956.
Diatonic (διατονική) and chromatic (χρωματική) are terms in music theory that are most often used to characterize scales, and are also applied to musical instruments, intervals, chords, notes, musical styles, and kinds of harmony.
Dido and Aeneas (Z. 626) is an opera in a prologue and three acts, written by the English Baroque composer Henry Purcell with a libretto by Nahum Tate.
(K. 384; The Abduction from the Seraglio; also known as) is an opera Singspiel in three acts by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
(The Flittermouse or The Bat, sometimes called The Revenge of the Bat) is an operetta composed by Johann Strauss II to a German libretto by and Richard Genée.
(The Hand of Fate), Op.
("The Master-Singers of Nuremberg") is a music drama (or opera) in three acts, written and composed by Richard Wagner.
Digital cinema refers to the use of digital technology to distribute or project motion pictures as opposed to the historical use of reels of motion picture film, such as 35 mm film.
Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich (Дми́трий Дми́триевич Шостако́вич|Dmitriy Dmitrievich Shostakovich,; 9 August 1975) was a Russian composer and pianist.
Dmytro Stepanovych Bortniansky (Дмитро Степанович Бортнянський) or Dmitry Stepanovych Bortniansky (Дмитрий Степанович Бортнянский,; alternative transcriptions of names are Dmitri, Bortnianskii, and Bortnyansky; 28 October 1751, Hlukhiv, Cossack Hetmanate) was a Ukrainian composer and conductor of Rusyn descent.
Doctor Atomic is an opera by the contemporary American composer John Adams, with libretto by Peter Sellars.
Dolora Zajick (pronounced ZAH jick) (born 24 March 1952) is an American mezzo-soprano opera singer who specializes in the Verdian repertoire.
Domenico Cimarosa (17 December 1749, Aversa, Kingdom of Naples, now Province of Caserta – 11 January 1801, Venice) was an Italian opera composer of the Neapolitan school.
Domenico Natale Sarro, also Sarri (24 December 1679 – 25 January 1744) was an Italian composer.
Don Carlos is a five-act grand opera composed by Giuseppe Verdi to a French-language libretto by Joseph Méry and Camille du Locle, based on the dramatic play Don Carlos, Infant von Spanien (Don Carlos, Infante of Spain) by Friedrich Schiller.
Don Giovanni (K. 527; complete title: Il dissoluto punito, ossia il Don Giovanni, literally The Rake Punished, namely Don Giovanni or The Libertine Punished) is an opera in two acts with music by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Italian libretto by Lorenzo Da Ponte.
Douglas Stuart Moore (August 10, 1893 – July 25, 1969) was an American composer, educator, and author.
Drama is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance: a play performed in a theatre, or on radio or television.
Edison Vasilievich Denisov (Эдисо́н Васи́льевич Дени́сов, April 6, 1929 – November 24, 1996) was a Russian composer in the so-called "Underground"—"Anti-Collectivist", "alternative" or "nonconformist" division of Soviet music.
Elektra, Op. 58, is a one-act opera by Richard Strauss, to a German-language libretto by Hugo von Hofmannsthal, which he adapted from his 1903 drama Elektra.
Elias Álvares Lobo (August 9, 1834 – December 15, 1901) was a Brazilian composer.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (English: Encyclopedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts), better known as Encyclopédie, was a general encyclopedia published in France between 1751 and 1772, with later supplements, revised editions, and translations.
English National Ballet is a classical ballet company founded by Dame Alicia Markova and Sir Anton Dolin and based at Markova House in South Kensington, London, England.
English National Opera (ENO) is an opera company based in London, resident at the London Coliseum in St. Martin's Lane.
Enrico Caruso (25 February 1873 – 2 August 1921) was an Italian operatic tenor.
The Epic of Manas (Манас дастаны, ماناس دستانی, Manas Dastanı, Manas Destanı) is a traditional epic poem dating to the 18th century but claimed by the Kyrgyz people to be much older.
Erich Wolfgang Korngold (May 29, 1897 – November 29, 1957) was an Austrian-born composer and conductor.
(Expectation), Op. 17, is a one-act monodrama in four scenes by Arnold Schoenberg to a libretto by.
Ettore Panizza (born Héctor Panizza; 12 August 187527 November 1967) was an Argentinian conductor and composer, one of the leading conductors of the early 20th century.
Eugene Onegin (italic, Yevgény Onégin), Op.
Euridice (also Erudice or Eurydice) is an opera by Jacopo Peri, with additional music by Giulio Caccini.
Evita is a musical with music by Andrew Lloyd Webber and lyrics and book by Tim Rice.
The German system (literally "compartment" or "subject of study", here in the sense of "vocal specialization") is a method of classifying singers, primarily opera singers, according to the range, weight, and color of their voices.
Facing Goya (2000) is an opera in four acts by Michael Nyman on a libretto by Victoria Hardie.
Falstaff is a comic opera in three acts by the Italian composer Giuseppe Verdi.
Farinelli (24 January 170516 September 1782), was the stage name of Carlo Maria Michelangelo Nicola Broschi, celebrated Italian castrato singer of the 18th century and one of the greatest singers in the history of opera.
Faust is a grand opera in five acts by Charles Gounod to a French libretto by Jules Barbier and Michel Carré from Carré's play Faust et Marguerite, in turn loosely based on Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's Faust, Part One.
Faustina Bordoni (30 March 1697 – 4 November 1781) was an Italian mezzo-soprano.
Felipe Boero (born Buenos Aires, January 1, 1884 - died there, August 9, 1958) was an Argentine composer and music educator.
Feodor Ivanovich Chaliapin (ˈfʲɵdər ɪˈvanəvʲɪtɕ ʂɐˈlʲapʲɪn; April 12, 1938) was a Russian opera singer.
Louis Joseph Ferdinand Hérold (28 January 1791 – 19 January 1833), better known as Ferdinand Hérold, was a French operatic composer of Alsatian descent who also wrote many pieces for the piano, orchestra, and the ballet.
Ferenc Erkel (Erkel Ferenc, Franz Erkel; November 7, 1810June 15, 1893) was a Hungarian composer, conductor and pianist.
Ferruccio Busoni (1 April 1866 – 27 July 1924) (given names: Ferruccio Dante Michelangiolo Benvenuto) was an Italian composer, pianist, conductor, editor, writer, and teacher.
Fidelio (originally titled; English: Leonore, or The Triumph of Marital Love), Op.
Figured bass, or thoroughbass, is a kind of musical notation in which numerals and symbols (often accidentals) indicate intervals, chords, and non-chord tones that a musician playing piano, harpsichord, organ, lute (or other instruments capable of playing chords) play in relation to the bass note that these numbers and symbols appear above or below.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
The Florentine Camerata, also known as the Camerata de' Bardi, were a group of humanists, musicians, poets and intellectuals in late Renaissance Florence who gathered under the patronage of Count Giovanni de' Bardi to discuss and guide trends in the arts, especially music and drama.
Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.
François-Adrien Boieldieu (16 December 1775 8 October 1834) was a French composer, mainly of operas, often called "the French Mozart".
François-André Danican Philidor (September 7, 1726 – August 31, 1795), often referred to as André Danican Philidor during his lifetime, was a French composer and chess player.
François-Joseph Gossec (17 January 1734 – 16 February 1829) was a French composer of operas, string quartets, symphonies, and choral works.
Francesca Cuzzoni (2 April 1696 – 19 June 1778) was an Italian operatic soprano of the Baroque era.
Francesca da Rimini (italic), Op.
Count Francesco Algarotti (11 December 1712 – 3 May 1764) was an Venetian polymath, philosopher, poet, essayist, anglophile, art critic and art collector.
Francesco Domenico Araja (or Araia, Russian: Арайя) (June 25, 1709 in Naples, Kingdom of Sicily – between 1762 and 1770 in Bologna, States of the Church) was an Italian composer who spent 25 years in Russia and wrote at least 14 operas for the Russian Imperial Court including Tsefal i Prokris, the first opera in Russian.
Francesco Cavalli (born Pietro Francesco Caletti-Bruni 14 February 1602 – 14 January 1676) was an Italian composer of the early Baroque period.
Francis Jean Marcel Poulenc (7 January 189930 January 1963) was a French composer and pianist.
Franco Corelli (8 April 1921 – 29 October 2003) was an Italian tenor who had a major international opera career between 1951 and 1976.
Franz Schreker (originally Schrecker; 23 March 1878, Monaco – 21 March 1934, Berlin) was an Austrian composer, conductor, teacher and administrator.
Franz Peter Schubert (31 January 179719 November 1828) was an Austrian composer of the late Classical and early Romantic eras.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
French opera is one of Europe's most important operatic traditions, containing works by composers of the stature of Rameau, Berlioz, Gounod, Bizet, Massenet, Debussy, Ravel, Poulenc and Messiaen.
