345 relations: Abstraction (computer science), Alan Turing, ALGOL, American Airlines, AmigaOS, Android (operating system), Antivirus software, Apple II, Apple Inc., Application programming interface, ARM architecture, ARPANET, Assembly language, Atlas (computer), Atlas Supervisor, B (programming language), BareMetal, Batch processing, BCPL, BeOS, Berkeley Software Distribution, BOS/360, Burroughs Corporation, Burroughs large systems, Burroughs MCP, C (programming language), Call stack, Case sensitivity, CDC Kronos, CDC SCOPE, Central processing unit, Chrome OS, Chromium OS, Classic Mac OS, Classified information, Clothes line, Cloud computing, Command-line interface, Common Desktop Environment, Common Open Software Environment, Comparison of operating systems, Computer architecture, Computer file, Computer hardware, Computer keyboard, Computer monitor, Computer mouse, Computer multitasking, Computer network, Computer program, ..., Computing platform, Context switch, Control Data Corporation, Cooperative multitasking, CP-67, CP/M, Crash (computing), Credit card, Daemon (computing), DARPA, Data buffer, Data storage, Dave Cutler, Debian, DECnet, Device driver, Device file, Digital Equipment Corporation, Directory (computing), Directory structure, Disk image, Disk operating system, Distributed operating system, Domain Name System, DOS/360 and successors, ECos, Embedded operating system, Embedded system, Emulator, Enlightened Sound Daemon, Executive Systems Problem Oriented Language, Ext3, Federal government of the United States, File attribute, File locking, File system, File Transfer Protocol, Firewall (computing), Firmware, Free software, Free Software Foundation, FreeBSD, General Comprehensive Operating System, General Electric, General protection fault, Glossary of operating systems terms, GNOME, GNU Hurd, GNU Project, Google, Graphical user interface, Haiku (operating system), Hard disk drive, Hewlett-Packard, History of IBM mainframe operating systems, History of operating systems, Homebrew Computer Club, Honeywell, HP-UX, Hybrid kernel, Hypervisor, IA-32, IBM, IBM 704, IBM 709, IBM 7090, IBM 7090/94 IBSYS, IBM Airline Control Program, IBM AIX, IBM PC DOS, IBM Personal Computer, IBM System i, IBM System/360, IBM System/360 Model 67, IBM Systems Network Architecture, Infinite loop, Input device, Input/output, Institution of Engineering and Technology, Intel 80286, Intel 80386, Interrupt, Interruptible operating system, IOS, IP address, ISO 9660, Itanium, Java (software platform), John Wiley & Sons, KDE, KDE Plasma 5, Keith Bostic, Ken Thompson, Kernel (operating system), Library (computing), Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, Linker (computing), Linus Torvalds, Linux, Linux distribution, Linux kernel, Linux Mint, List of alternative shells for Windows, List of operating systems, List of pioneers in computer science, Live CD, Mac OS X 10.0, Mac OS X Lion, Mac OS X Server 1.0, Mach (kernel), Machine code, Macintosh, MacOS, MacOS Server, Mainframe computer, Manchester Mark 1, Mass storage, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Memory management, Memory protection, Memory segmentation, Message transfer agent, Michigan Terminal System, Microcomputer, Microcontroller, Microprocessor, Microsoft, Microsoft Windows, Minicomputer, MINIX, MiNT, Mobile device, Mobile operating system, Mobile phone, Modular programming, MontaVista, MorphOS, MOS Technology 6502, MS-DOS, Multi-user software, Multics, MUSIC/SP, NetBSD, Network File System, Network operating system, Network service, NeXT, NeXTSTEP, Non-volatile memory, NOS (software), NTFS, NTFS-3G, Object-oriented operating system, Open core, OpenBSD, OpenVMS, Operating environment, Operating system abstraction layer, Operating System Projects, ORVYL and WYLBUR, OS 2200, OS/2, OS/360 and successors, Output device, P-code machine, Page fault, Paging, Palm OS, Parallel computing, PDP-11, Per Brinch Hansen, Performance per watt, Personal computer, PikeOS, Plan 9 from Bell Labs, PLATO (computer system), Popek and Goldberg virtualization requirements, Porting, POSIX, Preemption (computing), Prentice Hall, Printer (computing), Programmable interrupt controller, Proprietary software, Protected mode, Protection ring, QNX, Qt (software), Random-access memory, ReactOS, Read-only memory, Real-time computing, Real-time operating system, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, ReiserFS, Remote procedure call, Resident monitor, Richard Stallman, RISC OS, RTLinux, Runtime library, Sabre (computer system), Samba (software), Sandbox (computer security), Scheduling (computing), Secure Shell, Segmentation fault, Server (computing), Server Message Block, SHARE Operating System, Shell (computing), Single address space operating system, Single-board computer, Singularity (operating system), Smartphone, Smartwatch, Software, Software architecture, Software development, Software maintenance, Software portability, Solaris (operating system), Sorting algorithm, SPARC, Spooling, Stack machine, Status message (instant messaging), Steve Jobs, Sun Microsystems, Supercomputer, Syllable Desktop, Symbian, System call, System Commander, System image, System software, Tablet computer, The Open Group, Tim Berners-Lee, Time-sharing, Timeline of operating systems, TOP500, TOPS-10, TOPS-20, Transaction Processing Facility, Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria, Trusted operating system, TSS (operating system), Ubuntu (operating system), Unikernel, Unisys, United States Department of Defense, UNIVAC 1100/2200 series, Universal Disk Format, Universal Turing machine, University of California, Berkeley, Unix, UNIX System V, Unix-like, Usage share of operating systems, User interface, User space, VAX, Video game console, Virtual file system, Virtual machine, Virtual memory, Virtualization, VxWorks, Web server, WIMP (computing), Windows 10, Windows 3.x, Windows 95, Windows 9x, Windows Embedded Compact, Windows ME, Windows NT, Windows NT 4.0, Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows shell, Windows Vista, Windows XP, Workstation, World Wide Web, X86, X86-64, XTS-400, Z/OS, Z/VM, 16-bit, 32-bit, 36-bit, 64-bit computing. 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In software engineering and computer science, abstraction is.
