399 relations: A-A line, Abwehr, Adolf Hitler, Air supremacy, Albert Speer, Aleksandr Vasilevsky, Alfred Rosenberg, Allies of World War II, Andreas Hillgruber, Antony Beevor, Arctic Ocean, Arkhangelsk, Armoured warfare, Army Group Centre, Army Group North, Army Group South, Army of Karelia, Army of Norway (Wehrmacht), Artillery, Astrakhan, Attrition warfare, Axis powers, Baku, Balkan Campaign (World War II), Baltic Fleet, Baltic Military District, Baltic states, Battle of France, Battle of Kursk, Battle of Moscow, Battle of Raseiniai, Battle of Stalingrad, Battlefield (TV series), Belarus, Belorussian Military District, Białystok, Black Sea, Black Sea campaigns (1941–44), Black Sea Fleet, Blockade of Germany (1939–1945), Bomber, Border states (Eastern Europe), Boris Shaposhnikov, Brest Fortress, Bridgehead, British Empire, Bryansk, Bug River, Bukovina, Cambridge University Press, ..., Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim, Carpathian Mountains, Case Blue, Caspian Sea, Caucasus, Central Europe, Christopher Browning, Clean Wehrmacht, Code name, Collaboration with the Axis Powers, Command and control, Commissar Order, Communism, Crimea, Croatia, Daugava, David Glantz, David Stahel, Deep operation, Demobilization, Dmitry Pavlov (general), Dnieper, Dniester, Doctrine, Donbass, Eastern Europe, Eastern Front (World War II), Einsatzgruppen, Encyclopædia Britannica, English Channel, Erich Hoepner, Erich Marcks, Erich von Manstein, Ethnic cleansing, Europe, European Russia, European theatre of World War II, Fedor von Bock, Fifth column, Finland, Finnish Army, Finnish III Corps (Continuation War), First Battle of Kharkov, Forced labour under German rule during World War II, Fordham University, Fourth Army (Romania), Franz Halder, Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, French invasion of Russia, Fyodor Kuznetsov, Gabriel Gorodetsky, Göring's Green Folder, Generalplan Ost, Geneva Convention (1929), Genghis Khan, Geopolitics, Georg Thomas, Georgy Zhukov, Gerd von Rundstedt, Gerhard Engel, German Air Fleets in World War II, German Army (Wehrmacht), German Federal Archives, German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war, German–Soviet Axis talks, German–Soviet Border and Commercial Agreement, German–Soviet Commercial Agreement (1940), Germans, Germany and the Second World War, Gestapo, Great Purge, Grodno, Gross national product, Gyorshadtest, Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, Heinrich Himmler, Heinrich Müller (Gestapo), Heinz Guderian, Hermann Göring, Hermann Hoth, Holy Roman Empire, Hunger Plan, Icebreaker (Suvorov), Ideology, IMG (company), Intelligence agency, Interwar period, Invasion of Poland, Invasion of Yugoslavia, Ion Antonescu, Italian Expeditionary Corps in Russia, Ivan Tyulenev, Jürgen Förster, Jewish Bolshevism, Jews, Joachim Hoffmann, Joseph Goebbels, Joseph Stalin, Kalevala, Russia, Kandalaksha, Kayraly, Kharkiv, Khiytola, Kiev, Kirov Railway, Kliment Voroshilov, Kliment Voroshilov tank, Lake Ladoga, Lake Onega, Lebensraum, Leningrad Military District, Leningrad Oblast, Levée en masse, Luftflotte 1, Luftflotte 2, Luftflotte 4, Luga River, Markian Popov, Marshal of the Soviet Union, Martial law, Martin Bormann, Massacre, Master race, Mechanised corps (Soviet Union), Medvezhyegorsk, Mein Kampf, Mikhail Kirponos, Mikhail Meltyukhov, Mikhail Tukhachevsky, Military districts of the Soviet Union, Military reserve force, Ministry of Aviation (Nazi Germany), Minsk, Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Moscow Canal, Moscow Kremlin, Moscow metropolitan area, Motorized infantry, Mountain Corps Norway, Mozhaysk, Murmansk, Muskegon Community College, Narodnoe Opolcheniye, Nazi Germany, Nazi–Soviet economic relations (1934–41), Nizhny Novgorod, NKVD, Nordic race, North Caucasus, Northern Europe, Northern Fleet, Northern Front (Soviet Union), Northwest Russia, Northwestern Front, Norway, Oberkommando der Luftwaffe, Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, Oberkommando des Heeres, Odessa Military District, Oil field, Olonets, Operation Bagration, Operation Citadel, Operation Haifisch, Operation Harpune, Operation Kilpapurjehdus, Operation Otto, Operation Rentier, Operation Silver Fox, Oryol, Ostarbeiter, Ostsiedlung, Panzer, Parameters (journal), Paul Ludwig Ewald von Kleist, PBS, Pechengsky District, Petrozavodsk, Pincer movement, Pinsk Marshes, Poles, Political commissar, Povenets, Preemptive war, Prisoner of war, Prut, Pseudoscience, Pskov, Racial policy of Nazi Germany, Rasputitsa, Raul Hilberg, Reconnaissance, Red Army, Reich Main Security Office, Reich Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda, Reichskommissar, Reichskommissariat Kaukasus, Reichskommissariat Moskowien, Reichskommissariat Ostland, Reichskommissariat Turkestan, Reichskommissariat Ukraine, Reinhard Heydrich, Reserve of the Supreme High Command, Reservist, Richard Sorge, Risto Ryti, Robert Service (historian), Romanian Navy during World War II, Rostov-on-Don, Rybachy Peninsula, Saint Petersburg, Salla, Scandinavia, Sea of Azov, Security Division (Wehrmacht), Semyon