239 relations: Adolf Hitler, Afanasy Beloborodov, Aleksandr Vasilevsky, Alexander Gorbatov, Allies of World War II, Andrei Grechko, Anti-tank warfare, Army General (Soviet rank), Army Group Centre, Army Group North, Army Group North Ukraine, Army Group South, Artillery, Attack aircraft, Šiauliai, Babruysk, Baltic Sea, Baltic states, Baranavichy, Barysaw, Battle of Kiev (1943), Battle of Kursk, Battle of Smolensk (1943), Battle of Stalingrad, Belarus, Berezina River, Berlin, Białystok, Brest, Belarus, Brody, Bug River, Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Camouflage, Carpathian Mountains, Chief marshal of the branch, Code name, Colonel general, Cotentin Peninsula, Crimean Offensive, Deep operation, Dnieper, East Prussia, East Prussian Offensive, Eastern Front (World War II), Edmund Hoffmeister, Ernst Busch (field marshal), Falaise Pocket, Fighter aircraft, First Jassy–Kishinev Offensive, Friedrich Gollwitzer, ..., Friedrich Herrlein, Front (military formation), Generalfeldmarschall, Georg Pfeiffer, Georg-Hans Reinhardt, Georgiy Zakharov, Georgy Zhukov, German Army (Wehrmacht), German occupation of Byelorussia during World War II, Germany and the Second World War, Gulf of Riga, Hans Hahne (general), Hans Jordan, Helmuth Weidling, Home Army, Issa Pliyev, Italian Campaign (World War II), Ivan Bagramyan, Ivan Boldin, Ivan Chernyakhovsky, Ivan Konev, Ivan Lyudnikov, IX Army Corps (Wehrmacht), Jõhvi, Kaunas, Khmelnytskyi, Ukraine, Kingdom of Romania, Kirill Moskalenko, Konstantin Rokossovsky, Konstantin Vershinin, Kovel, Kurt von Tippelskirch, Kurt Zeitzler, Kurt-Jürgen Freiherr von Lützow, Kuzma Galitsky, Lida, Lieutenant general, Lithuania, Lublin, Lublin–Brest Offensive, Luninets, Lviv, Lvov–Sandomierz Offensive, Maladzyechna, Marshal of the Soviet Union, Materiel, Mikhail Gromov (military), Mikhail Katukov, Military deception, Military History Research Office (Germany), Minsk, Minsk Offensive, Mogilev, Moscow, Mykolaiv, Narew, Nazi Germany, Nikolaus von Vormann, Nikolay Krylov (marshal), Nikolay Pukhov, Normandy, North Western Operational Command, Novoukrainka, Oberkommando des Heeres, Operation Doppelkopf, Operation Mars, Operation Ostra Brama, Operation Overlord, Operational level of war, Opochka, Orsha, Osowiec-Twierdza, Ostrov, Ostrovsky District, Pskov Oblast, Otto Schünemann, Panzer Corps Feldherrnhalle, Paul Völckers, Pavel Batov, Pavel Kurochkin, Pavel Rotmistrov, Pavel Rybalko, Pervomaisk, Mykolaiv Oblast, Pinsk, Poland, Polish Armed Forces in the East, Polish language, Polotsk, Prisoner of war, Prokofy Romanenko, Przemyśl, Pskov, Rakvere, Rēzekne, Red Army, Riga, Robert M. Citino, Robert Martinek, Rolf Wuthmann, Russian language, Russian military deception, Sandomierz, Sergei Rudenko (general), Slutsk, Smolensk, Soviet partisans, Soviet Union, Stavka, Strategic depth, Tallinn, Tank destroyer, Tartu, Ternopil, The National WWII Museum, Ukraine, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Uman, Unteroffizier, Vasily Badanov, Vasily Chuikov, Vasily Glagolev, Vasily Gordov, VI Army Corps (Wehrmacht), Vilnius, Vilnius Offensive, Vincenz Müller, Vinnytsia, Vistula, Vistula–Oder Offensive, Vitebsk, Voznesensk, Walter Model, Walter Weiß, Warsaw, Warsaw Uprising, Wehrmacht, Western Front (World War II), World War II, XXVII Army Corps (Wehrmacht), XXXIX Panzer Corps, XXXXI Panzer Corps, Zhmerynka, 11th Guards Army (Soviet Union), 134th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht), 13th Army (Soviet Union), 14th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht), 16th Air Army, 18th Army (Soviet Union), 18th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht), 1st Air Army, 1st Baltic Front, 1st Belorussian Front, 1st Guards Army (Soviet Union), 1st Guards Tank Army (Russia), 1st Ukrainian Front, 20th Guards Army, 20th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht), 286th Security Division (Wehrmacht), 28th Army (Soviet Union), 2nd Army (Wehrmacht), 2nd Belorussian Front, 2nd Guards Tank Army, 31st Army (Soviet Union), 33rd Army (Soviet Union), 38th Army (Soviet Union), 39th Army (Soviet Union), 3rd Air Army, 3rd Army (Soviet Union), 3rd Belorussian Front, 3rd Guards Army (Soviet Union), 3rd Guards Tank Army, 3rd Panzer Army, 3rd SS Panzer Division Totenkopf, 43rd Army (Soviet Union), 48th Army (Soviet Union), 49th Army, 4th Air and Air Defence Forces Army, 4th Army (Wehrmacht), 4th Shock Army, 50th Army (Soviet Union), 5th Guards Army, 5th Guards Tank Army, 5th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht), 5th Red Banner Army, 60th Army (Soviet Union), 6th Guards Army, 6th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht), 707th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht), 7th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht), 8th Guards Army (Russia), 9th Army (Wehrmacht). Expand index (189 more) » « Shrink index
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Afanasy Pavlantyevich Beloborodov (Афанасий Павлантьевич Белобородов; 31 January 1903 – 1 September 1990) was a military commander of the Soviet Army during the Second World War, twice Hero of the Soviet Union and recipient of several other awards.
Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Vasilevsky (September 30 1895 – December 5, 1977) was a Russian career officer in the Red Army who was promoted to the rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union in 1943.
Alexander Vasilyevich Gorbatov (Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Горба́тов) (21 March 1891 – 7 December 1973) was a Russian and Soviet officer who served as an officer in the Imperial Russian Army during the First World War and as a Colonel-General in the Red Army during the Second World War.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Andrei Antonovich Grechko (– 26 April 1976) was a Soviet general, Marshal of the Soviet Union and Minister of Defense.
Anti-tank warfare arose as a result of the need to develop technology and tactics to destroy tanks during World War I. Since the first tanks were developed by the Triple Entente in 1916 but not operated in battle until 1917, the first anti-tank weapons were developed by the German Empire.
General of the army (Russian: генерал армии, general armii) was a rank of the Soviet Union which was first established in June 1940 as a high rank for Red Army generals, inferior only to the marshal of the Soviet Union.
Army Group Centre (Heeresgruppe Mitte) was the name of two distinct German strategic army groups that fought on the Eastern Front in World War II.
Army Group North (Heeresgruppe Nord) was a German strategic echelon formation, commanding a grouping of field armies during World War II.
The Army Group North Ukraine (Heeresgruppe Nordukraine) was a major ground force formation of the German armed forces.
Army Group South (Heeresgruppe Süd) was the name of two German Army Groups during World War II.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
An attack aircraft, strike aircraft, or attack bomber, is a tactical military aircraft that has a primary role of carrying out airstrikes with greater precision than bombers, and is prepared to encounter strong low-level air defenses while pressing the attack.
Šiauliai is the fourth largest city in Lithuania, with a population of 107,086.
Babruysk, Babrujsk, or Bobruisk (Бабру́йск, Łacinka: Babrujsk, Бобру́йск, Bobrujsk, באברויסק) is a city in the Mogilev Region of eastern Belarus on the Berezina river.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
Baranavichy (Бара́навічы, Łacinka: Baranavičy, Baranavichy; Бара́новичи, Baranowicze, Baranovičiai, באראנאוויטש, Baranovitsh) is a city in the Brest Region of western Belarus with a population (as of 1995) of 173,000.
Barysaw (officially transliterated as Barysaŭ, Бары́саў; Бори́сов, Borisov, Borysów) is a city in Belarus situated near the Berezina River in the Minsk Region.
The Second Battle of Kiev was part of much wider Soviet offensive in Ukraine known as the Battle of the Dnieper involved three strategic operations by the Soviet Red Army, and one operational counterattack by the Wehrmacht which took place between 3 October and 22 December 1943.
The Battle of Kursk was a Second World War engagement between German and Soviet forces on the Eastern Front near Kursk (south-west of Moscow) in the Soviet Union, during July and August 1943.
The second Battle of Smolensk (7 August–2 October 1943) was a Soviet strategic offensive operation conducted by the Red Army as part of the Summer-Autumn Campaign of 1943.
The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was the largest confrontation of World War II, in which Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
The Berezina or Biarezina (Бярэ́зіна) is a river in Belarus and a tributary of the Dnieper River.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Białystok (Bielastok, Balstogė, Belostok, Byalistok) is the largest city in northeastern Poland and the capital of the Podlaskie Voivodeship.
Brest (Брэст There is also the name "Berestye", but it is found only in the Old Russian language and Tarashkevich., Брест Brest, Берестя Berestia, בריסק Brisk), formerly Brest-Litoŭsk (Брэст-Лiтоўск) (Brest-on-the-Bug), is a city (population 340,141 in 2016) in Belarus at the border with Poland opposite the Polish city of Terespol, where the Bug and Mukhavets rivers meet.
Brody (Броди; Brody; Brody; Brody; Brody) is a city in Lviv Oblast (region) of western Ukraine.
The Bug River (Bug or Western Bug; Західний Буг, Zakhidnyy Buh, Захо́дні Буг, Zakhodni Buh; Западный Буг, Zapadnyy Bug) is a major European river which flows through three countries with a total length of.
The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR, or Byelorussian SSR; Bielaruskaja Savieckaja Sacyjalistyčnaja Respublika; Belorusskaya SSR.), also commonly referred to in English as Byelorussia, was a federal unit of the Soviet Union (USSR).
Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see (crypsis), or by disguising them as something else (mimesis).
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc roughly long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois, and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species.
The ranks chief marshal of the branch (главный маршал рода войск, glavny marshal roda voysk) and marshal of the branch (маршал рода войск, marshal roda voysk) were senior military ranks of the Soviet Armed Forces.
A code name or cryptonym is a word or name used, sometimes clandestinely, to refer to another name, word, project or person.