Alan Mathison Turing (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, and theoretical biologist.
ALGOL (short for "Algorithmic Language") is a family of imperative computer programming languages, originally developed in the mid-1950s, which greatly influenced many other languages and was the standard method for algorithm description used by the ACM in textbooks and academic sources for more than thirty years.
American Airlines, Inc. (AA) is a major United States airline headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas, within the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex.
AmigaOS is a family of proprietary native operating systems of the Amiga and AmigaOne personal computers.
Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google, based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software and designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets.
Antivirus software, or anti-virus software (abbreviated to AV software), also known as anti-malware, is a computer program used to prevent, detect, and remove malware.
The Apple II (stylized as Apple.
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.
In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building software.
ARM, previously Advanced RISC Machine, originally Acorn RISC Machine, is a family of reduced instruction set computing (RISC) architectures for computer processors, configured for various environments.
The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was an early packet switching network and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP.
An assembly (or assembler) language, often abbreviated asm, is a low-level programming language, in which there is a very strong (but often not one-to-one) correspondence between the assembly program statements and the architecture's machine code instructions.
The Atlas Computer was a joint development between the University of Manchester, Ferranti, and Plessey.
The Atlas Supervisor was the program which managed the allocation of processing resources of Manchester University's Atlas Computer so that the machine was able to act on many tasks and user programs concurrently.
B is a programming language developed at Bell Labs circa 1969.
BareMetal is an exokernel-based single address space operating system (OS) created by Return Infinity.
In computing, batch processing refers to a computer working through a queue or batch of separate jobs (programs) without manual intervention (non-interactive).
BCPL ("Basic Combined Programming Language"; or 'Before C Programming Language' (a common humorous backronym)) is a procedural, imperative, and structured computer programming language.
BeOS is an operating system for personal computers first developed by Be Inc. in 1991.
Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) was a Unix operating system derivative developed and distributed by the Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG) of the University of California, Berkeley, from 1977 to 1995.
BOS/360 (Basic Operating System/360) was an early IBM System/360 operating system.
The Burroughs Corporation was a major American manufacturer of business equipment.
In the 1970s, Burroughs Corporation was organized into three divisions with very different product line architectures for high-end, mid-range, and entry-level business computer systems.
The MCP (Master Control Program) is the proprietary operating system of the Burroughs small, medium and large systems, including the Unisys Clearpath/MCP systems.
C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
In computer science, a call stack is a stack data structure that stores information about the active subroutines of a computer program.
In computers, upper case and lower case text may be treated as distinct (case sensitivity) or equivalent (case insensitivity).
Kronos is an operating system with time-sharing capabilities, written by Control Data Corporation in the 1970s.
SCOPE, an acronym for Supervisory Control Of Program Execution, was the name used by the Control Data Corporation for a number of operating system projects in the 1960s.
A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.
Chrome OS is an operating system designed by Google that is based on the Linux kernel and uses the Google Chrome web browser as its principal user interface.
Chromium OS is an open-source operating system designed for running web applications and browsing the World Wide Web.
Classic Mac OS is a colloquial term used to describe a series of operating systems developed for the Macintosh family of personal computers by Apple Inc. from 1984 until 2001.
Classified information is material that a government body deems to be sensitive information that must be protected.
A clothes line or washing line is any type of rope, cord, or twine that has been stretched between two points (e.g. two sticks), outside or indoors, above the level of the ground.
Cloud computing is an information technology (IT) paradigm that enables ubiquitous access to shared pools of configurable system resources and higher-level services that can be rapidly provisioned with minimal management effort, often over the Internet.
A command-line interface or command language interpreter (CLI), also known as command-line user interface, console user interface and character user interface (CUI), is a means of interacting with a computer program where the user (or client) issues commands to the program in the form of successive lines of text (command lines).
The Common Desktop Environment (CDE) is a desktop environment for Unix and OpenVMS, based on the Motif widget toolkit.
The Common Open Software Environment or COSE was an initiative formed in March 1993 by the major Unix vendors of the time to create open, unified operating system (OS) standards.
These tables provide a comparison of operating systems, of computer devices, as listing general and technical information for a number of widely used and currently available PC or handheld (including smartphone and tablet computer) operating systems.
In computer engineering, computer architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer systems.
A computer file is a computer resource for recording data discretely in a computer storage device.
Computer hardware includes the physical parts or components of a computer, such as the central processing unit, monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphic card, sound card and motherboard.
In computing, a computer keyboard is a typewriter-style device which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches.
A computer monitor is an output device which displays information in pictorial form.
A computer mouse is a hand-held pointing device that detects two-dimensional motion relative to a surface.