Budyonny, Semyon Timoshenko, Separate Coastal Army, Shlisselburg, Shortage, Siege of Leningrad, Slavko Kvaternik, Slavs, Smolensk, Sortavala, Southern Front (Soviet Union), Southwestern Front (Soviet Union), Soviet Air Defence Forces, Soviet Air Forces, Soviet Central Asia, Soviet invasion of Poland, Soviet offensive plans controversy, Soviet partisans, Soviet Union, Sphere of influence, Stalin Line, Stavka, Steppe, Svir River, T-34, Tank, The Holocaust, The Myth of the Eastern Front, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, The Times, The Wehrmacht: History, Myth, Reality, Third Army (Romania), Third Crusade, Timeline of the Eastern Front of World War II, Tripartite Pact, Tula, Russia, Turkmens, Ukraine, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Uman, Unfree labour, United Kingdom, United States, United States Army War College, Untermensch, Valeri Danilov, Vaseline, Verman River, Viktor Suvorov, Vilnius, Vladimir Nevezhin, Volga River, Vuoksi River, Vyacheslav Molotov, Vyazma, Vyborg, Waffen-SS, Walther von Brauchitsch, War diary, Wehrmacht, Western Front (Soviet Union), Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb, William L. Shirer, Winter War, Winterization, World War II, World War II in HD Colour, XXXVI Mountain Corps (Wehrmacht), Yad Vashem, Yelnya Offensive, Zapadnaya Litsa River, 10th Army (Soviet Union), 10th Mechanized Corps (Soviet Union), 11th Army (Soviet Union), 11th Army (Wehrmacht), 12th Army (Soviet Union), 12th Mechanized Corps (Soviet Union), 13th Army (Soviet Union), 14th Army (Soviet Union), 16th Army (Soviet Union), 16th Army (Wehrmacht), 17th Army (Wehrmacht), 17th Mechanized Corps (Soviet Union), 18th Army (Soviet Union), 18th Army (Wehrmacht), 19th Army (Soviet Union), 1st Mechanized Corps (Soviet Union), 1st Panzer Army, 20th Army (Soviet Union), 20th Guards Motor Rifle Division, 20th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht), 20th Mechanized Corps (Soviet Union), 21st Army (Soviet Union), 22nd Army (Russia), 23rd Army (Soviet Union), 24th Army (Soviet Union), 25th Mechanized Corps (Soviet Union), 26th Army (Soviet Union), 26th Mechanized Corps (Soviet Union), 27th Army (Soviet Union), 28th Army (Soviet Union), 2nd Army (Wehrmacht), 2nd Mechanized Corps (Soviet Union), 2nd Panzer Army, 2nd Rifle Corps, 34th Army (Soviet Union), 37th Army (Soviet Union), 3rd Army (Soviet Union), 3rd Panzer Army, 40th Army (Soviet Union), 48th Army (Soviet Union), 4th Airborne Corps (Soviet Union), 4th Army (Soviet Union), 4th Army (Wehrmacht), 4th Mechanized Corps (Soviet Union), 4th Panzer Army, 4th Territorial Army Corps (Romania), 50th Army (Soviet Union), 52nd Army (Soviet Union), 54th Army (Soviet Union), 55th Army (Soviet Union), 5th Guards Motor Rifle Division, 5th Mechanised Corps (Soviet Union), 5th Red Banner Army, 6th Army (Soviet Union), 6th Army (Wehrmacht), 7th Army (Soviet Union), 7th Mechanized Corps (Soviet Union), 8th Army (Soviet Union), 8th Mechanized Corps (Soviet Union), 9th Army (Soviet Union), 9th Army (Wehrmacht), 9th Mechanized Corps (Soviet Union). 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The Arkhangelsk-Astrakhan line, or A-A line for short, was the military goal of Operation Barbarossa.
The Abwehr was the German military intelligence service for the Reichswehr and Wehrmacht from 1920 to 1945.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Air supremacy is a position in war where a side holds complete control of air warfare and air power over opposing forces.
Berthold Konrad Hermann Albert Speer (March 19, 1905 – September 1, 1981) was a German architect who was, for most of World War II, Reich Minister of Armaments and War Production for Nazi Germany.
Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Vasilevsky (September 30 1895 – December 5, 1977) was a Russian career officer in the Red Army who was promoted to the rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union in 1943.
Alfred Ernst Rosenberg (12 January 1893 – 16 October 1946) was a German theorist and an influential ideologue of the Nazi Party.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Andreas Fritz Hillgruber (18 January 1925 – 8 May 1989) was a conservative German historian.
Sir Antony James Beevor, (born 14 December 1946) is an English military historian.
The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans.
Arkhangelsk (p), also known in English as Archangel and Archangelsk, is a city and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, in the north of European Russia.
Armoured warfare, mechanised warfare or tank warfare is the use of armoured fighting vehicles in modern warfare.
Army Group Centre (Heeresgruppe Mitte) was the name of two distinct German strategic army groups that fought on the Eastern Front in World War II.
Army Group North (Heeresgruppe Nord) was a German strategic echelon formation, commanding a grouping of field armies during World War II.
Army Group South (Heeresgruppe Süd) was the name of two German Army Groups during World War II.
The Karelian Army (Karjalan armeija) was a Finnish army during the Continuation War.