The French overture is a musical form widely used in the Baroque period.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Friedrich Melchior, Baron von Grimm (26 December 172319 December 1807) was a German-born French-language journalist, art critic, diplomat and contributor to the Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers.
In music, a fugue is a contrapuntal compositional technique in two or more voices, built on a subject (a musical theme) that is introduced at the beginning in imitation (repetition at different pitches) and which recurs frequently in the course of the composition.
Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti (29 November 1797 – 8 April 1848) was an Italian composer.
Georg Philipp Telemann (– 25 June 1767) was a German Baroque composer and multi-instrumentalist.
George Frideric (or Frederick) Handel (born italic; 23 February 1685 (O.S.) – 14 April 1759) was a German, later British, Baroque composer who spent the bulk of his career in London, becoming well-known for his operas, oratorios, anthems, and organ concertos.
George Jacob Gershwin (September 26, 1898 July 11, 1937) was an American composer and pianist.
Georges Bizet (25 October 18383 June 1875), registered at birth as Alexandre César Léopold Bizet, was a French composer of the romantic era.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
German Romanticism was the dominant intellectual movement of German-speaking countries in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, influencing philosophy, aesthetics, literature and criticism.
Germanic religion refers to the indigenous religion of the Germanic peoples from the Iron Age until Christianisation during the Middle Ages.
A Gesamtkunstwerk (translated as "total work of art", "ideal work of art", "universal artwork", "synthesis of the arts", "comprehensive artwork", "all-embracing art form" or "total artwork") is a work of art that makes use of all or many art forms or strives to do so.
Giacomo Meyerbeer (born Jacob Liebmann Beer; 5 September 1791 – 2 May 1864) was a German opera composer of Jewish birth who has been described as perhaps the most successful stage composer of the nineteenth century.
Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini (22 December 1858 29 November 1924) was an Italian opera composer who has been called "the greatest composer of Italian opera after Verdi".
Gian Carlo Menotti (July 7, 1911 – February 1, 2007) was an Italian-American composer and librettist.
The gigue or giga is a lively baroque dance originating from the Ireland jig.
Gioachino Antonio Rossini (29 February 1792 – 13 November 1868) was an Italian composer who wrote 39 operas as well as some sacred music, songs, chamber music, and piano pieces.
Giovanni Battista Draghi (4 January 1710 – 16 or 17 March 1736), often referred to as Giovanni Battista Pergolesi, was an Italian composer, violinist and organist.
Giovanni Pacini (17 February 17966 December 1867) was an Italian composer, best known for his operas.
Giovanni Paisiello (or Paesiello; 9 May 1740 – 5 June 1816) was an Italian composer of the Classical era, and was the most popular opera composer of the late 1700s.
Giulio Cesare in Egitto (Italian for "Julius Caesar in Egypt", HWV 17), commonly known as Giulio Cesare, is a dramma per musica (opera seria) in three acts composed for the Royal Academy of Music by George Frideric Handel in 1724.
Giuseppe Sarti (also Sardi; baptised 1 December 1729 – 28 July 1802) was an Italian opera composer.
Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi (9 or 10 October 1813 – 27 January 1901) was an Italian opera composer.
Glyndebourne Festival Opera is an annual opera festival held at Glyndebourne, an English country house near Lewes, in East Sussex, England.
Grand opera is a genre of 19th-century opera generally in four or five acts, characterized by large-scale casts and orchestras, and (in their original productions) lavish and spectacular design and stage effects, normally with plots based on or around dramatic historic events.
Haddon Hall is an English light opera with music by Arthur Sullivan and a libretto by Sydney Grundy.
Hagen Schulze (31 July 1943 – 4 September 2014) was a German historian who held a position at the Free University of Berlin.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
Hans Erich Pfitzner (5 May 1869 – 22 May 1949) was a German composer and self-described anti-modernist.
Hans Werner Henze (1 July 1926 – 27 October 2012) was a German composer.
Hansel and Gretel (German) is an opera by nineteenth-century composer Engelbert Humperdinck, who described it as a (fairy-tale opera).
The harp is a stringed musical instrument that has a number of individual strings running at an angle to its soundboard; the strings are plucked with the fingers.
A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard which activates a row of levers that in turn trigger a mechanism that plucks one or more strings with a small plectrum.
Sir Harrison Paul Birtwistle, (born 15 July 1934) is a British composer.
The haute-contre (plural hautes-contre) is a rare type of high tenor voice, predominant in French Baroque and Classical opera until the latter part of the eighteenth century.
Louis-Hector Berlioz; 11 December 1803 – 8 March 1869) was a French Romantic composer, best known for his compositions Symphonie fantastique, Harold en Italie, Roméo et Juliette, Grande messe des morts (Requiem), L'Enfance du Christ, Benvenuto Cellini, La Damnation de Faust, and Les Troyens. Berlioz made significant contributions to the modern orchestra with his Treatise on Instrumentation. He specified huge orchestral forces for some of his works, and conducted several concerts with more than 1,000 musicians. He also composed around 50 compositions for voice, accompanied by piano or orchestra. His influence was critical for the further development of Romanticism, especially in composers like Richard Wagner, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Franz Liszt, Richard Strauss, and Gustav Mahler.
Heinrich August Marschner (16 August 1795 – 14 December 1861) was the most important composer of German opera between Weber and Wagner.
Heinrich Schütz (– 6 November 1672) was a German composer and organist, generally regarded as the most important German composer before Johann Sebastian Bach and often considered to be one of the most important composers of the 17th century.
Henry Purcell (or; c. 10 September 1659According to Holman and Thompson (Grove Music Online, see References) there is uncertainty regarding the year and day of birth. No record of baptism has been found. The year 1659 is based on Purcell's memorial tablet in Westminster Abbey and the frontispiece of his Sonnata's of III. Parts (London, 1683). The day 10 September is based on vague inscriptions in the manuscript GB-Cfm 88. It may also be relevant that he was appointed to his first salaried post on 10 September 1677, which would have been his eighteenth birthday. – 21 November 1695) was an English composer.
Heorhiy Ilarionovych Maiboroda, sometimes transcribed in English as Georgiy or Heorhy Maiboroda or Mayboroda (Ukrainian: Георгій Іларіонович Майборода;, in Pelekhivshchyna khutir, Kremenchuk County, Poltava Governorate, Russia – 6 December 1992, in Kiev, Ukraine), was a Ukrainian composer.
High-definition video is video of higher resolution and quality than standard-definition.
Historia von D. Johann Fausten is an opera by the Russian composer Alfred Schnittke (1934–1998) in three acts, with introduction and epilogue to the German libretto by Jörg Morgener (Jürgen Köchel) and Alfred Schnittke after the anonymous prose book of the same name (published by Johannes Spies in 1587).
In music, homophony (Greek: ὁμόφωνος, homóphōnos, from ὁμός, homós, "same" and φωνή, phōnē, "sound, tone") is a texture in which a primary part is supported by one or more additional strands that flesh out the harmony and often provide rhythmic contrast.
The House of Gonzaga was a princely family that ruled Mantua, in northern Italy, from 1328 to 1708; they also ruled Monferrato in Piedmont and Nevers in France, and also many other lesser fiefs throughout Europe.
Hugo Laurenz August Hofmann von Hofmannsthal (1 February 1874 – 15 July 1929) was an Austrian prodigy, a novelist, librettist, poet, dramatist, narrator, and essayist.
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.
Hunyadi László (László Hunyadi) is an opera in three acts by the Hungarian composer Ferenc Erkel.
(Italian for Idomeneus, King of Crete, or, Ilia and Idamante; usually referred to simply as Idomeneo, K. 366) is an Italian language opera seria by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (ˈiɡərʲ ˈfʲɵdərəvʲɪtɕ strɐˈvʲinskʲɪj; 6 April 1971) was a Russian-born composer, pianist, and conductor.
Il Guarany (The Guarany) is an opera ballo composed by Antônio Carlos Gomes, based on the novel O Guarani by José de Alencar.
Il ritorno d'Ulisse in patria (SV 325, The Return of Ulysses to his Homeland) is an opera consisting of a prologue and five acts (later revised to three), set by Claudio Monteverdi to a libretto by Giacomo Badoaro.
(Italian for "The Troubadour") is an opera in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto largely written by Salvadore Cammarano, based on the play El trovador (1836) by Antonio García Gutiérrez.
Inigo Jones (15 July 1573 – 21 June 1652) was the first significant English architect (of Welsh ancestry) in the early modern period, and the first to employ Vitruvian rules of proportion and symmetry in his buildings.
The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Italian nationalism builds upon the idea that Italians are the ethnic, cultural, and linguistic successors of the ancient Romans who inhabited the Italian Peninsula for over a millennium.
Italian opera is both the art of opera in Italy and opera in the Italian language.
Ivanhoe is a romantic opera in three acts based on the novel by Sir Walter Scott, with music by Sir Arthur Sullivan and a libretto by Julian Sturgis.