In computing, multitasking is the concurrent execution of multiple tasks (also known as processes) over a certain period of time.
A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.
A computer program is a collection of instructions for performing a specific task that is designed to solve a specific class of problems.
A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed.
In computing, a context switch is the process of storing the state of a process or of a thread, so that it can be restored and execution resumed from the same point later.
Control Data Corporation (CDC) was a mainframe and supercomputer firm.
Cooperative multitasking, also known as non-preemptive multitasking, is a style of computer multitasking in which the operating system never initiates a context switch from a running process to another process.
CP-67 was the control program portion of CP/CMS, a virtual machine operating system developed for the IBM System/360-67 by IBM's Cambridge Scientific Center.
CP/M, originally standing for Control Program/Monitor and later Control Program for Microcomputers, is a mass-market operating system created for Intel 8080/85-based microcomputers by Gary Kildall of Digital Research, Inc.
In computing, a crash (or system crash) occurs when a computer program, such as a software application or an operating system, stops functioning properly and exits.
A credit card is a payment card issued to users (cardholders) to enable the cardholder to pay a merchant for goods and services based on the cardholder's promise to the card issuer to pay them for the amounts so paid plus the other agreed charges.
In multitasking computer operating systems, a daemon is a computer program that runs as a background process, rather than being under the direct control of an interactive user.
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military.
In computer science, a data buffer (or just buffer) is a region of a physical memory storage used to temporarily store data while it is being moved from one place to another.
Data storage is the recording (storing) of information (data) in a storage medium.
David Neil "Dave" Cutler Sr. (born March 13, 1942) is an American software engineer, a designer, and a developer of several operating systems in the computer industry.
Debian is a Unix-like computer operating system that is composed entirely of free software, and packaged by a group of individuals participating in the Debian Project.
DECnet is a suite of network protocols created by Digital Equipment Corporation.
In computing, a device driver is a computer program that operates or controls a particular type of device that is attached to a computer.
In Unix-like operating systems, a device file or special file is an interface to a device driver that appears in a file system as if it were an ordinary file.
Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s.
In computing, a directory is a file system cataloging structure which contains references to other computer files, and possibly other directories.
In computing, a directory structure is the way an operating system's file system and its files are displayed to the user.
A disk image, in computing, is a computer file containing the contents and structure of a disk volume or of an entire data storage device, such as a hard disk drive, tape drive, floppy disk, optical disc or USB flash drive.
A disk operating system (abbreviated DOS) is a computer operating system that can use a disk storage device, such as a floppy disk, hard disk drive, or optical disc.
A distributed operating system is a software over a collection of independent, networked, communicating, and physically separate computational nodes.
The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical decentralized naming system for computers, services, or other resources connected to the Internet or a private network.
Disk Operating System/360, also DOS/360, or simply DOS, is a discontinued operating system for IBM mainframes.
The Embedded Configurable Operating System (eCos) is a free and open source real-time operating system intended for embedded systems and applications which need only one process with multiple threads.
An embedded operating system is an operating system for embedded computer systems.
An embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.
In computing, an emulator is hardware or software that enables one computer system (called the host) to behave like another computer system (called the guest).
In computing, the Enlightened Sound Daemon (ESD or EsounD) was the sound server for Enlightenment and GNOME.
ESPOL (short for Executive Systems Problem Oriented Language) was a superset of ALGOL 60 that provided capabilities of what would later be known as Mohols, machine oriented high order languages, such as interrupting a processor on a multiprocessor system (the Burroughs large systems were multiprocessor processor systems).
ext3, or third extended filesystem, is a journaled file system that is commonly used by the Linux kernel.
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
File attributes are metadata associated with computer files that define file system behavior.
File locking is a mechanism that restricts access to a computer file by allowing only one user or process to access it in a specific time.
In computing, a file system or filesystem controls how data is stored and retrieved.
The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used for the transfer of computer files between a client and server on a computer network.
In computing, a firewall is a network security system that monitors and controls incoming and outgoing network traffic based on predetermined security rules.
In electronic systems and computing, firmware is a specific class of computer software that provides the low-level control for the device's specific hardware.
Free software or libre software is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any adapted versions.
The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization founded by Richard Stallman on 4 October 1985 to support the free software movement, which promotes the universal freedom to study, distribute, create, and modify computer software, with the organization's preference for software being distributed under copyleft ("share alike") terms, such as with its own GNU General Public License.
FreeBSD is a free and open-source Unix-like operating system descended from Research Unix via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD).
General Comprehensive Operating System (GCOS,; originally GECOS, General Electric Comprehensive Operating Supervisor) is a family of operating systems oriented toward mainframe computers.
General Electric Company (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts.
A general protection fault (GPF) in the x86 instruction set architectures (ISAs) is a fault (a type of interrupt) initiated by ISA-defined protection mechanisms in response to an access violation caused by some running code, either in the kernel or a user program.
This page is a glossary of Operating systems terminology.
GNOME is a desktop environment composed of free and open-source software that runs on Linux and most BSD derivatives.
GNU Hurd is the multiserver microkernel written as part of GNU.
The GNU Project is a free-software, mass-collaboration project, first announced on September 27, 1983 by Richard Stallman at MIT.
Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.
The graphical user interface (GUI), is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.
Haiku is a free and open-source operating system compatible with the now discontinued BeOS.
A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive or fixed disk is an electromechanical data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material.