The Army of Norway, also simply Army Norway (Armee Norwegen), was a German army operating in the far north of Norway and Finland during World War II.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
Astrakhan (p) is a city in southern Russia and the administrative center of Astrakhan Oblast.
Attrition warfare is a military strategy consisting of belligerent attempts to win a war by wearing down the enemy to the point of collapse through continuous losses in personnel and materiel.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.
The Balkan Campaign of World War II began with the Italian invasion of Greece on 28 October 1940.
The Baltic Fleet (Балтийский флот) is the fleet of the Russian Navy in the Baltic Sea.
The Baltic Military District was a military district of the Soviet armed forces in the occupied Baltic states, formed briefly before the German invasion during the World War II.
The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.
The Battle of Kursk was a Second World War engagement between German and Soviet forces on the Eastern Front near Kursk (south-west of Moscow) in the Soviet Union, during July and August 1943.
The Battle of Moscow (translit) was a military campaign that consisted of two periods of strategically significant fighting on a sector of the Eastern Front during World War II.
The Battle of Raseiniai (23–27 June 1941) was a large tank battle that took place in the early stages of Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union.
The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was the largest confrontation of World War II, in which Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia.
Battlefield is a documentary series initially shown in 1994 that explores the most important battles fought primarily during the Second World War and the Vietnam War.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
The Byelorussian Military District (Белорусский военный округ, Belarusskiy Voyenyi Okrug; alternative spelling Belorussian) was a military district of the Soviet Armed Forces.
Białystok (Bielastok, Balstogė, Belostok, Byalistok) is the largest city in northeastern Poland and the capital of the Podlaskie Voivodeship.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
The Black Sea Campaigns were the operations of the Axis and Soviet naval forces in the Black Sea and its coastal regions during World War II between 1941 and 1944, including in support of the land forces.
The Black Sea Fleet (Черноморский Флот, Chernomorsky Flot) is the fleet of the Russian Navy in the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov and the Mediterranean Sea.
The Blockade of Germany (1939–1945), also known as the Economic War, was carried out during World War II by the United Kingdom and France in order to restrict the supplies of minerals, metals, food and textiles needed by Nazi Germany - and later Fascist Italy - in order to sustain their war efforts.
A bomber is a combat aircraft designed to attack ground and naval targets by dropping air-to-ground weaponry (such as bombs), firing torpedoes and bullets or deploying air-launched cruise missiles.
Border states or European buffer states was a political term used in the West before World War II, and referring to the European nations that won their independence from the Russian Empire after the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917, the treaty of Brest-Litovsk, and ultimately the defeat of the German Empire and Austria-Hungary in World War I. During the 20th century interwar period the nations of Western Europe implemented a border states policy which aimed at uniting these nations in defense against the Soviet Union and communist expansionism.
Boris Mikhailovitch Shaposhnikov (Бори́с Миха́йлович Ша́пошников) (– March 26, 1945) was a Soviet military commander, Chief of the Staff of the Red Army, and Marshal of the Soviet Union.
Brest Fortress (Брэсцкая крэпасць,; Брестская крепость,; Twierdza brzeska), formerly known as Brest-Litovsk Fortress, is a 19th-century Russian fortress in Brest, Belarus, the former Byelorussian SSR.
A bridgehead (or bridge-head) is the strategically important area of ground around the end of a bridge or other place of possible crossing over a body of water which at time of conflict is sought to be defended/taken over by the belligerent forces.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
Bryansk (p) is a city and the administrative center of Bryansk Oblast, Russia, located southwest of Moscow.
The Bug River (Bug or Western Bug; Західний Буг, Zakhidnyy Buh, Захо́дні Буг, Zakhodni Buh; Западный Буг, Zapadnyy Bug) is a major European river which flows through three countries with a total length of.
Bukovina (Bucovina; Bukowina/Buchenland; Bukowina; Bukovina, Буковина Bukovyna; see also other languages) is a historical region in Central Europe,Klaus Peter Berger,, Kluwer Law International, 2010, p. 132 divided between Romania and Ukraine, located on the northern slopes of the central Eastern Carpathians and the adjoining plains.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim (4 June 1867 – 27 January 1951) was a Finnish military leader and statesman.
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc roughly long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois, and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species.
Case Blue (Fall Blau), later named Operation Braunschweig, was the German Armed Forces' (Wehrmacht) name for its plan for the 1942 strategic summer offensive in southern Russia between 28 June and 24 November 1942, during World War II.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
Christopher Robert Browning (born May 22, 1944) is an American historian, known best for his works on the Holocaust.
The myth of the Clean Wehrmacht (Saubere Wehrmacht), Clean Wehrmacht legend (Legende von der sauberen Wehrmacht), or Wehrmacht's "clean hands" is the belief that the Wehrmacht was an apolitical organization along the lines of its predecessor, the Reichswehr, and was largely innocent of Nazi Germany's crimes, comporting themselves as honorably as the armed forces of the Western Allies.
A code name or cryptonym is a word or name used, sometimes clandestinely, to refer to another name, word, project or person.
Within nations occupied by the Axis Powers in World War II, some citizens and organizations, prompted by nationalism, ethnic hatred, anti-communism, antisemitism, opportunism, self-defense, or often a combination, knowingly collaborated with the Axis Powers.
Command and control or C2 is a "set of organizational and technical attributes and processes...
The Commissar Order (Kommissarbefehl) was an order issued by the German High Command (OKW) on 6 June 1941 before Operation Barbarossa.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
The Daugava (Daugova) or Western Dvina is a river rising in the Valdai Hills, Russia, flowing through Russia, Belarus, and Latvia and into the Gulf of Riga.