Colonel general is a three or four-star rank in some armies, usually equivalent to that of a full general in other armies.
The Cotentin Peninsula, also known as the Cherbourg Peninsula, is a peninsula in Normandy that forms part of the northwest coast of France.
The Crimean Offensive (8 April – 12 May 1944), known in German sources as the Battle of the Crimea, was a series of offensives by the Red Army directed at the German-held Crimea.
Deep operation (glubokaya operatsiya), also known as Soviet Deep Battle, was a military theory developed by the Soviet Union for its armed forces during the 1920s and 1930s.
The Dnieper River, known in Russian as: Dnepr, and in Ukrainian as Dnipro is one of the major rivers of Europe, rising near Smolensk, Russia and flowing through Russia, Belarus and Ukraine to the Black Sea.
East Prussia (Ostpreußen,; Prusy Wschodnie; Rytų Prūsija; Borussia orientalis; Восточная Пруссия) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire from 1871); following World War I it formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia, until 1945.
The East Prussian Offensive was a strategic offensive by the Soviet Red Army against the German Wehrmacht on the Eastern Front (World War II).
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
Edmund Hoffmeister (1893–1951) was an officer in the German Army, mainly notable for his service in World War II.
Ernst Bernhard Wilhelm Busch (6 July 1885 – 17 July 1945) was a German field marshal during World War II who commanded the 16th Army and later Army Group Centre.
The Falaise Pocket or Battle of the Falaise Pocket (12 – 21 August 1944) was the decisive engagement of the Battle of Normandy in the Second World War.
A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft, as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is to attack ground targets.
The First Jassy–Kishinev Offensive, named after the two major cities (Iași and Chișinău) in the area, refers to a series of military engagements between 8 April and 6 June 1944 by the Soviets and Axis powers of World War II.
Friedrich Gollwitzer (27 April 1889 – 25 March 1977) was a general in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany who commanded the LIII Army Corps.
Friedrich Herrlein (27 April 1889 – 28 July 1974) was a German general (General der Infanterie) in the Wehrmacht during World War II who commanded the LV Corps.
A front (фронт, front) is a type of military formation that originated in the Russian Empire, and has been used by the Polish Army, the Red Army, the Soviet Army, and Turkey.
Generalfeldmarschall (general field marshal, field marshal general, or field marshal;; abbreviated to Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states and the Holy Roman Empire; in the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, the rank Feldmarschall was used.
Georg Pfeiffer (5 May 1890 – 28 June 1944) was a general in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany who commanded the VI Army Corps.
Georg-Hans Reinhardt (1 March 1887 – 23 November 1963) was a German general and war criminal during World War II.
Georgiy Fedorovich Zakharov (1897–1957) was a Soviet general officer, mainly notable for his service in World War II.
Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (– 18 June 1974) was a Soviet Red Army General who became Chief of General Staff, Deputy Commander-in-Chief, Minister of Defence and a member of the Politburo.
The German Army (Heer) was the land forces component of the Wehrmacht, the regular German Armed Forces, from 1935 until it was demobilized and later dissolved in August 1946.
The occupation of Belarus by Nazi Germany started with the German invasion of the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941 (Operation Barbarossa) and ended in August 1944 with the Soviet Operation Bagration.
Germany and the Second World War (Das Deutsche Reich und der Zweite Weltkrieg) is a 12,000-page, 13-volume work published by the Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt (DVA), that has taken academics from the military history centre of the German armed forces 30 years to finish.
The Gulf of Riga, Bay of Riga, or Gulf of Livonia (Rīgas jūras līcis, Liivi laht, Рижский залив) is a bay of the Baltic Sea between Latvia and Estonia.
Hans Hahne (30 November 1894 – MIA as of 24 June 1944) was a German officer in the Wehrmacht during World War II who commanded the 197th Infantry Division.
Hans Jordan (27 December 1892 – 20 April 1975) was a German general during World War II.
Helmuth Weidling (2 November 1891 – 17 November 1955) was a German general during World War II.
The Home Army (Armia Krajowa;, abbreviated AK) was the dominant Polish resistance movement in Poland, occupied by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, during World War II.
Issa Alexandrovich Pliyev (Плиты Алыксандры фырт Иссæ; Исса Александрович Плиев) (also spelled as Pliev) (— 2 February 1979) was a Soviet military commander, Army General (1962), twice Hero of the Soviet Union (16 April 1944 and 8 September 1945), Hero of the Mongolian People's Republic (1971).
The Italian Campaign of World War II consisted of the Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war in Europe.
Ivan Khristoforovich Bagramyan (Հովհաննես Քրիստափորի Բաղրամյան; Ива́н Христофо́рович Баграмя́н), also known as Hovhannes Khachaturi Baghramyan (Հովհաննես Խաչատուրի (alternatively, Քրիստափորի, Kristapori) Բաղրամյան; Оване́с Хачату́рович Баграмя́н) (– 21 September 1982), was a Soviet military commander and Marshal of the Soviet Union of Armenian origin.
Ivan Vasilievich Boldin (Иван Васильевич Болдин;, Vysokaya – March 28, 1965, Kiev) was a senior Red Army general during the Second World War.
Ivan Danilovich Chernyakhovsky, also Cherniakhovsky, (Ива́н Дани́лович Черняхо́вский; Oksanyna, Uman, Kiev Governorate, Russian Empire (today Cherkasy Oblast, Ukraine)), (– Mehlsack, today Pieniężno, Poland, 18 February 1945) was the youngest ever Soviet general of the army, twice Hero of the Soviet Union and commander of the 3rd Belorussian Front.