The Hewlett-Packard Company (commonly referred to as HP) or shortened to Hewlett-Packard was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California.
The history of operating systems running on IBM mainframes is a notable chapter of history of mainframe operating systems, because of IBM's long-standing position as the world's largest hardware supplier of mainframe computers.
Computer operating systems (OSes) provide a set of functions needed and used by most application programs on a computer, and the links needed to control and synchronize computer hardware.
The Homebrew Computer Club was an early computer hobbyist group in Silicon Valley which met from March 5, 1975 to December 1986, and was depicted in the films Pirates of Silicon Valley (1999) and Jobs (2013), as well as the PBS documentary series, Triumph of the Nerds (1996).
Honeywell International Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate company that produces a variety of commercial and consumer products, engineering services and aerospace systems for a wide variety of customers, from private consumers to major corporations and governments.
HP-UX (from "Hewlett Packard Unix") is Hewlett Packard Enterprise's proprietary implementation of the Unix operating system, based on UNIX System V (initially System III) and first released in 1984.
A hybrid kernel is an operating system kernel architecture that attempts to combine aspects and benefits of microkernel and monolithic kernel architectures used in computer operating systems.
A hypervisor or virtual machine monitor (VMM) is computer software, firmware or hardware that creates and runs virtual machines.
IA-32 (short for "Intel Architecture, 32-bit", sometimes also called i386) is the 32-bit version of the x86 instruction set architecture, first implemented in the Intel 80386 microprocessors in 1985.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
The IBM 704, introduced by IBM in 1954, is the first mass-produced computer with floating-point arithmetic hardware.
The IBM 709 was a computer system, initially announced by IBM in January 1957 and first installed during August 1958.
The IBM 7090 is a second-generation transistorized version of the earlier IBM 709 vacuum tube mainframe computers that was designed for "large-scale scientific and technological applications".
IBSYS is the discontinued tape-based operating system that IBM supplied with its IBM 7090 and IBM 7094 computers.
IBM Airline Control Program, or ACP, is a discontinued operating system developed by IBM beginning about 1965.
AIX (Advanced Interactive eXecutive, pronounced) is a series of proprietary Unix operating systems developed and sold by IBM for several of its computer platforms.
IBM PC DOS (an acronym for IBM personal computer disk operating system) is a discontinued operating system for the IBM Personal Computer, manufactured and sold by IBM from the early 1980s into the 2000s.
The IBM Personal Computer, commonly known as the IBM PC, is the original version and progenitor of the IBM PC compatible hardware platform.
The IBM System i is IBM's previous generation of midrange computer systems for IBM i users, and was subsequently replaced by the IBM Power Systems in April 2008.
The IBM System/360 (S/360) is a family of mainframe computer systems that was announced by IBM on April 7, 1964, and delivered between 1965 and 1978.
The IBM System/360 Model 67 (S/360-67) was an important IBM mainframe model in the late 1960s.
Systems Network Architecture (SNA) is IBM's proprietary networking architecture, created in 1974.
An infinite loop (or endless loop) is a sequence of instructions in a computer program which loops endlessly, either due to the loop having no terminating condition, having one that can never be met, or one that causes the loop to start over.
In computing, an input device is a piece of computer hardware equipment used to provide data and control signals to an information processing system such as a computer or information appliance.
In computing, input/output or I/O (or, informally, io or IO) is the communication between an information processing system, such as a computer, and the outside world, possibly a human or another information processing system.
The Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) is a multidisciplinary professional engineering institution.
The Intel 80286 (also marketed as the iAPX 286 and often called Intel 286) is a 16-bit microprocessor that was introduced on 1 February 1982.
The Intel 80386, also known as i386 or just 386, is a 32-bit microprocessor introduced in 1985.
In system programming, an interrupt is a signal to the processor emitted by hardware or software indicating an event that needs immediate attention.
An interruptible operating system is an operating system with ability to handle multiple interrupts concurrently, or in other words, which allow interrupts to be interrupted.
iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. exclusively for its hardware.
An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication.
ISO 9660 is a file system for optical disc media.
Itanium is a family of 64-bit Intel microprocessors that implement the Intel Itanium architecture (formerly called IA-64).
Java is a set of computer software and specifications developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems, which was later acquired by the Oracle Corporation, that provides a system for developing application software and deploying it in a cross-platform computing environment.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
KDE is an international free software community that develops Free and Open Source based software.
KDE Plasma 5 is the fifth and current generation of the desktop environment created by KDE primarily for Linux systems.
Keith Bostic is an American Software Engineer and one of the key people in the history of Berkeley Software Distribution UNIX and Open Source software.
Kenneth Lane "Ken" Thompson (born February 4, 1943), commonly referred to as ken in hacker circles, is an American pioneer of computer science.
The kernel is a computer program that is the core of a computer's operating system, with complete control over everything in the system.
In computer science, a library is a collection of non-volatile resources used by computer programs, often for software development.
The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is an open, vendor-neutral, industry standard application protocol for accessing and maintaining distributed directory information services over an Internet Protocol (IP) network.
In computing, a linker or link editor is a computer utility program that takes one or more object files generated by a compiler and combines them into a single executable file, library file, or another 'object' file.
Linus Benedict Torvalds (born December 28, 1969) is a Finnish-American software engineer who is the creator, and historically, the principal developer of the Linux kernel, which became the kernel for operating systems such as the Linux operating systems, Android, and Chrome OS.