Jacopo Peri (Zazzerino) (20 August 156112 August 1633) was an Italian composer and singer of the transitional period between the Renaissance and Baroque styles, and is often called the inventor of opera.
Jacques Offenbach (20 June 1819 – 5 October 1880) was a German-born French composer, cellist and impresario of the romantic period.
Jake Heggie (born March 31, 1961) is an American composer of opera, vocal, orchestral, and chamber music.
Jean-Baptiste Lully (born Giovanni Battista Lulli,; 28 November 1632 – 22 March 1687) was an Italian-born French composer, instrumentalist, and dancer who spent most of his life working in the court of Louis XIV of France.
Jean-Blaise Martin, full name Nicolas Jean-Blaise Martin (February 24, 1768 in Paris – October 28, 1837 in Tourzel-Ronzières) was a French opera singer whose tessitura lay between tenor and baritone, which became later known as "baryton-martin".
Jean-Philippe Rameau (–) was one of the most important French composers and music theorists of the 18th century.
Jenůfa (Její pastorkyňa, "Her Stepdaughter" in Czech) is an opera in three acts by Leoš Janáček to a Czech libretto by the composer, based on the play Její pastorkyňa by Gabriela Preissová.
Jesus Christ Superstar is a 1970 rock opera with music by Andrew Lloyd Webber and lyrics by Tim Rice.
Jiang Zhuyun (20 August 1920 – 14 November 1949) was a Chinese revolutionary martyr.
Dame Joan Alston Sutherland, OM, AC, DBE (7 November 192610 October 2010) was an Australian dramatic coloratura soprano noted for her contribution to the renaissance of the bel canto repertoire from the late 1950s through to the 1980s.
Johann Adolph Hasse (born in Bergedorf, near Hamburg, baptised 25 March 1699 – died in Venice 16 December 1783) was an 18th-century German composer, singer and teacher of music.
Johann Strauss II (October 25, 1825 – June 3, 1899), also known as Johann Strauss Jr., the Younger, the Son (Sohn), Johann Baptist Strauss, son of Johann Strauss I, was an Austrian composer of light music, particularly dance music and operettas.
John Coolidge Adams (born February 15, 1947) is an American composer of classical music and opera, with strong roots in minimalism.
John Blow (baptised 23 February 1649 – 1 October 1708) was an English Baroque composer and organist, appointed to Westminster Abbey in 1669.
John Paul Corigliano (born 16 February 1938) is an American composer of classical music.
John Dryden (–) was an English poet, literary critic, translator, and playwright who was made England's first Poet Laureate in 1668.
John Frederick Lampe (born Johann Friedrich Lampe; probably 1703 – 25 July 1751) was a musician.
John Gay (30 June 1685 – 4 December 1732) was an English poet and dramatist and member of the Scriblerus Club.
John Kenrick (born October 3, 1959) is an American author, teacher and theatre and film historian.
John Louis DiGaetani (born 1943) is a Professor of English at Hofstra University in Hempstead, New York.
John Hamilton Warrack (born 1928, in London) is an English music critic, writer on music, and oboist.
José Carreras, is the stage name of Josep Maria Carreras i Coll (born 5 December 1946), a tenor who is particularly known for his performances in the operas of Verdi and Puccini.
Joseph Legros, often also spelt Le Gros, (7 September or 8 September 1739 – 20 December 1793) was a French singer and composer of the 18th century.
Juan Nepomuceno Arvizu Santelices (known as Juan Arvizu; Santiago de Querétaro, May 22, 1900 - Mexico City, November 19, 1985), was an acclaimed lyric tenor in Mexico and a noted interpreter of the Latin American bolero and tango on the international concert stage, on the radio and in film.
Jules Émile Frédéric Massenet (12 May 184213 August 1912) was a French composer of the Romantic era best known for his operas, of which he wrote more than thirty.
Johan Jonatan "Jussi" Björling (5 February 19119 September 1960) was a Swedish tenor.
Karol Maciej Szymanowski (3 October 188229 March 1937) was a Polish composer and pianist, the most celebrated Polish composer of the early 20th century.
Káťa Kabanová (also known in various spellings including Katia, Katja, Katya, and Kabanowa) is an opera in three acts, with music by Leoš Janáček to a libretto by, based on The Storm, a play by Alexander Ostrovsky.
Khovanshchina (Хованщина, Hovánščina, sometimes rendered The Khovansky Affair; since the ending -ščina is pejorative) is an opera (subtitled a 'national music drama') in five acts by Modest Mussorgsky. The work was written between 1872 and 1880 in St. Petersburg, Russia. The composer wrote the libretto based on historical sources. The opera was unfinished and unperformed when the composer died in 1881. Like Mussorgsky's earlier Boris Godunov, Khovanshchina deals with an episode in Russian history, first brought to the composer's attention by his friend the critic Vladimir Stasov. It concerns the rebellion of Prince Ivan Khovansky, the Old Believers, and the Muscovite Streltsy against the regent Sofia Alekseyevna and the two young Tsars Peter the Great and Ivan V, who were attempting to institute Westernizing reforms in Russia. Khovansky had helped to foment the Moscow Uprising of 1682, which resulted in Sofia becoming regent on behalf of her younger brother Ivan and half-brother Peter, who were crowned joint Tsars. In the fall of 1682 Prince Ivan Khovansky turned against Sofia. Supported by the Old Believers and the Streltsy, Khovansky — who supposedly wanted to install himself as the new regent — demanded the reversal of Patriarch Nikon's reforms. Sofia and her court were forced to flee Moscow. Eventually, Sofia managed to suppress the so-called Khovanshchina (Khovansky affair) with the help of the diplomat Fyodor Shaklovity, who succeeded Khovansky as leader of the Muscovite Streltsy. With the rebellion crushed, the Old Believers committed mass suicide (in the opera, at least). Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov completed, revised, and scored Khovanshchina in 1881–1882. Because of his extensive cuts and "recomposition", Dmitri Shostakovich revised the opera in 1959 based on Mussorgsky's vocal score, and it is the Shostakovich version that is usually performed. In 1913 Igor Stravinsky and Maurice Ravel made their own arrangement at Sergei Diaghilev's request. When Feodor Chaliapin refused to sing the part of Dosifei in any other orchestration than Rimsky-Korsakov's, Diaghilev's company employed a mixture of orchestrations which did not prove successful. The Stravinsky-Ravel orchestration was forgotten, except for Stravinsky's finale, which is still sometimes used. Although the background of the opera comprises the Moscow Uprising of 1682 and the Khovansky affair a few months later, its main themes are the struggle between progressive and reactionary political factions during the minority of Tsar Peter the Great and the passing of old Muscovy before Peter's westernizing reforms. It received its first performance in the Rimsky-Korsakov edition in 1886.
King Arthur is a legendary British leader who, according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders in the late 5th and early 6th centuries.
King Roger (Król Roger, Op. 46) is an opera in three acts by Karol Szymanowski to a Polish libretto by the composer himself and Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz, the composer's cousin.
Kirsten Malfrid Flagstad (12 July 1895 – 7 December 1962) was a Norwegian opera singer and a highly regarded Wagnerian soprano.
Koroghlu (Koroğlu; literally, The Blind Man's Son) is an opera in five acts by Uzeyir Hajibeyov to a libretto in Azerbaijani by Habib Ismayilov, with poetry by Mammed Said Ordubadi.
Krzysztof Eugeniusz Penderecki (born 23 November 1933) is a Polish composer and conductor.
Kurt Julian Weill (March 2, 1900April 3, 1950) was a German composer, active from the 1920s in his native country, and in his later years in the United States.
The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.
L'écume des jours (English: The Foam of Days) is an opera in three acts (14 scenes) by the Russian composer Edison Denisov.
(The Soldier's Tale) is a theatrical work "to be read, played, and danced" by three actors and one or several dancers, accompanied by a septet of instruments.
L'incoronazione di Poppea (SV 308, The Coronation of Poppaea) is an Italian opera by Claudio Monteverdi, with a libretto by Giovanni Francesco Busenello, first performed at the Teatro Santi Giovanni e Paolo in Venice during the 1643 carnival season.
L'Orfeo (SV 318), sometimes called La favola d'Orfeo, is a late Renaissance/early Baroque favola in musica, or opera, by Claudio Monteverdi, with a libretto by Alessandro Striggio.
La bohème is an opera in four acts,Puccini called the divisions quadro, a tableau or "image", rather than atto (act).
(Cinderella, or Goodness Triumphant) is an operatic dramma giocoso in two acts by Gioachino Rossini.
La clemenza di Tito (English: The Clemency of Titus), K. 621, is an opera seria in two acts composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to an Italian libretto by Caterino Mazzolà, after Metastasio.
"" ("Woman is fickle") is the Duke of Mantua's canzone from the beginning of act 3 of Giuseppe Verdi's opera Rigoletto (1851).
Teatro La Fenice ("The Phoenix") is an opera house in Venice, Italy.