David M. Glantz (born January 11, 1942 in Port Chester, New York) is an American military historian known for his books on the Red Army during World War II, and the chief editor of the Journal of Slavic Military Studies. Glantz received degrees in history from the Virginia Military Institute and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and is a graduate of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, Defense Language Institute, Institute for Russian and Eastern European Studies, and U.S. Army War College. Glantz had a 30 year career in the United States Army, and served in the Vietnam War.
David Stahel (born 1975, Wellington, New Zealand) is a historian, author and professor of history at the University of New South Wales.
Deep operation (glubokaya operatsiya), also known as Soviet Deep Battle, was a military theory developed by the Soviet Union for its armed forces during the 1920s and 1930s.
Demobilization or demobilisation (see spelling differences) is the process of standing down a nation's armed forces from combat-ready status.
Dmitry Grigoryevich Pavlov (Дми́трий Григо́рьевич Па́влов; October 23, 1897July 22, 1941) was a Soviet general who commanded the key Soviet Western Front during the initial stage of the German invasion of the Soviet Union (Operation ''Barbarossa'') in June 1941.
The Dnieper River, known in Russian as: Dnepr, and in Ukrainian as Dnipro is one of the major rivers of Europe, rising near Smolensk, Russia and flowing through Russia, Belarus and Ukraine to the Black Sea.
The Dniester or Dnister River is a river in Eastern Europe.
Doctrine (from doctrina, meaning "teaching", "instruction" or "doctrine") is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the essence of teachings in a given branch of knowledge or in a belief system.
The Donbass (Донба́сс) or Donbas (Донба́с) is a historical, cultural, and economic region in eastern Ukraine and southwestern Russia.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
Einsatzgruppen ("task forces" or "deployment groups") were Schutzstaffel (SS) paramilitary death squads of Nazi Germany that were responsible for mass killings, primarily by shooting, during World War II (1939–45).
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
Erich Hoepner (14 September 1886 – 8 August 1944) was a German general during World War II.
Erich Marcks (6 June 1891 – 12 June 1944) was a German general in the Wehrmacht during World War II.
Erich von Manstein (24 November 1887 – 9 June 1973) was a German commander of the Wehrmacht, Nazi Germany's armed forces during the Second World War.
Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic or racial groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, often with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
European Russia is the western part of Russia that is a part of Eastern Europe.
The European theatre of World War II, also known as the Second European War, was a huge area of heavy fighting across Europe, from Germany's and the Soviet Union's joint invasion of Poland in September 1939 until the end of the war with the Soviet Union conquering most of Eastern Europe along with the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945 (Victory in Europe Day).
Fedor von Bock (3 December 1880 – 4 May 1945) was a German field marshal who served in the German army during the Second World War.
A fifth column is any group of people who undermine a larger group from within, usually in favour of an enemy group or nation.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
The Finnish Army (Finnish: Maavoimat, Swedish: Armén) is the land forces branch of the Finnish Defence Forces.
The III Corps (III Armeijakunta) was a unit of the Finnish Army during the Continuation War.
The 1st Battle of Kharkov, so named by Wilhelm Keitel, was the 1941 battle for the city of Kharkov (KharkivKharkov is the Russian language name of the city (Kharkiv the Ukrainian one); both Russian and Ukrainian were official languages in the Soviet Union (Source: & by Routledge)) (Ukrainian SSR) during the final phase of Operation Barbarossa between the German 6th Army of Army Group South and the Soviet Southwestern Front.
The use of forced labour and slavery in Nazi Germany and throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II took place on an unprecedented scale.
Fordham University is a private research university in New York City.
The Fourth Army (Armata a 4-a Română) was a field army (a military formation) of the Romanian Land Forces active from the 19th century to the 1990s.
Franz Halder (30 June 1884 – 2 April 1972) was a German general and the chief of the Oberkommando des Heeres staff (OKH, Army High Command) from 1938 until September 1942, when he was dismissed after frequent disagreements with Adolf Hitler.
Frederick I (Friedrich I, Federico I; 1122 – 10 June 1190), also known as Frederick Barbarossa (Federico Barbarossa), was the Holy Roman Emperor from 2 January 1155 until his death.
The French invasion of Russia, known in Russia as the Patriotic War of 1812 (Отечественная война 1812 года Otechestvennaya Voyna 1812 Goda) and in France as the Russian Campaign (Campagne de Russie), began on 24 June 1812 when Napoleon's Grande Armée crossed the Neman River in an attempt to engage and defeat the Russian army.
Fyodor Isidorovich Kuznetsov (Фёдор Исидо́рович Кузнецо́в; 29 September 1898 – 22 March 1961) was a Colonel General and military commander in the Soviet Union.
Gabriel Gorodetsky (born 13 May 1945) is a Quondam Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, and emeritus professor of history at Tel Aviv University.
In the Nuremberg Trials there was a document referred to as the "Green Folder" of Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring.
The Generalplan Ost (Master Plan for the East), abbreviated GPO, was the German government's plan for the genocide and ethnic cleansing on a vast scale, and colonization of Central and Eastern Europe by Germans.
The Geneva Convention (1929) was signed at Geneva, July 27, 1929.
Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (Чингис хаан, Çingis hán) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan; born Temüjin, c. 1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.
Geopolitics (from Greek γῆ gê "earth, land" and πολιτική politikḗ "politics") is the study of the effects of geography (human and physical) on politics and international relations.
Georg Thomas (20 February 1890 – 29 December 1946) was a German general in the Third Reich.
Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (– 18 June 1974) was a Soviet Red Army General who became Chief of General Staff, Deputy Commander-in-Chief, Minister of Defence and a member of the Politburo.
Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (12 December 1875 – 24 February 1953) was a Field Marshal in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Gerhard Engel (13 April 1906 – 9 December 1976) was a German general during World War II who commanded several divisions after serving as an adjutant to Adolf Hitler.
A list of Luftwaffe "Luftflotten" (Air Fleets) and their locations between 1939 and 1945.
The German Army (Heer) was the land forces component of the Wehrmacht, the regular German Armed Forces, from 1935 until it was demobilized and later dissolved in August 1946.
The German Federal Archives or Bundesarchiv (BArch) (Bundesarchiv) are the National Archives of Germany.
During World War II, Nazi Germany engaged in a policy of deliberate maltreatment of Soviet prisoners of war (POWs), in contrast to their treatment of British and American POWs.
In October and November 1940, German–Soviet Axis talks occurred concerning the Soviet Union's potential entry as a fourth Axis Power in World War II.
The German–Soviet Border and Commercial Agreement, signed on January 10, 1941, was a broad agreement settling border disputes and continuing raw materials and war machine trade between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany.
The 1940 German-Soviet Commercial Agreement (also known as Economic Agreement of February 11, 1940, Between the German Reich and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) was an economic arrangement between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany signed on February 11, 1940 by which the Soviet Union agreed in period from February 11, 1940 to February 11, 1941, in addition to the deliveries under German–Soviet Commercial Agreement, signed on August 19, 1939 deliver the commodities (oil, raw materials and grain) to the value of 420 to 430 million Reichsmarks.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Germany and the Second World War (Das Deutsche Reich und der Zweite Weltkrieg) is a 12,000-page, 13-volume work published by the Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt (DVA), that has taken academics from the military history centre of the German armed forces 30 years to finish.
The Gestapo, abbreviation of Geheime Staatspolizei (Secret State Police), was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe.
The Great Purge or the Great Terror (Большо́й терро́р) was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union which occurred from 1936 to 1938.
Grodno or Hrodna (Гродна, Hrodna; ˈɡrodnə, see also other names) is a city in western Belarus.
Gross national product (GNP) is the market value of all the goods and services produced in one year by labor and property supplied by the citizens of a country.
The Gyorshadtest (variously translated "Rapid Corps", "Fast Corps" or "Mobile Corps") was the most modern and best-equipped mechanized unit of the Royal Hungarian Army (Magyar Királyi Honvédség) at the beginning of World War II.
The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 are a series of international treaties and declarations negotiated at two international peace conferences at The Hague in the Netherlands.
Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (Protection Squadron; SS), and a leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) of Germany.
Heinrich Müller (28 April 1900; date of death unknown, but evidence points to May 1945) was a German police official under both the Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany.
Heinz Wilhelm Guderian (17 June 1888 – 14 May 1954) was a German general during the Nazi era.
Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering;; 12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German political and military leader as well as one of the most powerful figures in the Nazi Party (NSDAP) that ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945.
Hermann Hoth (12 April 1885 – 25 January 1971) was a German army commander and war criminal during World War II.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The Hunger Plan (der Hungerplan; der Backe-Plan) was a plan developed by Nazi Germany during World War II to seize food from the Soviet Union and give it to German soldiers and civilians; the plan entailed the death by starvation of millions of so-called "racially inferior" Slavs following Operation Barbarossa, the 1941 invasion of the Soviet Union.
Icebreaker: Who Started the Second World War?, by Viktor Suvorov (Russian title: Ledokol, Ледокол) is a book which leads a reader to believe that Stalin used Nazi Germany as an "icebreaker" to start a war in Europe which would allow for the Soviet Union to come in, clean up, and take control of all of Europe.
An Ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons.
IMG, originally known as the International Management Group, is a global sports, other events and talent management company headquartered in New York City.
An intelligence agency is a government agency responsible for the collection, analysis, and exploitation of information in support of law enforcement, national security, military, and foreign policy objectives.
In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.
The invasion of Yugoslavia, also known as the April War or Operation 25, was a German-led attack on the Kingdom of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers which began on 6 April 1941 during World War II.
Ion Antonescu (– June 1, 1946) was a Romanian soldier and authoritarian politician who, as the Prime Minister and Conducător during most of World War II, presided over two successive wartime dictatorships.
During World War II, the Italian Expeditionary Corps in Russia (Corpo di Spedizione Italiano in Russia, or CSIR) was a corps-sized expeditionary unit of the Regio Esercito (Italian Army) that fought on the Eastern Front.
Ivan Vladimirovich Tyulenev (28 January 189215 August 1978) was a Soviet military commander, one of the first to be promoted to the rank of General of the Army in 1940.
Jürgen Förster (born 1940) is a German historian who specialises in the history of Nazi Germany and World War II.
Jewish Bolshevism, also Judeo–Bolshevism, is an anti-communist and antisemitic canard, which alleges that the Jews were the originators of the Russian Revolution in 1917 and that they held the primary power among the Bolsheviks.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Joachim Hoffmann (1 December 1930 – 8 February 2002) was a German historian and scientific director of the German Armed Forces Military History Research Office.
Paul Joseph Goebbels (29 October 1897 – 1 May 1945) was a German Nazi politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Kalevala (Калевала; Kalevala) is an urban locality (an urban-type settlement) and the administrative center of Kalevalsky District in the Republic of Karelia, Russia.