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.
A Linux distribution (often abbreviated as distro) is an operating system made from a software collection, which is based upon the Linux kernel and, often, a package management system.
The Linux kernel is an open-source monolithic Unix-like computer operating system kernel.
Linux Mint is a community-driven Linux distribution based on Debian and Ubuntu that strives to be a "modern, elegant and comfortable operating system which is both powerful and easy to use." Linux Mint provides full out-of-the-box multimedia support by including some proprietary software and comes bundled with a variety of free and open-source applications.
This is a list of software that provides an alternative graphical user interface for Microsoft Windows operating systems.
This is a list of operating systems.
This article presents a list of individuals who made transformative breakthroughs in the creation, development and imagining of what computers and electronics could do.
A live CD (also live DVD, live disc, or live operating system) is a complete bootable computer installation including operating system which runs directly from a CD-ROM or similar storage device into a computer's memory, rather than loading from a hard disk drive.
Mac OS X version 10.0 (code named Cheetah) is the first major release of Mac OS X (later named OS X and then macOS), Apple’s desktop and server operating system.
Mac OS X Lion (version 10.7) is the eighth major release of Mac OS X (now named macOS), Apple's desktop and server operating system for Macintosh computers.
Mac OS X Server 1.0, released on March 16, 1999, is the first operating system released into the retail market by Apple Computer based on NeXT technology.
Mach is a kernel developed at Carnegie Mellon University to support operating system research, primarily distributed and parallel computing.
Machine code is a computer program written in machine language instructions that can be executed directly by a computer's central processing unit (CPU).
The Macintosh (pronounced as; branded as Mac since 1998) is a family of personal computers designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984.
macOS (previously and later) is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.
macOS Server, formerly Mac OS X Server and OS X Server, is a separately sold operating system add-on which provides additional server programs along with management and administration tools for macOS.
Mainframe computers (colloquially referred to as "big iron") are computers used primarily by large organizations for critical applications; bulk data processing, such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning; and transaction processing.
The Manchester Mark 1 was one of the earliest stored-program computers, developed at the Victoria University of Manchester from the Manchester Baby (operational in June 1948).
In computing, mass storage refers to the storage of large amounts of data in a persisting and machine-readable fashion.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
Memory management is a form of resource management applied to computer memory.
Memory protection is a way to control memory access rights on a computer, and is a part of most modern instruction set architectures and operating systems.
Memory segmentation is the division of a computer's primary memory into segments or sections.
Within Internet message handling services (MHS), a message transfer agent or mail transfer agent (MTA) or mail relay is software that transfers electronic mail messages from one computer to another using a client–server application architecture.
The Michigan Terminal System (MTS) is one of the first time-sharing computer operating systems.
A microcomputer is a small, relatively inexpensive computer with a microprocessor as its central processing unit (CPU).
A microcontroller (MCU for microcontroller unit, or UC for μ-controller) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit.
A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
A minicomputer, or colloquially mini, is a class of smaller computers that was developed in the mid-1960s and sold for much less than mainframe and mid-size computers from IBM and its direct competitors.
MINIX (from "mini-Unix") is a POSIX-compliant (since version 2.0), Unix-like operating system based on a microkernel architecture.
MiNT is Now TOS (MiNT) is a free software alternative operating system kernel for the Atari ST system and its successors.
A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computing device small enough to hold and operate in the hand.
A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.
Modular programming is a software design technique that emphasizes separating the functionality of a programme into independent, interchangeable modules, such that each contains everything necessary to execute only one aspect of the desired functionality.
MontaVista Software is a company that develops embedded Linux system software, development tools, and related software.
MorphOS is an AmigaOS-like computer operating system.
The MOS Technology 6502 (typically "sixty-five-oh-two" or "six-five-oh-two") William Mensch and the moderator both pronounce the 6502 microprocessor as "sixty-five-oh-two".
MS-DOS (acronym for Microsoft Disk Operating System) is an operating system for x86-based personal computers mostly developed by Microsoft.
Multi-user software is software that allows access by multiple users of a computer.
Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) is an influential early time-sharing operating system, based around the concept of a single-level memory.
MUSIC/SP (Multi-User System for Interactive Computing/System Product; originally "McGill University System for Interactive Computing") was developed at McGill University in the 1970s from an early IBM time-sharing system called RAX (Remote Access Computing System).
NetBSD is a free and open source Unix-like operating system that descends from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Research Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley.
Network File System (NFS) is a distributed file system protocol originally developed by Sun Microsystems in 1984, allowing a user on a client computer to access files over a computer network much like local storage is accessed.
The term network operating system is used to refer to two rather different concepts.
In computer networking, a network service is an application running at the network application layer and above, that provides data storage, manipulation, presentation, communication or other capability which is often implemented using a client-server or peer-to-peer architecture based on application layer network protocols.
NeXT (later NeXT Computer and NeXT Software) was an American computer and software company founded in 1985 by Apple Computer co-founder Steve Jobs.
NeXTSTEP is a discontinued object-oriented, multitasking operating system based on UNIX.
Non-volatile memory (NVM) or non-volatile storage is a type of computer memory that can retrieve stored information even after having been power cycled.
NOS (Network Operating System) is a discontinued operating system with time-sharing capabilities, written by Control Data Corporation in the 1970s.
NTFS (New Technology File System) is a proprietary file system developed by Microsoft.