(The Daughter of the Regiment) is an opéra comique in two acts by Gaetano Donizetti, set to a French libretto by Jules-Henri Vernoy de Saint-Georges and Jean-François Bayard.
La púrpura de la rosa (The Blood of the Rose) is an opera in one act, composed by Tomás de Torrejón y Velasco to a Spanish libretto by Pedro Calderón de la Barca, the last great writer of the Spanish Golden Age.
La Scala (abbreviation in Italian language for the official name Teatro alla Scala) is an opera house in Milan, Italy.
La traviata (The Fallen Woman)Meadows, p. 582 is an opera in three acts by Giuseppe Verdi set to an Italian libretto by Francesco Maria Piave.
Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District (Леди Макбет Мценского уезда, or Ledi Makbet Mtsenskogo uyezda) is an opera in four acts and nine scenes by Dmitri Shostakovich, his Opus 29.
Lakmé is an opera in three acts by Léo Delibes to a French libretto by Edmond Gondinet and Philippe Gille.
The larynx, commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the top of the neck of tetrapods involved in breathing, producing sound, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration.
Clément Philibert Léo Delibes (21 February 1836 – 16 January 1891) was a French composer of the Romantic era (1815–1910), who specialised in ballets, operas, and other works for the stage.
A leitmotif or leitmotiv is a "short, constantly recurring musical phrase"Kennedy (1987), Leitmotiv associated with a particular person, place, or idea.
Leoš Janáček (baptised Leo Eugen Janáček; 3 July 1854 – 12 August 1928) was a Czech composer, musical theorist, folklorist, publicist and teacher.
Leonard Bernstein (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American composer, conductor, author, music lecturer, and pianist.
Leonardo Leo (5 August 1694 – 31 October 1744), more correctly Lionardo Oronzo Salvatore de Leo, was a Neapolitan Baroque composer.
Leonardo Vinci (1690 – 27 May 1730) was an Italian composer, best known for his operas.
Les Huguenots is a French opera by Giacomo Meyerbeer, one of the most popular and spectacular examples of the style of grand opera.
Les Misérables, colloquially known in English-speaking countries as Les Mis or Les Miz, is a sung-through musical based on the novel Les Misérables by French poet and novelist Victor Hugo.
Les Troyens (in English: The Trojans) is a French grand opera in five acts by Hector Berlioz.
A libretto is the text used in, or intended for, an extended musical work such as an opera, operetta, masque, oratorio, cantata or musical.
Life with an Idiot (Russian: Жизнь с идиотом, Zhizn s idiotom) is an opera by the Russian composer Alfred Schnittke to a Russian libretto by Viktor Erofeyev.
The Cambridge Companions to Music form a book series published by Cambridge University Press.
This is a list of literary fiction which feature opera in the plot.
This is an inclusive list of opera festivals and summer opera seasons, and music festivals which have opera productions.
Little Women (1998) is the first opera written by American composer Mark Adamo to his own libretto after Louisa May Alcott's tale of growing up in New England after the American Civil War, Little Women.
Live streaming refers to online streaming media simultaneously recorded and broadcast in real time to the viewer.
Lohengrin, WWV 75, is a Romantic opera in three acts composed and written by Richard Wagner, first performed in 1850.
Longing for Husband Cloud or Cloud Gazing or Cloud of Eternal Sorrow (望夫云) is a story of the Bai people.
Lorenzo Da Ponte (10 March 174917 August 1838) was an Italian, later American opera librettist, poet and Roman Catholic priest.
A lost work is a document, literary work, or piece of multimedia produced some time in the past of which no surviving copies are known to exist.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
Louise-Rosalie Lefebvre (18 June 1755 – 22 September 1821), also known as Madame Dugazon, was a French operatic mezzo-soprano, actress and dancer.
Love Counts is a 2005 opera in two acts by Michael Nyman to a libretto by Michael Hastings.
Lucia di Lammermoor is a dramma tragico (tragic opera) in three acts by Gaetano Donizetti.
Luciano Berio, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI (October 24, 1925 – May 27, 2003) was an Italian composer.
Luciano Pavarotti, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI (12 October 19356 September 2007) was an Italian operatic tenor who also crossed over into popular music, eventually becoming one of the most commercially successful tenors of all time.
Ludwig II (Ludwig Otto Friedrich Wilhelm; Louis Otto Frederick William; 25 August 1845 – 13 June 1886) was King of Bavaria from 1864 until his death in 1886.
Ludwig van Beethoven (baptised 17 December 1770Beethoven was baptised on 17 December. His date of birth was often given as 16 December and his family and associates celebrated his birthday on that date, and most scholars accept that he was born on 16 December; however there is no documentary record of his birth.26 March 1827) was a German composer and pianist.
Luigi Cherubini (8 or 14 SeptemberWillis, in Sadie (Ed.), p. 833 1760 – 15 March 1842) was a Classical and pre-Romantic composer from Italy who spent most of his working life in France.
Luigi Nono (29 January 1924 – 8 May 1990) was an Italian avant-garde composer of classical music and remains one of the most prominent composers of the 20th century.
Lulu (composed from 1929–1935, premièred incomplete in 1937 and complete in 1979) is an opera in three acts by Alban Berg.
A lute is any plucked string instrument with a neck (either fretted or unfretted) and a deep round back enclosing a hollow cavity, usually with a sound hole or opening in the body.
Lyndon William Terracini, (born 1950 in Sydney), is an Australian operatic baritone and since 2009 Artistic Director of Opera Australia.
Lyric poetry is a formal type of poetry which expresses personal emotions or feelings, typically spoken in the first person.
Madama Butterfly (Madam Butterfly) is an opera in three acts (originally two) by Giacomo Puccini, with an Italian libretto by Luigi Illica and Giuseppe Giacosa.
Madama Europa was the nickname of Europa Rossi (fl. 1630), was an opera singer, the first Jewish opera singer to achieve widespread fame outside of the Jewish community.
The Maggio Musicale Fiorentino is an annual Italian arts festival in Florence, including a notable opera festival, under the auspices of the Opera di Firenze.
Maksym Sozontovych Berezovsky (Максим Созонтович Березовський) (c.27 October 1745 – 2 April 1777) was a Ukrainian composer, opera singer, and violinist.
Man and Boy: Dada is a 2003 opera by Michael Nyman on a libretto by Michael Hastings.
Manon is an opéra comique in five acts by Jules Massenet to a French libretto by Henri Meilhac and Philippe Gille, based on the 1731 novel L’histoire du chevalier des Grieux et de Manon Lescaut by the Abbé Prévost.
Mantua (Mantova; Emilian and Latin: Mantua) is a city and comune in Lombardy, Italy, and capital of the province of the same name.
Manuel de Zumaya or Manuel de Sumaya (c. 1678 – 1755) was perhaps the most famous Mexican composer of the colonial period of New Spain.
Maria Callas, Commendatore OMRI (Μαρία Κάλλας; December 2, 1923 – September 16, 1977) was a New York-born Greek soprano, one of the most renowned and influential opera singers of the 20th century.
Mario Del Monaco (27 July 191516 October 1982) was an Italian operatic tenor who earned worldwide acclaim for his powerful voice.
Mark Adamo (born 1962) is an American composer, librettist and professor of music composition at New York University's Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development.
Mark-Anthony Turnage CBE (born 10 June 1960) is an English composer of classical music.
The masque was a form of festive courtly entertainment that flourished in 16th- and early 17th-century Europe, though it was developed earlier in Italy, in forms including the intermedio (a public version of the masque was the pageant).
Joseph Maurice Ravel (7 March 1875 – 28 December 1937) was a French composer, pianist and conductor.
Mavra is a one-act comic opera composed by Igor Stravinsky, and one of the earliest works of Stravinsky's neo-classical period.
A melodrama is a dramatic work in which the plot, which is typically sensational and designed to appeal strongly to the emotions, takes precedence over detailed characterization.
The Metropolitan Opera is an opera company based in New York City, resident at the Metropolitan Opera House at the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts.
Metropolitan Opera Live in HD (also known as The Met: Live in HD) is a series of live opera performances transmitted in high-definition video via satellite from the Metropolitan Opera in New York City to select venues, primarily movie theaters, in the United States and other parts of the world.
A mezzo-soprano or mezzo (meaning "half soprano") is a type of classical female singing voice whose vocal range lies between the soprano and the contralto voice types.
Michael Laurence Nyman, CBE (born 23 March 1944) is an English composer of minimalist music, pianist, librettist and musicologist, known for numerous film scores (many written during his lengthy collaboration with the filmmaker Peter Greenaway), and his multi-platinum soundtrack album to Jane Campion's The Piano.
Michael William Balfe (15 May 1808 – 20 October 1870) was an Irish composer, best-remembered for his opera The Bohemian Girl.
Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (Mikhaíl Ivánovich Glínka) was the first Russian composer to gain wide recognition within his own country, and is often regarded as the fountainhead of Russian classical music.