Kandalaksha (Кандала́кша; Kantalahti, also Kandalax or Candalax in the old maps; Kannanlakši; Käddluhtt) is a town in Kandalakshsky District of Murmansk Oblast, Russia, located at the head of Kandalaksha Gulf on the White Sea, north of the Arctic Circle.
Kayraly (Kairala, Кайралы) is the rural locality (a Posyolok) in Kandalakshskiy District of Murmansk Oblast, Russia.
Kharkiv (Ха́рків), also known as Kharkov (Ха́рьков) from Russian, is the second-largest city in Ukraine.
Khiytola (Хийтола; Hiitola) is a rural locality (a settlement) in Lakhdenpokhsky District of the Republic of Karelia, Russia.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
Railway between Murmansk on the Arctic Ocean and Saint Petersburg on the Baltic Sea Kirov Railway (Кировская железная дорога, Kirovskaya zheleznaya doroga, to 1935 Murman Railway) is a broad gauge Russian railway network that links the Murman Coast and Murmansk city (in the north) and Saint Petersburg (in the south).
Kliment Yefremovich Voroshilov (Kliment Jefremovič Vorošilov; Климент Охрімович Ворошилов, Klyment Okhrimovyč Vorošylov), popularly known as Klim Voroshilov (Клим Вороши́лов, Klim Vorošilov) (4 February 1881 – 2 December 1969), was a prominent Soviet military officer and politician during the Stalin era.
The Kliment Voroshilov (KV) tanks were a series of Soviet heavy tanks named after the Soviet defence commissar and politician Kliment Voroshilov and used by the Red Army during World War II.
Lake Ladoga (p or p; Laatokka;; Ladog, Ladoganjärv) is a freshwater lake located in the Republic of Karelia and Leningrad Oblast in northwestern Russia, in the vicinity of Saint Petersburg.
Lake Onega (also known as Onego, p; Ääninen or Äänisjärvi; Oniegu or Oniegu-järve; Änine or Änižjärv) is a lake in the north-west European part of Russia, located on the territory of Republic of Karelia, Leningrad Oblast and Vologda Oblast.
The German concept of Lebensraum ("living space") comprises policies and practices of settler colonialism which proliferated in Germany from the 1890s to the 1940s.
The Leningrad Military District was a military district of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.
Leningrad Oblast (lʲɪnʲɪnˈgratskəjə ˈobləsʲtʲ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
An example of levée en masse (or, in English, "mass levy") was the policy of forced mass military conscription of all able-bodied, unmarried men between the ages of 18 and 25 adopted in the aftermath of the French Revolution of 1789.
Luftflotte 1 (Air Fleet 1) was one of the primary divisions of the German Luftwaffe in World War II.
Luftflotte 2 (Air Fleet 2) was one of the primary divisions of the German Luftwaffe in World War II.
Luftflotte 4 (Air Fleet 4) was one of the primary divisions of the German Luftwaffe in World War II.
The Luga River is a river in Novgorodsky and Batetsky Districts of Novgorod Oblast and Luzhsky, Volosovsky, Slantsevsky, and Kingiseppsky Districts of Leningrad Oblast of Russia.
Markian Mikhaylovich Popov (19021969) was a Soviet military commander, Army General (26 August 1943), and Hero of the Soviet Union (1965).
Marshal of the Soviet Union (Маршал Советского Союза) was the highest military rank of the Soviet Union, below Generalissimus of the Soviet Union.
Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public.
Martin Bormann (17 June 1900 – 2 May 1945) was a prominent official in Nazi Germany as head of the Nazi Party Chancellery.
A massacre is a killing, typically of multiple victims, considered morally unacceptable, especially when perpetrated by a group of political actors against defenseless victims.
The master race (die Herrenrasse) is a concept in Nazi and Neo-Nazi ideology in which the Nordic or Aryan races, predominant among Germans and other northern European peoples, are deemed the highest in racial hierarchy.
A mechanised corps was a Soviet armoured formation used prior to the beginning of World War II.
Medvezhyegorsk (Медвежьего́рск; Karhumägi; Karhumäki) is a town and the administrative center of Medvezhyegorsky District of the Republic of Karelia, Russia.
Mein Kampf (My Struggle) is a 1925 autobiographical book by Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler.
Mikhail Petrovich Kirponos (Михаи́л Петро́вич Кирпоно́с, Михайло Петрович Кирпонос, Mykhailo Petrovych Kyrponos; 12 January 1892 – 20 September 1941) was a Soviet Ukrainian general of the Red Army during World War II.
Mikhail Ivanovich Meltyukhov (Russian: Михаил Иванович Мельтюхов), (born 14 March 1966), is a Russian military historian.
Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky (Михаи́л Никола́евич Тухаче́вский; – June 12, 1937) was a leading Soviet military leader and theoretician from 1918 to 1937.
In the Soviet Union, a military district (вое́нный о́круг, voyenny okrug) was a territorial association of military units, formations, military schools, and various local military administrative establishments.
A military reserve force is a military organisation composed of citizens of a country who combine a military role or career with a civilian career.
The Ministry of Aviation, December 1938 The Ministry of Aviation (Reichsluftfahrtministerium), abbreviated RLM, was a government department during the period of Nazi Germany (1933–45).
Minsk (Мінск,; Минск) is the capital and largest city of Belarus, situated on the Svislach and the Nyamiha Rivers.
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (shortly: Moldavian SSR, abbr.: MSSR; Republica Sovietică Socialistă Moldovenească, in Cyrillic alphabet: Република Советикэ Сочиалистэ Молдовеняскэ; Молда́вская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика Moldavskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), also known to as Soviet Moldavia or Soviet Moldova, was one of the fifteen republics of the Soviet Union existed from 1940 to 1991.