NTFS-3G is an open source cross-platform implementation of the Microsoft Windows NTFS file system with read-write support.
An object-oriented operating system is an operating system that uses object-oriented design principles.
Open core is a business model for the monetization of commercially produced open-source software.
OpenBSD is a free and open-source Unix-like computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Research Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley.
OpenVMS is a closed-source, proprietary computer operating system for use in general-purpose computing.
In computer software, an operating environment or integrated applications environment is the environment in which users run application software.
An operating system abstraction layer (OSAL) provides an application programming interface (API) to an abstract operating system making it easier and quicker to develop code for multiple software or hardware platforms.
OSP, an Environment for Operating System Projects, is a teaching operating system designed to provide an environment for an introductory course in operating systems.
ORVYL and WYLBUR are the names associated with the Stanford Timesharing System.
OS 2200 is the operating system for the Unisys ClearPath Dorado family of mainframe systems.
OS/2 is a series of computer operating systems, initially created by Microsoft and IBM under the leadership of IBM software designer Ed Iacobucci.
OS/360, officially known as IBM System/360 Operating System, is a discontinued batch processing operating system developed by IBM for their then-new System/360 mainframe computer, announced in 1964; it was heavily influenced by the earlier IBSYS/IBJOB and Input/Output Control System (IOCS) packages.
In computing, an output device is a piece of computer hardware equipment that uses received data and commands from an information processing system (such as a computer or information appliance) in order to perform a task.
In computer programming, a p-code machine, or portable code machine is a virtual machine designed to execute p-code (the assembly language of a hypothetical CPU).
A page fault (sometimes called #PF, PF or hard fault) is a type of exception raised by computer hardware when a running program accesses a memory page that is not currently mapped by the memory management unit (MMU) into the virtual address space of a process.
In computer operating systems, paging is a memory management scheme by which a computer stores and retrieves data from secondary storage for use in main memory.
Palm OS (also known as Garnet OS) is a discontinued mobile operating system initially developed by Palm, Inc., for personal digital assistants (PDAs) in 1996.
Parallel computing is a type of computation in which many calculations or the execution of processes are carried out concurrently.
The PDP-11 is a series of 16-bit minicomputers sold by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from 1970 into the 1990s, one of a succession of products in the PDP series.
Per Brinch Hansen (November 13, 1938 – July 31, 2007) was a Danish-American computer scientist known for his work in operating systems, concurrent programming and parallel and distributed computing.
In computing, performance per watt is a measure of the energy efficiency of a particular computer architecture or computer hardware.
A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.
PikeOS is a commercial, hard real-time operating system (RTOS) that offers a separation kernel based hypervisor with multiple partition types for many other operating systems (called GuestOS) and applications.
Plan 9 from Bell Labs is a distributed operating system, originating in the Computing Sciences Research Center (CSRC) at Bell Labs in the mid-1980s, and building on UNIX concepts first developed there in the late 1960s; until the Labs' final release at the start of 2015.
PLATO (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operations) was the first generalized computer-assisted instruction system.
The Popek and Goldberg virtualization requirements are a set of conditions sufficient for a computer architecture to support system virtualization efficiently.
In software engineering, porting is the process of adapting software for the purpose of achieving some form of execution in a computing environment that is different from the one that a given program (meant for such execution) was originally designed for (e.g. different CPU, operating system, or third party library).
The Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX) is a family of standards specified by the IEEE Computer Society for maintaining compatibility between operating systems.
In computing, preemption is the act of temporarily interrupting a task being carried out by a computer system, without requiring its cooperation, and with the intention of resuming the task at a later time.
Prentice Hall is a major educational publisher owned by Pearson plc.
In computing, a printer is a peripheral device which makes a persistent human-readable representation of graphics or text on paper.
In computing, a programmable interrupt controller (PIC) is a device that is used to combine several sources of interrupt onto one or more CPU lines, while allowing priority levels to be assigned to its interrupt outputs.
Proprietary software is non-free computer software for which the software's publisher or another person retains intellectual property rights—usually copyright of the source code, but sometimes patent rights.
In computing, protected mode, also called protected virtual address mode, is an operational mode of x86-compatible central processing units (CPUs).
In computer science, hierarchical protection domains, often called protection rings, are mechanisms to protect data and functionality from faults (by improving fault tolerance) and malicious behaviour (by providing computer security).
QNX is a commercial Unix-like real-time operating system, aimed primarily at the embedded systems market.
Qt ("cute") is a cross-platform application framework and widget toolkit for creating classic and embedded graphical user interfaces, and applications that run on various software and hardware platforms with little or no change in the underlying codebase, while still being a native application with native capabilities and speed.
Random-access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage that stores data and machine code currently being used.
ReactOS is a free and open-source operating system for x86/x64 personal computers intended to be binary-compatible with computer programs and device drivers made for Windows Server 2003.
Read-only memory (ROM) is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices.
In computer science, real-time computing (RTC), or reactive computing describes hardware and software systems subject to a "real-time constraint", for example from event to system response.
A real-time operating system (RTOS) is an operating system (OS) intended to serve real-time applications that process data as it comes in, typically without buffer delays.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) is a Linux distribution developed by Red Hat and targeted toward the commercial market.
ReiserFS is a general-purpose, journaled computer file system formerly designed and implemented by a team at Namesys led by Hans Reiser.