Minimal music is a form of art music that employs limited or minimal musical materials.
In visual arts, music, and other mediums, minimalism is an art movement that began in post–World War II Western art, most strongly with American visual arts in the 1960s and early 1970s.
A minuet (also spelled menuet) is a social dance of French origin for two people, usually in 4 time.
Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (mɐˈdɛst pʲɪˈtrovʲɪtɕ ˈmusərkskʲɪj; –) was a Russian composer, one of the group known as "The Five".
Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, known by his stage name Molière (15 January 162217 February 1673), was a French playwright, actor and poet, widely regarded as one of the greatest writers in the French language and universal literature.
Montserrat Caballé (born 12 April 1933) is a Spanish operatic soprano.
A movement is a self-contained part of a musical composition or musical form.
A movie theater/theatre (American English), cinema (British English) or cinema hall (Indian English) is a building that contains an auditorium for viewing films (also called movies) for entertainment.
Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.
A music director, musical director, or director of music may be the director of an orchestra or concert band, the director of music for a film, the director of music at a radio station, the head of the music department in a school, the coordinator of the musical ensembles in a university, college, or institution (but not usually the head of the academic music department), the head bandmaster of a military band, the head organist and choirmaster of a church, or an Organist and Master of the Choristers (a title given to a Director of Music at a cathedral, particularly in England).
A musical ensemble, also known as a music group or musical group, is a group of people who perform instrumental or vocal music, with the ensemble typically known by a distinct name.
Musical theatre is a form of theatrical performance that combines songs, spoken dialogue, acting and dance.
Mykola Vitaliyovych Lysenko (Мико́ла Віта́лійович Ли́сенко, &ndash) was a Ukrainian composer, pianist, conductor and ethnomusicologist.
Nabucco (short for Nabucodonosor ~, English Nebuchadnezzar) is an Italian-language opera in four acts composed in 1841 by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto by Temistocle Solera.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Natalka Poltavka (English: Natalka from Poltava) is an opera in three acts by the Ukrainian composer Mykola Lysenko, based on the play Natalka Poltavka by Ivan Kotlyarevsky, first performed in 1889.
Natasha, Pierre & The Great Comet of 1812 is a sung-through musical adaptation of a 70-page segment from Leo Tolstoy's War and Peace written by composer/lyricist Dave Malloy and directed by Rachel Chavkin.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
Neal Zaslaw (born June 28, 1939) is an American musicologist.
Dame Nellie Melba GBE (born Helen Porter Mitchell; 19 May 186123 February 1931) was an Australian operatic soprano.
Neoclassicism in music was a twentieth-century trend, particularly current in the interwar period, in which composers sought to return to aesthetic precepts associated with the broadly defined concept of "classicism", namely order, balance, clarity, economy, and emotional restraint.
Néstor Mesta Cháyres (aka Nestor Chaires, Ciudad Lerdo, February 26, 1908 - Mexico City, June 29, 1971) was an accaimed tenor in Mexico and a noted interpreter of Spanish songs and Mexican romantic music on the international concert stage.
The New York City Opera (NYCO) is an American opera company located in Manhattan in New York City.
Niccolò Jommelli (10 September 1714 – 25 August 1774) was a Neapolitan composer.
Nicola (Antonio) Porpora (or Niccolò Porpora) (17 August 16863 March 1768) was an Italian composer and teacher of singing of the Baroque era, whose most famous singing student was the castrato Farinelli.
Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov (a; Russia was using old style dates in the 19th century, and information sources used in the article sometimes report dates as old style rather than new style. Dates in the article are taken verbatim from the source and are in the same style as the source from which they come.) was a Russian composer, and a member of the group of composers known as The Five.
Nixon in China is an opera in three acts by John Adams, with a libretto by Alice Goodman.
Norma is a tragedia lirica or opera in two acts by Vincenzo Bellini with libretto by Felice Romani after Norma, ou L'infanticide (Norma, or The Infanticide) by Alexandre Soumet.
Northern Ballet, formerly Northern Ballet Theatre, is a dance company based in Leeds, West Yorkshire, England, with a strong repertoire in theatrical dance productions where the emphasis is on story telling as well as classical ballet.
A number opera is an opera consisting of individual pieces of music ('numbers') which can be easily extracted from the larger work.
Oedipus rex is an "Opera-oratorio after Sophocles" by Igor Stravinsky, scored for orchestra, speaker, soloists, and male chorus.
Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English military and political leader.
Olivier Eugène Prosper Charles Messiaen (December 10, 1908 – April 27, 1992) was a French composer, organist, and ornithologist, one of the major composers of the 20th century.
An online community, also called an internet community, is a virtual community whose members interact with each other primarily via the Internet.
Opéra comique (plural: opéras comiques) is a genre of French opera that contains spoken dialogue and arias.
Opéra-ballet (French; plural: opéras-ballets) is a genre of French Baroque lyric theatre that was most popular during the 18th century, combining elements of opera and ballet, "that grew out of the ballets à entrées of the early seventeenth century".
Opera buffa ("comic opera", plural: opere buffe) is a genre of opera.
Opera Carolina is a professional opera company in Charlotte, North Carolina.
An opera house is a theatre building used for opera performances that consists of a stage, an orchestra pit, audience seating, and backstage facilities for costumes and set building.
Opera North is an English opera company based in Leeds.
Opera seria (plural: opere serie; usually called dramma per musica or melodramma serio) is an Italian musical term which refers to the noble and "serious" style of Italian opera that predominated in Europe from the 1710s to about 1770.
Pittsburgh Festival Opera, previously Opera Theater of Pittsburgh, is a professional American opera company based in Pittsburgh's university and museum district.
Opera Theatre of Saint Louis (OTSL) is an American summer opera festival held in St. Louis, Missouri.
Operabase is an online database of opera performances, opera houses and companies, and performers themselves as well as their agents.
Operetta is a genre of light opera, light in terms both of music and subject matter.
An orchestra is a large instrumental ensemble typical of classical music, which mixes instruments from different families, including bowed string instruments such as violin, viola, cello and double bass, as well as brass, woodwinds, and percussion instruments, each grouped in sections.
An orchestra pit is the area in a theater (usually located in a lowered area in front of the stage) in which musicians perform.
Orchestration is the study or practice of writing music for an orchestra (or, more loosely, for any musical ensemble, such as a concert band) or of adapting music composed for another medium for an orchestra.
(French:; English: Orpheus and Eurydice) is an opera composed by Christoph Willibald Gluck, based on the myth of Orpheus and set to a libretto by Ranieri de' Calzabigi.
The art form known as opera originated in Italy in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, though it drew upon older traditions of medieval and Renaissance courtly entertainment.
Orphée aux enfers, whose title translates from the French as Orpheus in the Underworld, is an opéra bouffe (a form of operetta), or opéra féerie in its revised version.
Otello is an opera in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto by Arrigo Boito, based on Shakespeare's play Othello.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Overture (from French ouverture, "opening") in music is the term originally applied to the instrumental introduction to an opera.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Pagliacci (literal translation, Clowns)The title is sometimes incorrectly rendered in English with a definite article as I pagliacci.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
The Paris Opera (French) is the primary opera company of France.
Parsifal (WWV 111) is an opera in three acts by German composer Richard Wagner.
Partenope is an opera in three acts by Manuel de Zumaya.
Pasquale Amato (21 March 1878 – 12 August 1942) was an Italian operatic baritone.
Passion is a one-act musical, with music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim and a book by James Lapine.
The patter song is characterised by a moderately fast to very fast tempo with a rapid succession of rhythmic patterns in which each syllable of text corresponds to one note.
Paul Abraham Dukas (1 October 1865 – 17 May 1935) was a French composer, critic, scholar and teacher.
Paul Hindemith (16 November 1895 – 28 December 1963) was a prolific German composer, violist, violinist, teacher and conductor.
Pears' Cyclopaedia is a one-volume encyclopaedia published in the United Kingdom.
Pelléas et Mélisande (Pelléas and Mélisande) is an opera in five acts with music by Claude Debussy.
Performing arts are a form of art in which artists use their voices or bodies, often in relation to other objects, to convey artistic expression.
Petrushka (Pétrouchka; Петрушка) is a ballet burlesque in four scenes.
Philip Glass (born January 31, 1937) is an American composer.
Philippe Quinault (3 June 1635 – 26 November 1688), French dramatist and librettist, was born in Paris.
Pierre-Alexandre Monsigny (–) was a French composer and a member of the French Académie des Beaux-Arts (1813).
Pietro Antonio Stefano Mascagni (7 December 1863 – 2 August 1945) was an Italian composer most noted for his operas.
Pietro Antonio Domenico Trapassi, better known by his pseudonym of Pietro Metastasio (3 January 1698 – 12 April 1782), was an Italian poet and librettist, considered the most important writer of opera seria libretti.
A playwright or dramatist (rarely dramaturge) is a person who writes plays.