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact,Charles Peters (2005), Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World, New York: PublicAffairs, Ch.
The Moscow Canal (Кана́л и́мени Москвы́), named the Moskva-Volga Canal until 1947, is a canal that connects the Moskva River with the Volga River.
The Moscow Kremlin (p), usually referred to as the Kremlin, is a fortified complex at the heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River to the south, Saint Basil's Cathedral and Red Square to the east, and the Alexander Garden to the west.
Moscow metropolitan area (Московская агломерация) or Moscow capital region (Московский столичный регион) is the largest metropolitan area in Russia and Europe, with population of about 16,170,000.
In NATO and most other western countries, motorized infantry is infantry that is transported by trucks or other un-protected motor vehicles.
Mountain Corps Norway (Gebirgskorps Norwegen) was a German army unit during World War II.
MozhayskAlternative transliterations include Mozhaisk, Mozhajsk, Mozhaĭsk, and Možajsk.
Murmansk (p; Мурман ланнҍ; Murmánska; Muurman) is a port city and the administrative center of Murmansk Oblast in the far northwest part of Russia.
Muskegon Community College (MCC) is a community college located at 221 S. Quarterline Rd., Muskegon, Michigan.
The People's Militia (t) was the name given to irregular troops formed from the population in Russia and later the Soviet Union.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
After the Nazis rose to power in Germany in 1933, relations between Germany and the Soviet Union began to deteriorate rapidly, and trade between the two countries decreased.
Nizhny Novgorod (p), colloquially shortened to Nizhny, is a city in Russia and the administrative center (capital) of Volga Federal District and Nizhny Novgorod Oblast.
The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del), abbreviated NKVD (НКВД), was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union.
The Nordic race was one of the putative sub-races into which some late-19th to mid-20th-century anthropologists divided the Caucasian race.
The North Caucasus (p) or Ciscaucasia is the northern part of the Caucasus region between the Sea of Azov and Black Sea on the west and the Caspian Sea on the east, within European Russia.
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
The Northern Fleet (Северный флот, Severnyy Flot) is the fleet of the Russian Navy in the Arctic Ocean.
The Northern Front (Северный фронт) was a front of the Red Army during the Second World War.
Northwest Russia or Northern European Russia can be roughly defined as that part of European Russia bounded by Finland, the Arctic Ocean, the Ural Mountains and the east-flowing part of the Volga River.
The Northwestern Front (Russian: Северо-Западный фронт) was a military formation of the Red Army during the Winter War and World War II.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
The Oberkommando der Luftwaffe (OKL), translated as the High Command of the Air Force in English, was the high command of the Luftwaffe.
The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW, "High Command of the Armed Forces") was the High Command of the Wehrmacht (armed forces) of Nazi Germany during World War II.
The Oberkommando des Heeres (OKH) was the High Command of the German Army during the Era of Nazi Germany.
The Odessa Military District (Одесский военный округ, ОВО) was a military administrative division of the Imperial Russian military, the Soviet Armed Forces and the Ukrainian Armed Forces and was known under such name from around 1862 to 1998.
An "oil field" or "oilfield" is a region with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (crude oil) from below ground.
Olonets (Оло́нец; Aunus, Anuksenlinnu; Aunus, Aunuksenlinna or Aunuksenkaupunki) is a town and the administrative center of Olonetsky District of the Republic of Karelia, Russia, located on the Olonka River to the east from Lake Ladoga.
Operation Bagration (Операция Багратио́н, Operatsiya Bagration) was the codename for the Soviet 1944 Belorussian Strategic Offensive Operation, (Белорусская наступательная операция «Багратион», Belorusskaya nastupatelnaya Operatsiya Bagration) a military campaign fought between 22 June and 19 August 1944 in Soviet Byelorussia in the Eastern Front of World War II.
Operation Citadel (Unternehmen Zitadelle) was a German offensive operation against Soviet forces in the Kursk salient during the Second World War on the Eastern Front that initiated the Battle of Kursk.
Operation Haifisch (Shark) was a German codename for the cover operation against Great Britain in World War II, intended (like Operation Harpune) to conceal preparations for Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union.
In World War II, Operation Harpune (Harpoon) was the major German deception plan of 1941.
Operation Kilpapurjehdus ("Regatta") was the covername for the militarization of the Åland islands.
Operation Otto (also known as Plan Otto) was the code name for two independent plans by Nazi Germany.
Operation Rentier (Reindeer) was a German operation during World War II intended to secure the nickel mines around Petsamo in Finland, against a Soviet attack in the event of a renewed war between Finland and the Soviet Union.
Operation Silver Fox (Silberfuchs; Hopeakettu) from 29 June to 17 November 1941, was a German–Finnish military operation during World War II.
Oryol or Orel (p, lit. eagle) is a city and the administrative center of Oryol Oblast, Russia, located on the Oka River, approximately south-southwest of Moscow.
Ostarbeiter ("Eastern worker") was a Nazi German designation for foreign slave workers gathered from occupied Central and Eastern Europe to perform forced labor in Germany during World War II.
Ostsiedlung (literally east settling), in English called the German eastward expansion, was the medieval eastward migration and settlement of Germanic-speaking peoples from the Holy Roman Empire, especially its southern and western portions, into less-populated regions of Central Europe, parts of west Eastern Europe, and the Baltics.
The word Panzer is a German word that means "armour" or specifically, "tank".
Parameters is a quarterly academic journal published by the United States Army War College.