In distributed computing, a remote procedure call (RPC) is when a computer program causes a procedure (subroutine) to execute in a different address space (commonly on another computer on a shared network), which is coded as if it were a normal (local) procedure call, without the programmer explicitly coding the details for the remote interaction.
In computing, a resident monitor is a type of system software program that was used in many early computers from the 1950s to 1970s.
Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16, 1953), often known by his initials, rms—is an American free software movement activist and programmer.
RISC OS is a computer operating system originally designed by Acorn Computers Ltd in Cambridge, England.
RTLinux is a hard realtime RTOS microkernel that runs the entire Linux operating system as a fully preemptive process.
In computer programming, a runtime library (RTL) is a set of low-level routines used by a compiler to invoke some of the behaviors of a runtime environment, by inserting calls to the runtime library into compiled executable binary.
Sabre Global Distribution System, owned by Sabre Holdings, is used by travel agents around the world with more than 400 airlines, 220,000 hotels, 42 car rental brands, 38 rail providers and 17 cruise lines.
Samba is a free software re-implementation of the SMB/CIFS networking protocol, and was originally developed by Andrew Tridgell.
In computer security, a sandbox is a security mechanism for separating running programs, usually in an effort to mitigate system failures or software vulnerabilities from spreading.
In computing, scheduling is the method by which work specified by some means is assigned to resources that complete the work.
Secure Shell (SSH) is a cryptographic network protocol for operating network services securely over an unsecured network.
In computing, a segmentation fault (often shortened to segfault) or access violation is a fault, or failure condition, raised by hardware with memory protection, notifying an operating system (OS) the software has attempted to access a restricted area of memory (a memory access violation).
In computing, a server is a computer program or a device that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients".
In computer networking, Server Message Block (SMB), one version of which was also known as Common Internet File System (CIFS), operates as an application-layer network protocol mainly used for providing shared access to files, printers, and serial ports and miscellaneous communications between nodes on a network.
The SHARE Operating System (SOS) was created in 1959 as an improvement on the General Motors GM-NAA I/O operating system, the first operating system, by the SHARE user group.
In computing, a shell is a user interface for access to an operating system's services.
In computer science, a single address space operating system (or SASOS) is an operating system that provides only one globally shared virtual address space for all processes.
A single-board computer (SBC) is a complete computer built on a single circuit board, with microprocessor(s), memory, input/output (I/O) and other features required of a functional computer.
Singularity is an experimental operating system (OS) which was built by Microsoft Research between 2003 and 2010.
A smartphone is a handheld personal computer with a mobile operating system and an integrated mobile broadband cellular network connection for voice, SMS, and Internet data communication; most, if not all, smartphones also support Wi-Fi.
A smartwatch is a touchscreen wearable computer in the form of a wristwatch.
Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.
Software architecture refers to the high level structures of a software system, the discipline of creating such structures, and the documentation of these structures.
Software development is the process of conceiving, specifying, designing, programming, documenting, testing, and bug fixing involved in creating and maintaining applications, frameworks, or other software components.
Software maintenance in software engineering is the modification of a software product after delivery to correct faults, to improve performance or other attributes.
Portability in high-level computer programming is the usability of the same software in different environments.
Solaris is a Unix operating system originally developed by Sun Microsystems.
In computer science, a sorting algorithm is an algorithm that puts elements of a list in a certain order.
SPARC, for Scalable Processor Architecture, is a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) originally developed by Sun Microsystems.
In computing, spooling is a specialized form of multi-programming for the purpose of copying data between different devices.
In computer science, computer engineering and programming language implementations, a stack machine is a type of computer.
A status message is a function of some instant messaging applications whereby a user may post a message that appears automatically to other users if they attempt to make contact.
Steven Paul Jobs (February 24, 1955 – October 5, 2011) was an American entrepreneur and business magnate.
Sun Microsystems, Inc. was an American company that sold computers, computer components, software, and information technology services and created the Java programming language, the Solaris operating system, ZFS, the Network File System (NFS), and SPARC.
A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer.
Syllable Desktop is a free and open source operating system for Pentium and compatible processors.
Symbian is a discontinued mobile operating system (OS) and computing platform designed for smartphones.
In computing, a system call is the programmatic way in which a computer program requests a service from the kernel of the operating system it is executed on.
System Commander (SC for short) was a boot manager/loader software application developed by.
In computing, a system image is a serialized copy of the entire state of a computer system stored in some non-volatile form such as a file.
System software is computer software designed to provide a platform to other software.
A tablet computer, commonly shortened to tablet, is a portable personal computer, typically with a mobile operating system and LCD touchscreen display processing circuitry, and a rechargeable battery in a single thin, flat package.
The Open Group is an industry consortium that seeks to "enable the achievement of business objectives" by developing "open, vendor-neutral technology standards and certifications".
Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee (born 8 June 1955), also known as TimBL, is an English engineer and computer scientist, best known as the inventor of the World Wide Web.
In computing, time-sharing is the sharing of a computing resource among many users by means of multiprogramming and multi-tasking at the same time.
This article presents a timeline of events in the history of computer operating systems from 1951 to the current day.
The TOP500 project ranks and details the 500 most powerful non-distributed computer systems in the world.
The TOPS-10 System (Timesharing / Total Operating System-10) was a computer operating system from Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) for the PDP-10 (or DECsystem-10) mainframe computer launched in 1967.
The TOPS-20 operating system by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) was a proprietary OS used on some of DEC's 36-bit mainframe computers.