Ivan Stepanovich Konev (Ива́н Степа́нович Ко́нев; – 21 May 1973) was a Soviet military commander who led Red Army forces on the Eastern Front during World War II, retook much of Eastern Europe from occupation by the Axis Powers, and helped in the capture of Germany's capital, Berlin.
Ivan Ilyich Lyudnikov, (Иван Ильич Людников; Krivaya Kosa (Don Host Oblast, Russian Empire), – Moscow 22 April 1976) was a Soviet Army Colonel General and Hero of the Soviet Union.
IX Army Corps (IX. Armeekorps) was a corps in the German Army during World War II.
Jõhvi (Jewe) is a town in north-eastern Estonia, and the capital of Ida-Viru County.
Kaunas (also see other names) is the second-largest city in Lithuania and the historical centre of Lithuanian economic, academic, and cultural life.
Khmelnytskyi (Chmel'nyc'kyj,; Chmielnicki) (until 1954, Proskuriv, Проску́рів; Płoskirów) is a city in western part of Ukraine, the administrative center for the Khmelnytskyi Oblast (region) and the Khmelnytskyi Raion (district).
The Kingdom of Romania (Regatul României) was a constitutional monarchy in Southeastern Europe which existed from 1881, when prince Carol I of Romania was proclaimed King, until 1947, when King Michael I of Romania abdicated and the Parliament proclaimed Romania a republic.
Kirill Semyonovich Moskalenko May 11, 1902 – June 17, 1985) was a Marshal of the Soviet Union. A member of the Soviet Army who fought in both the Russian Civil War and World War II, he later served as Commander in Chief of Strategic Missile Forces and Inspector General for the Ministry of Defense.
Konstantin Konstantinovich (Xaverevich) Rokossovsky (December 21, 1896 – August 3, 1968) was a Soviet officer of Polish origin who became Marshal of the Soviet Union, Marshal of Poland and served as Poland's Defence Minister from 1949 until his removal in 1956 during the Polish October.
Chief marshal of the aviation Konstantin Andreevich Vershinin (Константин Андреевич Вершинин; 3 June 1900 – 30 December 1973) was commander of the Soviet Air Force from 1946 to 1949 and from 1957 to 1969.
Kovel (Polish: Kowel, קאָוועל) is a town in Volyn Oblast (province), in northwestern Ukraine.
Kurt von Tippelskirch (9 October 1891 – 10 May 1957) was a general in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II who commanded several armies and Army Group Vistula.
Kurt Zeitzler (June 9, 1895 – September 25, 1963) was a Chief of the Army General Staff in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Kurt-Jürgen Freiherr von Lützow (7 August 1892 – 20 July 1961) was a German general during World War II and recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, awarded by Nazi Germany for successful military leadership.
Kuzma Nikitovich Galitsky (Кузьма́ Ники́тович Гали́цкий; 24 October 189714 March 1973) was a Soviet army general who earned the title Hero of the Soviet Union.
Lida (Лі́да; Ли́да; Lyda; Lida; לידא) is a city in western Belarus in Hrodna Voblast, situated west of Minsk.
Lieutenant general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Lublin (Lublinum) is the ninth largest city in Poland and the second largest city of Lesser Poland.
The Lublin–Brest Offensive (Люблин‐Брестская наступательная операция, 18 July – 2 August 1944) was a part of the Operation Bagration strategic offensive by the Soviet Red Army to clear the Nazi German forces from the central‐eastern Poland.
Luninets (Лунінец, Лунине́ц, Łuniniec, Luninecas, Luninitz BGN/PCGN romanization: Luninyets) is a town and administrative centre for the Luninets district in Brest Province, Belarus, before which it was in Poland (1540–1793, 1920–1939) and Russia and the Soviet Union (1793–1920, 1939–1941, 1944–1991).
Lviv (Львів; Львов; Lwów; Lemberg; Leopolis; see also other names) is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of around 728,350 as of 2016.
The Lvov–Sandomierz Offensive or Lvov-Sandomierz Strategic Offensive Operation (Львовско-Сандомирская стратегическая наступательная операция) was a major Red Army operation to force the German troops from Ukraine and Eastern Poland.
Maladzyechna (Маладзе́чна/Maladziečna,; Молоде́чно) is a city in the Minsk Voblast of Belarus, an administrative centre of the Maladzyechna district (and formerly of the Maladzyechna Voblast).
Marshal of the Soviet Union (Маршал Советского Союза) was the highest military rank of the Soviet Union, below Generalissimus of the Soviet Union.
Materiel, more commonly matériel in US English and also listed as the only spelling in some UK dictionaries (both pronounced, from French matériel meaning equipment or hardware), refers to military technology and supplies in military and commercial supply chain management.
Mikhail Mikhaylovich Gromov (Михаи́л Миха́йлович Гро́мов; 23 February 1899 – 22 January 1985) a Russian and Soviet military aviator, test pilot and researcher, Hero of the Soviet Union.
Marshal of Armoured Troops Mikhail Efimovich Katukov (17 September 1900 – 8 June 1976) (Михаи́л Ефи́мович Катуко́в) served as a commander of armored troops in the Red Army during and following World War II.