José Plácido Domingo Embil, (born 21 January 1941), known as Plácido Domingo, is a Spanish tenor, conductor and arts administrator.
Polish opera may be broadly understood to include operas staged in Poland and works written for foreign stages by Polish composers, as well as opera in the Polish language.
Porgy and Bess is an English-language opera by the American composer George Gershwin, with a libretto written by author DuBose Heyward and lyricist Ira Gershwin.
In opera or commedia dell'arte, a prima donna (plural: prime donne; Italian for "first lady") is the leading female singer in the company, the person to whom the prime roles would be given.
Prince Igor (Князь Игорь, Knyaz' Igor') is an opera in four acts with a prologue, written and composed by Alexander Borodin.
A proscenium (προσκήνιον) is the metaphorical vertical plane of space in a theatre, usually surrounded on the top and sides by a physical proscenium arch (whether or not truly "arched") and on the bottom by the stage floor itself, which serves as the frame into which the audience observes from a more or less unified angle the events taking place upon the stage during a theatrical performance.
Psyche is a semi-opera in five acts with music by Matthew Locke to a libretto by Thomas Shadwell with dances by Giovanni Battista Draghi.
Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction.
Punch and Judy is an opera with music by Harrison Birtwistle and a libretto by Stephen Pruslin, based on the puppet figures of the same names.
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Often "Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky" in English.
RAI – Radiotelevisione italiana S.p.A. (commercially styled Rai; known until 1954 as Radio Audizioni Italiane is the national public broadcasting company of Italy, owned by the Ministry of Economy and Finance. The RAI operates many DVB and Sat television channels and radio stations, broadcasting via digital terrestrial transmission (15 television and 7 radio channels nationwide) and from several satellite platforms. It is the biggest television broadcaster in Italy and competes with Mediaset, and other minor television and radio networks. The RAI has a relatively high television audience share of 33.8%. RAI broadcasts are also received in neighboring countries, including Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro, San Marino, Slovenia, Vatican City, Switzerland, and Tunisia, and elsewhere on cable and satellite. Sometimes Rai 1 was received even further in Europe via Sporadic E until the digital switch off in July 2012. Half of the RAI's revenues come from broadcast receiving licence fees, the rest from the sale of advertising time Retrieved on 2007-10-10 Italian Ministry of Communications, Retrieved on 2007-10-10. In 1950, the RAI became one of the 23 founding broadcasting organizations of the European Broadcasting Union.
Ralph Vaughan Williams (12 October 1872– 26 August 1958) was an English composer.
Recitative (also known by its Italian name "recitativo") is a style of delivery (much used in operas, oratorios, and cantatas) in which a singer is allowed to adopt the rhythms of ordinary speech.
Red Guards on Honghu Lake (Chinese: 洪湖赤卫队) is a Chinese modern opera in six acts.
Reinhard Keiser (9 January 167412 September 1739) was a popular German opera composer based in Hamburg.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Renard, Histoire burlesque chantée et jouée (The Fox: burlesque tale sung and played) is a one-act chamber opera-ballet by Igor Stravinsky, written in 1916.
Rent is a rock musical with music, lyrics, and book by Jonathan Larson, loosely based on Giacomo Puccini's opera La Bohème.
A repertory theatre (also called repertory, rep or stock) can be a Western theatre or opera production in which a resident company presents works from a specified repertoire, usually in alternation or rotation.
The Restoration of the English monarchy took place in the Stuart period.
Rhinegold Publishing is an independent publisher of music magazines, music yearbooks and education resources, founded in 1977.
Richard Georg Strauss (11 June 1864 – 8 September 1949) was a leading German composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras.
Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas (or, as some of his later works were later known, "music dramas").
Rigoletto is an opera in three acts by Giuseppe Verdi.
Rinaldo (HWV 7) is an opera by George Frideric Handel, composed in 1711, and was the first Italian language opera written specifically for the London stage.
Risë Stevens (June 11, 1913 – March 20, 2013) was an American operatic mezzo-soprano.
A ritornello (Italian; "little return") is a recurring passage in Baroque music for orchestra or chorus.
Robert Moran (born January 8, 1937) is an American composer of operas and ballets as well as numerous orchestral, vocal, chamber and dance works.
A rock musical is a musical theatre work with rock music.
Rodney Milnes Blumer OBE (26 July 1936 – 5 December 2015) was an English music critic, musicologist, writer, translator and broadcaster, with a particular interest in opera.
Romantic music is a period of Western classical music that began in the late 18th or early 19th century.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
Rosa Ponselle (January 22, 1897 – May 25, 1981), was an American operatic soprano with a large, opulent voice.
The Royal Opera House (ROH) is an opera house and major performing arts venue in Covent Garden, central London.
Ruggero (or Ruggiero) Leoncavallo (23 April 18579 August 1919) was an Italian opera composer and librettist.
Rusalka (Руса́лка) is an opera in four acts, six tableaux, by Alexander Dargomyzhsky, composed during 1848-1855.
Rusalka, Op. 114, is an opera ('lyric fairy tale') by Antonín Dvořák.
Ruslan and Lyudmila (translit is an opera in five acts (eight tableaux) composed by Mikhail Glinka between 1837 and 1842. The opera is based on the 1820 poem of the same name by Alexander Pushkin. The Russian libretto was written by Valerian Shirkov, Nestor Kukolnik and N. A. Markevich, among others. Pushkin's death in the famous duel prevented him from writing the libretto himself as planned. Today, the best-known music from the opera is its overture.
Russian opera (Russian: Ру́сская о́пера Rússkaya ópera) is the art of opera in Russia.
Sadko (Садко, the name of the main character) is an opera in seven scenes by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov.
Saint François d'Assise is an opera in three acts and eight scenes by French composer and librettist Olivier Messiaen, written from 1975 to 1983.
Salome, Op. 54, is an opera in one act by Richard Strauss to a German libretto by the composer, based on Hedwig Lachmann's German translation of the French play Salomé by Oscar Wilde.
The Salzburg Festival (Salzburger Festspiele) is a prominent festival of music and drama established in 1920.
Samson and Delilah (Samson et Dalila), Op.
San Francisco Opera (SFO) is an American opera company, based in San Francisco, California.
Giuseppe Saverio Raffaele Mercadante (baptised 17 September 179517 December 1870) was an Italian composer, particularly of operas.
Savonlinna Opera Festival (Savonlinnan oopperajuhlat) is held annually in the city of Savonlinna in Finland.
Savoy opera was a style of comic opera that developed in Victorian England in the late 19th century, with W. S. Gilbert and Arthur Sullivan as the original and most successful practitioners.
Seelewig or Das geistliche Waldgedicht oder Freudenspiel genant Seelewig (The Sacred Forest Poem or Play of Rejoicing called Seelewig) is an opera in a prologue, three acts and an epilogue by the German composer Sigmund Theophil Staden.
Semyon Stepanovych Gulak-Artemovsky (Семен Степанович Гулак-Артемовський, also referred to as Semyon Gulak Artemovsky) (–), was a Ukrainian opera composer, singer (baritone), actor, and dramatist who lived and worked in Imperial Russia.
The terms "semi-opera", "dramatic opera" and "English opera" were all applied to Restoration entertainments that combined spoken plays with masque-like episodes employing singing and dancing characters.
Senesino (Traditional Tuscan pronunciation) (Francesco Bernardi) (31 October 1686 – 27 November 1758) was a celebrated Italian contralto castrato, particularly remembered today for his long collaboration with the composer George Frideric Handel.
Sergei Pavlovich Diaghilev (sʲɪˈrɡʲej ˈpavɫovʲɪtɕ ˈdʲæɡʲɪlʲɪf; 19 August 1929), usually referred to outside Russia as Serge Diaghilev, was a Russian art critic, patron, ballet impresario and founder of the Ballets Russes, from which many famous dancers and choreographers would arise.
Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev (r; 27 April 1891 – 5 March 1953) was a Russian Soviet composer, pianist and conductor.
Sergei Vasilyevich Rachmaninoff (28 March 1943) was a Russian pianist, composer, and conductor of the late Romantic period, some of whose works are among the most popular in the Romantic repertoire.
In music, serialism is a method of composition using series of pitches, rhythms, dynamics, timbres or other musical elements.
Show Boat is a musical in two acts, with music by Jerome Kern and book and lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II, based on Edna Ferber's best-selling novel of the same name.
Sigmund Theophil Staden (6 November 1607 – 30 July 1655) was an important early German composer.
Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, rhythm, and a variety of vocal techniques.
A Singspiel (plural: Singspiele; literally "sing-play") is a form of German-language music drama, now regarded as a genre of opera.
Slavophilia was an intellectual movement originating from 19th century that wanted the Russian Empire to be developed upon values and institutions derived from its early history.
Sonata form (also sonata-allegro form or first movement form) is a musical structure consisting of three main sections: an exposition, a development, and a recapitulation.