Transaction Processing Facility (TPF) is an IBM real-time operating system for mainframe computers descended from the IBM System/360 family, including zSeries and System z9.
Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (TCSEC) is a United States Government Department of Defense (DoD) standard that sets basic requirements for assessing the effectiveness of computer security controls built into a computer system.
Trusted Operating System (TOS) generally refers to an operating system that provides sufficient support for multilevel security and evidence of correctness to meet a particular set of government requirements.
The IBM Time Sharing System TSS/360 is a discontinued early time-sharing operating system designed exclusively for a special model of the System/360 line of mainframes, the Model 67.
Ubuntu (stylized as ubuntu) is a free and open source operating system and Linux distribution based on Debian.
A unikernel is a specialised, single address space machine image constructed by using library operating systems.
The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.
The UNIVAC 1100/2200 series is a series of compatible 36-bit computer systems, beginning with the UNIVAC 1107 in 1962, initially made by Sperry Rand.
Universal Disk Format (UDF) is a profile of the specification known as ISO/IEC 13346 and ECMA-167 and is an open vendor-neutral file system for computer data storage for a broad range of media.
In computer science, a universal Turing machine (UTM) is a Turing machine that can simulate an arbitrary Turing machine on arbitrary input.
The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.
Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.
UNIX System V (pronounced: "System Five") is one of the first commercial versions of the Unix operating system.
A Unix-like (sometimes referred to as UN*X or *nix) operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification.
The usage share of operating systems is an estimate of the percentage of computing devices that run each operating system at any particular time.
The user interface (UI), in the industrial design field of human–computer interaction, is the space where interactions between humans and machines occur.
A modern computer operating system usually segregates virtual memory into kernel space and user space.
VAX is a discontinued instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in the mid-1970s.
A video game console is an electronic, digital or computer device that outputs a video signal or visual image to display a video game that one or more people can play.
A Virtual File System (VFS) or virtual filesystem switch is an abstraction layer on top of a more concrete file system.
In computing, a virtual machine (VM) is an emulation of a computer system.
In computing, virtual memory (also virtual storage) is a memory management technique that provides an "idealized abstraction of the storage resources that are actually available on a given machine" which "creates the illusion to users of a very large (main) memory." The computer's operating system, using a combination of hardware and software, maps memory addresses used by a program, called virtual addresses, into physical addresses in computer memory.
In computing, virtualization refers to the act of creating a virtual (rather than actual) version of something, including virtual computer hardware platforms, storage devices, and computer network resources.
VxWorks is a real-time operating system (RTOS) developed as proprietary software by Wind River Systems, an Intel subsidiary of Alameda, California, US.
Web server refers to server software, or hardware dedicated to running said software, that can serve contents to the World Wide Web.
In human–computer interaction, WIMP stands for "windows, icons, menus, pointer", denoting a style of interaction using these elements of the user interface.
Windows 10 (codenamed Redstone, formerly Threshold) is a personal computer operating system developed and released by Microsoft, as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems.
Windows 3.x means either of, or all of the following versions of Microsoft Windows.
Windows 95 (codenamed Chicago) is a consumer-oriented operating system developed by Microsoft.
Windows 9x is a generic term referring to a series of Microsoft Windows computer operating systems produced from 1995 to 2000, which were based on the Windows 95 kernel and its underlying foundation of MS-DOS, both of which were updated in subsequent versions.
Windows Embedded Compact, formerly Windows Embedded CE and Windows CE, is an operating system subfamily developed by Microsoft as part of its Windows Embedded family of products.* Unlike Windows Embedded Standard, which is based on Windows NT, Windows Embedded Compact uses a different hybrid kernel.
Windows Millennium Edition, or Windows ME (marketed with the pronunciation of the pronoun "me", commonly pronounced as an initialism, "M-E (Codenamed Millennium)", is a graphical operating system from Microsoft released to manufacturing in June 2000, and launched in September 2000.
Windows NT is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993.
Windows NT 4.0 is an operating system that is part of Microsoft's Windows NT family of operating systems.
Windows Server 2003 is a server operating system produced by Microsoft and released on April 24, 2003.
Windows Server 2008 R2 is a server operating system produced by Microsoft.
The Windows shell is the graphical user interface for the Microsoft Windows operating system.
Windows Vista (codenamed Longhorn) is an operating system by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, tablet PCs and media center PCs.
Windows XP (codenamed Whistler) is a personal computer operating system that was produced by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems.
A workstation is a special computer designed for technical or scientific applications.
The World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or the Web) is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links, and accessible via the Internet.
x86 is a family of backward-compatible instruction set architectures based on the Intel 8086 CPU and its Intel 8088 variant.
x86-64 (also known as x64, x86_64, AMD64 and Intel 64) is the 64-bit version of the x86 instruction set.
The XTS-400 is a multilevel secure computer operating system.
z/OS is a 64-bit operating system for IBM mainframes, produced by IBM.
z/VM is the current version in IBM's VM family of virtual machine operating systems.
16-bit microcomputers are computers in which 16-bit microprocessors were the norm.
32-bit microcomputers are computers in which 32-bit microprocessors are the norm.
Prior to the introduction of computers, the state of the art in precision scientific and engineering calculation was the ten-digit, electrically powered, mechanical calculator, such as those manufactured by Friden, Marchant and Monroe.
In computer architecture, 64-bit computing is the use of processors that have datapath widths, integer size, and memory address widths of 64 bits (eight octets).
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