Military deception refers to attempts to mislead enemy forces during warfare.
The Military History Research Office (Militärgeschichtliches Forschungsamt, MGFA) is an office of the Bundeswehr located at Potsdam, Germany.
Minsk (Мінск,; Минск) is the capital and largest city of Belarus, situated on the Svislach and the Nyamiha Rivers.
The Minsk Offensive (Минская наступательная операция) was part of the second phase of the Belorussian Strategic Offensive of the Red Army in summer 1944, commonly known as Operation Bagration.
Mogilev (or Mahilyow; Магілёў,; Łacinka: Mahiloŭ; Могилёв,; מאָליעוו, Molyev) is a city in eastern Belarus, about from the border with Russia's Smolensk Oblast and from the border with Russia's Bryansk Oblast.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
Mykolaiv (Микола́їв), also known as Nikolaev or Nikolayev (Никола́ев), is a city in southern Ukraine, the administrative center of the Mykolaiv Oblast.
The Narew River (Нараў Naraŭ; Lithuanian: Narvė, Narevas, Naruva, Naura; Нарва Narva), in western Belarus and north-eastern Poland, is a right tributary of the Vistula river.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Nikolaus von Vormann (24 December 1895 – 26 October 1959) was a general of Prussian background who served in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany.
Nikolai Ivanovich Krylov (Никола́й Ива́нович Крыло́в; April 29, 1903 – February 9, 1972) was a Russian Marshal of the Soviet Union (from 1962).
Nikolay Pavlovich Pukhov (–March 28, 1958) was a Soviet Army colonel general and a Hero of the Soviet Union who commanded troops during World War II.
Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.
The North Western Operational Command (SZOK) is a command of the Belarus Ground Forces.
Novoukrainka is a city in Kirovohrad Oblast (province) of Ukraine.
The Oberkommando des Heeres (OKH) was the High Command of the German Army during the Era of Nazi Germany.
Operation Doppelkopf (Unternehmen Doppelkopf) and the following Operation Cäsar were German counter-offensives on the Eastern Front in the late summer of 1944 in the aftermath of the major Soviet advance in Operation Bagration with the aim of restoring a coherent front between Army Group North and Army Group Centre.
Operation Mars, also known as the Second Rzhev-Sychevka Offensive Operation (Russian: Вторая Ржевско-Сычёвская наступательная операция), was the codename for an offensive launched by Soviet forces against German forces during World War II.
Operation Ostra Brama (lit. Operation Sharp Gate, English: Operation Gate of Dawn) was an armed conflict during World War II between the Polish Home Army and the Nazi German occupiers of Vilnius (Polish: Wilno).
Operation Overlord was the codename for the Battle of Normandy, the Allied operation that launched the successful invasion of German-occupied Western Europe during World War II.
In the field of military theory, the operational level of war (also called the operational art, as derived from оперативное искусство, or the operational warfare) represents the level of command that connects the details of tactics with the goals of strategy.
Opochka (Опо́чка) is a town and the administrative center of Opochetsky District in Pskov Oblast, Russia, located on the Velikaya River, south of Pskov, the administrative center of the oblast.
Orsha (Orša, Ворша; О́рша; Orša, Orsza) is a city in Belarus in the Vitebsk Region, on the fork of the Dnieper and Arshytsa rivers.
Osowiec-Twierdza is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Goniądz, in Mońki County, Podlaskie Voivodeship, in north-eastern Poland.
Ostrov (О́стров, lit. island) is a town and the administrative center of Ostrovsky District in Pskov Oblast, Russia, located on the Velikaya River, south of Pskov, the administrative center of the oblast.
Otto Schünemann (6 October 1891 – 29 June 1944) was a German general during World War II.
The Panzerkorps Feldherrnhalle was a German panzer corps that fought on the Eastern Front during the Second World War.
Paul Gustav Völckers (15 March 1891 – 25 January 1946) was a German General of the Infantry in the Wehrmacht during World War II who commanded the XXVII Army Corps.
Pavel Ivanovich Batov (Павел Иванович Батов; – April 19, 1985) was a senior Red Army general during the Second World War and afterwards, twice Hero of the Soviet Union.
Pavel Alekseyevich Kurochkin (Па́вел Алексе́евич Ку́рочкин; – 28 December 1989) was a Soviet military leader.
Chief marshal of the armored troops Pavel Alexeyevich Rotmistrov (Павел Алексеевич Ротмистров) (6 July 1901 in Skovorovo – 6 April 1982) was a commander of armoured troops in the Red Army during and following World War II.
Marshal of the Armoured Troops Pavel Semyonovich Rybalko (23 October 1892 – 28 August 1948) (Павел Семенович Рыбалко, Павло Семенович Рибалко) was a commander of armoured troops in the Red Army during and following World War II.
Pervomaisk (Первома́йск, Pervomajs'k) is a city in Mykolaiv Oblast, Ukraine and the administrative center of the Pervomaisk Raion.
Pinsk (Пі́нск, Pinsk; Пи́нск; Пи́нськ, Pyns'k; Pińsk; Yiddish/פינסק, Pinskas) is a city in Belarus, in the Polesia region, traversed by the river Pina, at the confluence of the Pina and Pripyat rivers.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Polish Armed Forces in the East (Polskie Siły Zbrojne na Wschodzie) (or Polish Army in USSR) refers to military units composed of Poles created in the Soviet Union at the time when the territory of Poland was occupied by both Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in the Second World War.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Polack (official transliteration), Polotsk or Polatsk (translit, translit, Połock, Polockas, Polotsk) is a historical city in Belarus, situated on the Dvina River.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
Prokofy Logvinovich Romanenko (– 10 March 1949) was a Ukrainian Soviet Army colonel general.