A sopranist (also, sopranista or male soprano) is a male singer who is able to sing in the vocal tessitura of a soprano usually through the use of falsetto vocal production.
A soprano is a type of classical female singing voice and has the highest vocal range of all voice types.
A soubrette is a type of operatic soprano voice fach, often cast as a female stock character in opera and theatre.
Sound recording and reproduction is an electrical, mechanical, electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music, or sound effects.
A sound reinforcement system is the combination of microphones, signal processors, amplifiers, and loudspeakers in enclosures all controlled by a mixing console that makes live or pre-recorded sounds louder and may also distribute those sounds to a larger or more distant audience.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spinto (from Italian, "pushed") is a vocal term used to characterize a soprano or tenor voice of a weight between lyric and dramatic that is capable of handling large musical climaxes in opera at moderate intervals.
Sprechgesang ("spoken singing") and Sprechstimme ("spoken voice") are expressionist vocal techniques between singing and speaking.
Spring Awakening is a rock musical with music by Duncan Sheik and a book and lyrics by Steven Sater.
Stanisław Moniuszko (May 5, 1819, Ubiel, Minsk Governorate – June 4, 1872, Warsaw, Congress Poland) was a Polish composer, conductor and teacher.
Stanley John Sadie, CBE (30 October 1930 – 21 March 2005) was an influential and prolific British musicologist, music critic, and editor.
A string orchestra is an orchestra consisting solely of a string section made up of the bowed strings used in Western Classical music.
In music, a subject is the material, usually a recognizable melody, upon which part or all of a composition is based.
Surtitles, also known as supertitles, are translated or transcribed lyrics/dialogue projected above a stage or displayed on a screen, commonly used in opera or other musical performances.
Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street is a 1979 musical thriller with music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim and book by Hugh Wheeler.
Timothy Blanning is a Professor of history and politics at the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom.
Tannhäuser (full title Tannhäuser und der Sängerkrieg auf Wartburg, "Tannhäuser and the Minnesingers' Contest at Wartburg") is an 1845 opera in three acts, music and text by Richard Wagner, based on two German legends; Tannhäuser, the legendary medieval German Minnesänger and poet, and the tale of the Wartburg Song Contest.
Taras Bulba is an opera in four acts by the Ukrainian composer Mykola Lysenko.
The Teatro Colón (Spanish: Columbus Theatre) is the main opera house in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Tenor is a type of classical male singing voice, whose vocal range is normally the highest male voice type, which lies between the baritone and countertenor voice types.
In music, tessitura (pl. tessiture, "texture") is the most esthetically acceptable and comfortable vocal range for a given singer or, less frequently, musical instrument; the range in which a given type of voice presents its best-sounding (or characteristic) timbre.
The American is an online magazine published by the American Enterprise Institute (AEI), a conservative think tank in Washington, D.C. The magazine's primary focus is the intersection of economics and politics.
The Australian is a broadsheet newspaper published in Australia from Monday to Saturday each week since 14 July 1964.
The Barber of Seville, or The Useless Precaution (Il barbiere di Siviglia, ossia L'inutile precauzione) is an opera buffa in two acts by Gioachino Rossini with an Italian libretto by Cesare Sterbini.
The Bartered Bride (Prodaná nevěsta, The Sold Bride) is a comic opera in three acts by the Czech composer Bedřich Smetana, to a libretto by Karel Sabina.
The Beauty Stone is an opera, billed as a "romantic musical drama" in three acts, composed by Arthur Sullivan to a libretto by Arthur Wing Pinero and J. Comyns Carr.
The Beggar's Opera is a ballad opera in three acts written in 1728 by John Gay with music arranged by Johann Christoph Pepusch.
The Cruelty of the Spaniards in Peru was an innovative 1658 theatrical presentation, a hybrid entertainment or masque or "operatic show", written and produced by Sir William Davenant.
The Cunning Little Vixen (Příhody lišky Bystroušky; until the 1970s, generally referred to in English as Adventures of Vixen Sharp-Ears) is a Czech language opera by Leoš Janáček, composed 1921 to 1923.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Death of Klinghoffer (1991) is an American opera, with music by John Adams to an English-language libretto by Alice Goodman.
The Fairy-Queen (1692; Purcell catalogue number Z.629) is a masque or semi-opera by Henry Purcell; a "Restoration spectacular".
Sergei Prokofiev's opera, The Fiery Angel (Ognenny angel), Op.
The Flying Dutchman (German), WWV 63, is a German-language opera, with libretto and music by Richard Wagner.
The Gambler (Russian: Игрок — Igrok in transliteration) is an opera in four acts by Sergei Prokofiev to a Russian libretto by the composer, based on the story of the same name by Fyodor Dostoyevsky.
The Haunted Manor (Straszny dwór) is an opera in four acts composed by Polish composer Stanisław Moniuszko in 1861–1864.
The History of Sir Francis Drake was a hybrid theatrical entertainment, a masque or "operatic tableau" with an English libretto written by Sir William Davenant and music by Matthew Locke.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The Light in the Piazza is a musical with a book by Craig Lucas and music and lyrics by Adam Guettel.
The Love for Three Oranges, Op. 33, also known by its French language title (Любовь к трём апельсинам, Lyubov' k tryom apel'sinam), is a satirical opera by Sergei Prokofiev. Its French libretto was based on the Italian play L'amore delle tre melarance by Carlo Gozzi. The opera premiered at the Auditorium Theatre in Chicago, Illinois, on 30 December 1921.
The Magic Flute (German), K. 620, is an opera in two acts by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to a German libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder.
The Marriage of Figaro (Le nozze di Figaro), K. 492, is an opera buffa (comic opera) in four acts composed in 1786 by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, with an Italian libretto written by Lorenzo Da Ponte.
The Minotaur is an opera in two acts, with 13 scenes by English composer Harrison Birtwistle to a libretto by poet David Harsent, commissioned by the Royal Opera House in London.
The Miserly Knight, Op.
The Most Happy Fella is a 1956 musical with a book, music, and lyrics by Frank Loesser.
The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians.
The New Grove Dictionary of Opera is an encyclopedia of opera, considered to be one of the best general reference sources on the subject.
The Nightingale (Russian: Соловей - Solovyei; French: Le Rossignol) is a Russian conte lyrique in three acts by Igor Stravinsky.
The Nose, Op. 15, (translitThe title in Russian (Нос, Nos) is the reverse of the Russian word for "dream" (Son).), is Dmitri Shostakovich's first opera, a satirical work completed in 1928 based on Nikolai Gogol's story of the same name (1836).
The Phantom of the Opera is a musical with music by Andrew Lloyd Webber and lyrics by Charles Hart and Richard Stilgoe.
The Queen of Spades, Op.
The Rake's Progress is an English-language opera in three acts and an epilogue by Igor Stravinsky.
The Rite of Spring (Le Sacre du printemps; sacred spring) is a ballet and orchestral concert work by the Russian composer Igor Stravinsky.
The Royal Opera is a company based in central London, resident at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden.
The Siege of Rhodes is an opera written to a text by the impresario William Davenant.
The Snow Maiden (subtitle: A Spring Fairy Tale) (italic) is an opera in four acts with a prologue by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, composed during 1880–1881. The Russian libretto, by the composer, is based on the like-named play by Alexander Ostrovsky (which had premiered in 1873 with incidental music by Tchaikovsky). The first performance of Rimsky-Korsakov's opera took place at the Mariinsky Theatre, Saint Petersburg on 29 January 1882 (OS; 10 February NS) conducted by Eduard Nápravník. By 1898 it was revised in the edition known today. It remained the composer's own favorite work.
The Stone Guest (Каменный гость in Cyrillic, Kamennyj gost' in transliteration) is an opera in three acts by Alexander Dargomyzhsky from a libretto taken almost verbatim from Alexander Pushkin's play of the same name which had been written in blank verse and which forms part of his collection Little Tragedies.
The Tales of Hoffmann (French) is an by Jacques Offenbach.
The Three Tenors were a popular operatic singing group during the 1990s and early 2000s, consisting of Spaniards Plácido Domingo and José Carreras and the Italian Luciano Pavarotti.
The White-Haired Girl is a Chinese opera, ballet, (later adapted to Beijing Opera and a film) by Yan Jinxuan to a Chinese libretto by He Jingzhi and Ding Yi.
The Who's Tommy is a rock musical with music and lyrics by Pete Townshend and book by Townshend and Des McAnuff, based on The Who's 1969 rock opera Tommy.
The Yeomen of the Guard; or, The Merryman and His Maid, is a Savoy Opera, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert.
Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of fine art that uses live performers, typically actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place, often a stage.
The ancient Greek drama was a theatrical culture that flourished in ancient Greece from c. 700 BC.
Theatrical scenery is that which is used as a setting for a theatrical production.
Thomas Adès CBE (born 1 March 1971) is a British composer, pianist and conductor.