Przemyśl (Premissel, Peremyshl, Перемишль less often Перемишель) is a city in south-eastern Poland with 66,756 inhabitants, as of June 2009.
Pskov (p; see also names in other languages) is a city and the administrative center of Pskov Oblast, Russia, located about east from the Estonian border, on the Velikaya River.
Rakvere (Wesenberg or Wesenbergh) is a town in northern Estonia and the county seat of Lääne-Viru County, 20 km south of the Gulf of Finland.
Rēzekne (Latgalian Rēzekne or Rēzne, Rēzekne; see other names) is a city in the Rēzekne River valley in Latgale region of eastern Latvia.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.
Robert M. Citino (born June 19, 1958) is an American military historian and the Samuel Zemurray Stone Senior Historian at the National WWII Museum.
Robert Martinek (2 February 1889 – 28 June 1944) was an Austrian general who served in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Rolf Wuthmann (26 August 1893 – 20 October 1977) was a German general in the Wehrmacht during World War II who commanded the IX Army Corps.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Russian military deception, sometimes known as maskirovka (lit), is a military doctrine developed from the start of the twentieth century.
Sandomierz (pronounced:; Tsoizmer צויזמער) is a town in south-eastern Poland with 25,714 inhabitants (2006), situated in the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship (since 1999).
Serhi Gnatovich Rudenko (Ukrainian: Сергій Гнатович Руденко, Russified: Сергей Игнатьевич Руденко;, Korop, Russian Empire - 10 July 1990, Moscow, Soviet Union) was a Soviet Marshal of the aviation.
Slutsk (officially transliterated as Sluck, Слуцк; Слуцк; Słuck, Sluckas, Yiddish/Hebrew: סלוצק Slotsk) is a city in Belarus, located on the Sluch River south of Minsk.
Smolensk (a) is a city and the administrative center of Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located on the Dnieper River, west-southwest of Moscow.
The Soviet partisans were members of resistance movements that fought a guerrilla war against the Axis forces in the Soviet Union, the previously Soviet-occupied territories of interwar Poland in 1941–45 and eastern Finland.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Stavka (Ставка) was the high command of the armed forces in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union.
Strategic depth is a term in military literature that broadly refers to the distances between the front lines or battle sectors and the combatants' industrial core areas, capital cities, heartlands, and other key centers of population or military production.
Tallinn (or,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia.
A tank destroyer or tank hunter is a type of armoured fighting vehicle, armed with a direct-fire artillery gun or missile launcher, with limited operational capacities and designed specifically to engage enemy tanks.
Tartu (South Estonian: Tarto) is the second largest city of Estonia, after Estonia's political and financial capital Tallinn.
Ternopil (Ternopil',; Tarnopol; Ternopol'; Tarnopol; Ternepol/Tarnopl; Tarnopol) is a city in western Ukraine, located on the banks of the Seret River.
The National WWII Museum, formerly known as The National D-Day Museum, is a military history museum located in the Central Business District of New Orleans, Louisiana, on Andrew Higgins Drive between Camp Street and Magazine Street.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR or UkrSSR or UkSSR; Украї́нська Радя́нська Соціалісти́чна Респу́бліка, Украї́нська РСР, УРСР; Украи́нская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика, Украи́нская ССР, УССР; see "Name" section below), also known as the Soviet Ukraine, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union from the Union's inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991. The republic was governed by the Communist Party of Ukraine as a unitary one-party socialist soviet republic. The Ukrainian SSR was a founding member of the United Nations, although it was legally represented by the All-Union state in its affairs with countries outside of the Soviet Union. Upon the Soviet Union's dissolution and perestroika, the Ukrainian SSR was transformed into the modern nation-state and renamed itself to Ukraine. Throughout its 72-year history, the republic's borders changed many times, with a significant portion of what is now Western Ukraine being annexed by Soviet forces in 1939 from the Republic of Poland, and the addition of Zakarpattia in 1946. From the start, the eastern city of Kharkiv served as the republic's capital. However, in 1934, the seat of government was subsequently moved to the city of Kiev, Ukraine's historic capital. Kiev remained the capital for the rest of the Ukrainian SSR's existence, and remained the capital of independent Ukraine after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Geographically, the Ukrainian SSR was situated in Eastern Europe to the north of the Black Sea, bordered by the Soviet republics of Moldavia, Byelorussia, and the Russian SFSR. The Ukrainian SSR's border with Czechoslovakia formed the Soviet Union's western-most border point. According to the Soviet Census of 1989 the republic had a population of 51,706,746 inhabitants, which fell sharply after the breakup of the Soviet Union. For most of its existence, it ranked second only to the Russian SFSR in population, economic and political power.
Uman (Умань,; Humań) is a city located in Cherkasy Oblast (province) in central Ukraine, to the east of Vinnytsia.
Unteroffizier is a military rank of the Bundeswehr and of former German-speaking armed forces (Heer and Luftwaffe).