Thomas and Sally (also known as The Sailor's Return) is a dramatic pastoral opera in two acts by the composer Thomas Arne with an English libretto by Isaac Bickerstaff.
Thomas Augustine Arne (12 March 1710, London – 5 March 1778, London) was an English composer.
Thomas Shadwell (c. 1642 – 19 November 1692) was an English poet and playwright who was appointed poet laureate in 1689.
In music theory about musical form, through-composed music is relatively continuous, non-sectional, or non-repetitive music.
Tigran Tchoukhajian (Տիգրան Չուխաճեան, Dikran Çuhacıyan; 1837 – March 11, 1898) was an Ottoman Armenian composer, conductor, public activist and the founder of the first opera institution in the Ottoman Empire.
In music, timbre (also known as tone color or tone quality from psychoacoustics) is the perceived sound quality of a musical note, sound or tone.
Toccata (from Italian toccare, literally, "to touch") is a virtuoso piece of music typically for a keyboard or plucked string instrument featuring fast-moving, lightly fingered or otherwise virtuosic passages or sections, with or without imitative or fugal interludes, generally emphasizing the dexterity of the performer's fingers.
Tomás de Torrejón y Velasco Sánchez (23 December 1644 – 23 April 1728) was a Spanish composer, musician and organist based in Peru, associated with the American Baroque.
Tommaso Michele Francesco Saverio Traetta (30 March 1727 – 6 April 1779) was an Italian composer.
Tonality is the arrangement of pitches and/or chords of a musical work in a hierarchy of perceived relations, stabilities, attractions and directionality.
Tosca is an opera in three acts by Giacomo Puccini to an Italian libretto by Luigi Illica and Giuseppe Giacosa.
A tradition is a belief or behavior passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past.
Tragédie en musique (musical tragedy), also known as tragédie lyrique (lyric tragedy), is a genre of French opera introduced by Jean-Baptiste Lully and used by his followers until the second half of the eighteenth century.
Tragedy (from the τραγῳδία, tragōidia) is a form of drama based on human suffering that invokes an accompanying catharsis or pleasure in audiences.
Tristan (Latin & Brythonic: Drustanus; Trystan), also known as Tristram, is a Cornish knight of the Round Table and the hero of the Arthurian Tristan and Iseult story.
The Tristan chord is a chord made up of the notes F, B, D, and G. More generally, it can be any chord that consists of these same intervals: augmented fourth, augmented sixth, and augmented ninth above a bass note.
Tristan und Isolde (Tristan and Isolde, or Tristan and Isolda, or Tristran and Ysolt) is an opera, or music drama, in three acts by Richard Wagner to a German libretto by the composer, based largely on the 12th-century romance Tristan by Gottfried von Strassburg.
A trumpet is a brass instrument commonly used in classical and jazz ensembles.
Cephalus and Prokris (Цефал и Прокрис – Tsefal i Prokris), is an opera seria in three acts by the Italian composer Francesco Araja.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Twelve-tone technique—also known as dodecaphony, twelve-tone serialism, and (in British usage) twelve-note composition—is a method of musical composition devised by Austrian composer Arnold Schoenberg (1874–1951) and associated with the "Second Viennese School" composers, who were the primary users of the technique in the first decades of its existence.
Ubu Rex is an satirical opera by Krzysztof Penderecki, on a libretto in German by the composer and Jerzy Jarocki, based on Alfred Jarry's 1896 play Ubu Roi.
Uzeyir bey Abdul Huseyn oglu Hajibeyov (Üzeyir bəy Əbdülhüseyn oğlu Hacıbəyov, / عزیر حاجیبیوو; Узеир Абдул-Гусейн оглы Гаджибеков; September 18, 1885, Shusha (Aghjabadi village), Russian Empire – November 23, 1948, Baku, Azerbaijani SSR, Soviet Union) was a Soviet composer conductor, publicist, playwright, teacher, translator, and social figure of Azerbaijani origin.
Vasily Alexeyevich Pashkevich also Paskevich (Васи́лий Алексе́евич Пашке́вич or Паске́вич) (c. 1742 – March 20, 1797 in St. Petersburg) was a Russian composer, singer, violinist and teacher who lived during the time of Catherine the Great.
Venus and Adonis is an opera in three acts and a prologue by the English Baroque composer John Blow, composed in about 1683.
In opera, verismo ("realism", from vero, meaning "true") was a post-Romantic operatic tradition associated with Italian composers such as Pietro Mascagni, Ruggero Leoncavallo, Umberto Giordano, Francesco Cilea and Giacomo Puccini.
The Victoria and Albert Museum (often abbreviated as the V&A) in London is the world's largest museum of decorative arts and design, housing a permanent collection of over 2.3 million objects.
Victorian burlesque, sometimes known as travesty or extravaganza, is a genre of theatrical entertainment that was popular in Victorian England and in the New York theatre of the mid 19th century.
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Vincenzo Salvatore Carmelo Francesco Bellini (3 November 1801 – 23 September 1835) was an Italian opera composer,Lippmann and McGuire 1998, in Sadie, p. 389 who was known for his long-flowing melodic lines for which he was named "the Swan of Catania".
Vladimir Georgievich Fere (Владимир Георгиевич Фере; in Kamyshin – 2 September 1971 in Moscow) was a Russian composer.
Vladimir Aleksandrovich Vlasov (Владимир Александрович Власов; 25 December 1902 (OS)/7 January 1903 (NS) Moscow – 7 September 1986 Moscow) was a Russian composer and conductor.
Vocal range is the measure of the breadth of pitches that a human voice can phonate.
Vocal weight refers to the perceived "lightness" or "heaviness" of a singing voice.
A voice type classifies a singing voice by vocal range, vocal weight, tessitura, vocal timbre, vocal transition points (passaggia) like breaks and lifts, and vocal register.
Sir William Schwenck Gilbert (18 November 1836 – 29 May 1911) was an English dramatist, librettist, poet and illustrator best known for his collaboration with composer Arthur Sullivan, which produced fourteen comic operas.
The waltz is a ballroom and folk dance, normally in time, performed primarily in closed position.
War and Peace (Op. 91) (Война и мир, Voyna i mir) is an opera in two parts (an Epigraph and 13 scenes), sometimes arranged as five acts, by Sergei Prokofiev to a Russian libretto by the composer and Mira Mendelson, based on the novel War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy.
Welsh National Opera (WNO) (Opera Cenedlaethol Cymru) is an opera company based in Cardiff, Wales; it gave its first performances in 1946.
West Side Story is a musical with a book by Arthur Laurents, music by Leonard Bernstein and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim.
Willi Glasauer (born 9 December 1938 in Stříbro) is a German illustrator of books for children.
Sir William Davenant (baptised 3 March 1606 – 7 April 1668), also spelled D'Avenant, was an English poet and playwright.
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
Guillaume Tell (William Tell, Guglielmo Tell) is a French-language opera in four acts by Italian composer Gioachino Rossini to a libretto by Victor-Joseph Étienne de Jouy and L. F. Bis, based on Friedrich Schiller's play William Tell which drew on the William Tell legend.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the classical era.
Wozzeck is the first opera by the Austrian composer Alban Berg.
Wreckamovie was a collaborative film production platform to allow individuals to set up a film production and find a community to collaborate with, or find others' interesting film productions and become a collaborator in a worknet.
Yevstigney Ipat'yevich Fomin (Евстигне́й Ипа́тьевич Фоми́н) (born St Petersburg – died St. Petersburg c) was a Russian opera composer of the 18th century.
Yuliy Sergeievitch Meitus (b. in Elisavetgrad – 2 April 1997 in Kiev), was a distinguished Ukrainian composer, considered the founder of the Ukrainian Soviet opera.
Zacharia Petres dze Paliashvili (ზაქარია ფალიაშვილი, Zakaria Paliaşvili), also known as Zachary Petrovich Paliashvili (Захарий Петрович Палиашви́ли, Zacharij Petrovič Paliašvili; 1871–1933), was a Georgian composer.
Zaporozhets za Dunayem (Запорожець за Дунаєм, translated as A Zaporozhian (Cossack) Beyond the Danube, also referred to as Cossacks in Exile) is a Ukrainian comic opera with spoken dialogue in three acts with music and libretto by the composer Semen Hulak-Artemovsky (1813–1873). The orchestration has subsequently been rewritten by composers such as Reinhold Glière and Heorhiy Maiboroda. This is one of the best-known Ukrainian comic operas depicting national themes. It was premiered with a Russian libretto on, in St Petersburg (at the time the capital of the Russian Empire). However, it is now normally performed in a Ukrainian translation.
Zarzuela is a Spanish lyric-dramatic genre that alternates between spoken and sung scenes, the latter incorporating operatic and popular song, as well as dance.
Zheng Lücheng (Chinese 郑律成, Korean 정률성, Kwangju; 13 August 1918 – 7 December 1976) was a Korea-born Chinese composer.