Vasily Mikhaylovich Badanov (Васи́лий Миха́йлович Бада́нов; 14 December 18951 April 1971) was a Soviet military officer and general, best known for his leadership in the Tatsinskaya Raid (1942) and subsequent command of the 4th Tank Army (1943–1944).
Vasily Ivanovich Chuikov (12 February 1900 – 18 March 1982) was a Soviet military officer.
Vasily Vasilyevich Glagolev (Russian: Василий Васильевич Глаголев; 21 February 1896 – 21 September 1947) was a Red Army Colonel general, Hero of the Soviet Union, and commander of the Soviet airborne (VDV).
Vasily Nikolaevich Gordov (12 December 1896 – 24 August 1950) was a Soviet military officer who commanded the Stalingrad Front between July and August 1942 until his replacement by Andrey Yeryomenko.
The VI Corps (VI., or VI.AK) was an infantry corps in the German Army.
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
The Vilnius Offensive (Вильнюсская наступательная операция) occurred as part of the third phase of Operation Bagration, the great summer offensive by the Red Army against the Wehrmacht in June and July, 1944.
Vincenz Müller (5 November 1894, Aichach, Upper Bavaria – 12 May 1961) was a military officer and general who served in the German army, the Army of Nazi Germany, and after the war in the National People's Army of the (East) German Democratic Republic, where he was also a politician.
Vinnytsia (Vinnycja,; translit, Vinnica; Winnica; Winniza, and Vinița) is a city in west-central Ukraine, located on the banks of the Southern Bug.
The Vistula (Wisła, Weichsel,, ווייסל), Висла) is the longest and largest river in Poland, at in length. The drainage basin area of the Vistula is, of which lies within Poland (54% of its land area). The remainder is in Belarus, Ukraine and Slovakia. The Vistula rises at Barania Góra in the south of Poland, above sea level in the Silesian Beskids (western part of Carpathian Mountains), where it begins with the White Little Vistula (Biała Wisełka) and the Black Little Vistula (Czarna Wisełka). It then continues to flow over the vast Polish plains, passing several large Polish cities along its way, including Kraków, Sandomierz, Warsaw, Płock, Włocławek, Toruń, Bydgoszcz, Świecie, Grudziądz, Tczew and Gdańsk. It empties into the Vistula Lagoon (Zalew Wiślany) or directly into the Gdańsk Bay of the Baltic Sea with a delta and several branches (Leniwka, Przekop, Śmiała Wisła, Martwa Wisła, Nogat and Szkarpawa).
The Vistula–Oder Offensive was a successful Red Army operation on the Eastern Front in the European Theatre of World War II in January 1945.
Vitebsk, or Vitsebsk (Ві́цебск, Łacinka: Viciebsk,; Витебск,, Vitebskas), is a city in Belarus.
Voznesensk (Вознесенськ) is a city in Mykolaiv Oblast (region) of Ukraine and the administrative center of Voznesensk Raion (district).
Walter Model (24 January 1891 – 21 April 1945) was a German field marshal during World War II.
General Walter-Otto Weiß, also spelt Weiss (5 September 1890 – 21 December 1967), was a German general during World War II.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
The Warsaw Uprising (powstanie warszawskie; Warschauer Aufstand) was a major World War II operation, in the summer of 1944, by the Polish underground resistance, led by the Home Army (Armia Krajowa), to liberate Warsaw from German occupation.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
The Western Front was a military theatre of World War II encompassing Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Germany. World War II military engagements in Southern Europe and elsewhere are generally considered under separate headings. The Western Front was marked by two phases of large-scale combat operations. The first phase saw the capitulation of the Netherlands, Belgium, and France during May and June 1940 after their defeat in the Low Countries and the northern half of France, and continued into an air war between Germany and Britain that climaxed with the Battle of Britain. The second phase consisted of large-scale ground combat (supported by a massive air war considered to be an additional front), which began in June 1944 with the Allied landings in Normandy and continued until the defeat of Germany in May 1945.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The XXVII Corps (XXVII., or XXVII.AK) was an infantry corps in the German Army.
The XXXIX Panzer Corps (XXXIX.Panzerkorps, also previously designated the XXXIX.Armeekorps (mot)) was a German panzer corps which saw action on the Western and Eastern Fronts during World War II.
XXXXI Panzer Corps (also written: Panzer Korps 41 or XLI Panzer Corps) was a tank corps in the German Army (Army) during World War II.
Zhmerynka (Жмеринка,; Zhmerinka, Żmerynka, זשמערינקאַ, (Șmerinca) is a city in Vinnytsia Oblast (province) of central Ukraine. Serving as the administrative center of the Zhmerynka Raion (district), the town itself is not a part of the district and is separately incorporated as a city of oblast significance. Population.
The 11th Guards Army was a Soviet field army active from 1943 to 1997, which traces its origins to the formation of the Soviet 16th Army in June–July 1940.
The 134th Infantry Division (German: 134. Infanterie-Division) was a German division in World War II.
The 13th Army (Russian: 13-я армия 13-ya armiya) was a name given to several field armies of the Soviet Union's Red Army, first created during the Russian Civil War.
The 14th Infantry Division (German: 14. Infanterie-Division; nickname: the Sächsische Division or Saxonian Division) was a German military unit which fought during World War II.
The 16th Red Banner Air Army (16-я воздушная Краснознамённая армия) was the most important formation of the Special Purpose Command.
The 18th Army of the Soviet Union's Red Army was formed on 21 June 1941 on the basis of HQ Kharkov Military District and armies of the Kiev Special Military District.
The German 18th Infantry Division was formed on 1 October 1934 as Infanterieführer III in Liegnitz and renamed 18.
The 1st Air Army (1-я воздушная армия) was an Air Army in the Soviet Air Force which served during World War II.
The First Baltic Front was a major formation of the Red Army during the Second World War.
The 1st Belorussian Front (Першы Беларускі фронт, alternative spellings are 1st Byelorussian Front and 1st Belarusian Front) was a major formation of the Soviet Army during World War II, being equivalent to a Western army group.
The 1st Guards Army was a Soviet field army that fought on the Eastern Front during World War II.
The 1st Guards Tank Army is a tank army of the Russian Ground Forces.
The 1st Ukrainian Front (Russian: Пéрвый Укрáинский фронт; Пе́рший Украї́нський фронт Péršyj Ukraḯns’kyj front) was a front—a force the size of a Western Army group—of the Soviet Union's Red Army during the Second World War.
The 20th Guards Army (originally designated as the 4th Tank Army, 4th Guards Tank Army in 1945, 4th Guards Mechanised Army in 1946, and the 20th Guards Army in 1960 within the Soviet Red Army) is a field army.
The 20th Panzer Division (20th Tank Division) was an armoured division in the German Army, the Wehrmacht, during World War II.
The 286th Security Division (286. Sicherungs-Division) was a rear-security division in the Wehrmacht during World War II.
The 28th Army was a field army of the Red Army and the Soviet Ground Forces, formed three times in 1941–42 and active during the postwar period for many years in the Belorussian Military District.
The 2nd Army (German: 2. Armee Oberkommando) was a World War II field army.
The 2nd Belorussian Front (2-і Беларускі фронт, alternative spellings are 2nd Byelorussian Front and 2nd Belarusian Front) (2BF) was a military formation of Army group size of the Soviet Army during the Second World War.
The 2nd Guards Tank Army was a large military formation of the Red Army and later the Soviet Army.
The 31st Army was a field army of the Red Army during the Second World War.
The Red Army's 33rd Army was a Soviet field army during the Second World War.
The 38th Red Banner Army was a field army of the Soviet Union that existed between 1941 and 1991.
The 39th Army was a Field Army of the Soviet Union's Red Army during World War II and of the Soviet Army during the Cold War.
3rd Air Army (3 VA) was an Air Army of the Soviet Armed Forces during the Second World War.
The 3rd Army was a Soviet Red Army field army during World War II.
The 3rd Belorussian Front (alternative spellings are 3rd Byelorussian Front and 3rd Belarusian Front) was a Front of the Red Army during the Second World War.
The 3rd Guards Army was a field army of the Soviet Red Army that fought on the Eastern Front in World War II.
The 3rd Guards Tank Army (3-я гвардейская танковая армия) was a tank army established by the Soviet Union's Red Army during World War II.
The 3rd Panzer Army (3.) was a German armoured formation during World War II, formed from the 3rd Panzer Group on 1 January 1942.
The 3rd SS Panzer Division "Totenkopf" (3. SS-Panzerdivision "Totenkopf".) was one of 38 divisions of the Waffen-SS of Nazi Germany during World War II.
The 43rd Army was a Red Army field army of World War II that served on the Eastern Front.
The 48th Army was a field army of the Soviet Red Army, active from 1941 to 1945.
The 49th Army (49-я армия) is a combined arms army of the Russian Ground Forces, formed in 2010 and headquartered in Stavropol.
The 4th Air and Air Defence Forces Army is an army of the Russian Air Force, part of the Southern Military District and headquartered in Rostov-on-Don.
The 4th Army was a field army of the Wehrmacht during World War II.
4th Shock Army was a Combined Arms Army of the Soviet Armed Forces during World War II.
The 50th Army was a Soviet field army during World War II.
The 5th Guards Army was a Soviet Guards formation which fought in many critical actions during World War II under the command of General Aleksey Semenovich Zhadov.
The 5th Guards Tank Army (Russian: 5-я гварде́йская та́нковая а́рмия) was a Soviet Guards armored formation which fought in many notable actions during World War II.
The 5th Panzer Division (5th Tank Division) was an armoured division in the German Army, the Wehrmacht, during World War II, established in 1938.
The 5th Red Banner Army is a Russian Ground Forces formation in the Far East Military District.
The Red Army's 60th Army was a Soviet field army during the Second World War.
The 6th Guards Army was a Soviet Guards formation which fought against Nazi Germany during World War II under the command of General Ivan Mikhailovich Chistiakov.
The 6th Panzer Division (6th Tank Division) was an armoured division in the German Army, the Heer, during World War II, established in 1939.
The 707th Infantry Division, also known as the 707th Security Division, was a German Army division of World War II.
The 7th Panzer Division was an armored formation of the German Army in World War II.
The 8th Guards Lenin Combined Arms Army is an army of the Russian Ground Forces, headquartered in Novocherkassk, Rostov Oblast, within Russia′s Southern Military District, that was reinstated in 2017 as a successor to the 8th Guards Army of the Soviet Union's Red Army (later Soviet Army), which was formed during World War II and was disbanded in 1998 after being downsized into a corps.
The 9th Army (9.) was a World War II field army.