Paul Ludwig Ewald von Kleist (8 August 1881 – 13 November 1954) was a German field marshal during World War II.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
Pechengsky District (Пе́ченгский райо́н; Petsamo; Peisen; Beahcán; Peäccam) is an administrative district (raion), one of the six in Murmansk Oblast, Russia.
Petrozavodsk (p; Karelian, Vepsian & Petroskoi; Finland Swedish: Petroskoj) is the capital city of the Republic of Karelia, Russia, which stretches along the western shore of Lake Onega for some.
The pincer movement, or double envelopment, is a military maneuver in which forces simultaneously attack both flanks (sides) of an enemy formation.
The Pinsk Marshes (Пінскія балоты, Pinskiya baloty), also known as the Pripet Marshes (Прыпяцкія балоты, Prypiackija baloty) and the Rokitno Marshes, are a vast natural region of wetlands along the forested basin of the Pripyat River and its tributaries from Brest to the west to Mogilev to the northeast and Kiev to the southeast.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
In the military, a political commissar or political officer (or politruk, from политический руководитель, "political leader"), is a supervisory officer responsible for the political education (ideology) and organization of the unit they are assigned to, and intended to ensure civilian control of the military.
Povenets (Повене́ц; Povenča; Poventsa) is an urban locality (an urban-type settlement) in Medvezhyegorsky District of the Republic of Karelia, Russia, located on the shore of Lake Onega, north of Petrozavodsk, the capital of the republic.
A preemptive war is a war that is commenced in an attempt to repel or defeat a perceived imminent offensive or invasion, or to gain a strategic advantage in an impending (allegedly unavoidable) war shortly before that attack materializes.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
The Prut (also spelled in English as Pruth;, Прут) is a long river in Eastern Europe.
Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual, but are incompatible with the scientific method.
Pskov (p; see also names in other languages) is a city and the administrative center of Pskov Oblast, Russia, located about east from the Estonian border, on the Velikaya River.
The racial policy of Nazi Germany was a set of policies and laws implemented in Nazi Germany (1933–45) based on a specific racist doctrine asserting the superiority of the Aryan race, which claimed scientific legitimacy.
Rasputitsa (p) is a Russian language term for two periods of the year (or "seasons") when travel on unpaved roads becomes difficult, owing to muddy conditions from rain or thawing snow.
Raul Hilberg (June 2, 1926 – August 4, 2007) was an Austrian-born Jewish-American political scientist and historian.
In military operations, reconnaissance or scouting is the exploration outside an area occupied by friendly forces to gain information about natural features and other activities in the area.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The Reich Main Security OfficeReichssicherheitshauptamt is variously translated as "Reich Main Security Office", "Reich Security Main Office", "Reich Central Security Main Office", "Reich Security Central Office", "Reich Head Security Office", or "Reich Security Head Office".
The Reich Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda (Reichsministerium für Volksaufklärung und Propaganda, RMVP or Propagandaministerium) was a Nazi government agency to enforce Nazi ideology.
Reichskommissar (rendered as Commissioner of the Empire or as Reich - or Imperial Commissioner), in German history, was an official gubernatorial title used for various public offices during the period of the German Empire and the Nazi Third Reich.
The Reichskommissariat Kaukasus (or Kaukasien; Рейхскомиссариат Кавказ), was the theoretical political division and planned civilian occupation regime of Germany in the conquered territories of the Caucasus during World War II.
Reichskommissariat Moskowien (also rendered as Moskau, abbreviated as RKM; Рейхскомиссариат Московия), literally "Reich Commissariat of Muscovy (or Moscow)", was the civilian occupation regime that Nazi Germany intended to create in central and northern European Russia during World War II, one of several similar Reichskommissariat.
Nazi Germany established the Reichskommissariat Ostland (RKO) in 1941 as the civilian occupation regime in the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania), the northeastern part of Poland and the west part of the Belarusian SSR during World War II.
Reichskommissariat Turkestan (also spelled as Turkistan, abbreviated as RKT), was a projected Reichskommissariat that Germany proposed to create in the Central Asian Republics of the Soviet Union in its military conflict with that country during World War II.
During World War II, Reichskommissariat Ukraine (abbreviated as RKU), was the civilian occupation regime (Reichskommissariat) of much of Nazi German-occupied Ukraine (which included adjacent areas of modern-day Belarus and pre-war Second Polish Republic).
Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich (7 March 1904 – 4 June 1942) was a high-ranking German Nazi official during World War II, and a main architect of the Holocaust.
The Reserve of the Supreme High Command (Russian: Резерв Верховного Главнокомандования) (also known as Stavka Reserve or RVGK) comprised formations and units which acted as the principal military reserve of the Soviet Red Army during World War II and now of the Russian Armed Forces.
A reservist is a person who is a member of a military reserve force.
Richard Sorge (October 4, 1895 – November 7, 1944) was a Soviet military intelligence officer, active before and during World War II, working as an undercover German journalist in both Nazi Germany and the Empire of Japan.
Risto Heikki Ryti (–) was the fifth president of Finland, from 1940 to 1944.
Robert John Service (born 29 October 1947) is a British historian, academic, and author who has written extensively on the history of the Soviet Union, particularly the era from the October Revolution to Stalin's death.
The Romanian Navy during World War II was the main Axis naval force in the Black Sea and fought against the Soviet Union's Black Sea Fleet from 1941 to 1944.
Rostov-on-Don (p) is a port city and the administrative center of Rostov Oblast and the Southern Federal District of Russia.
Rybachy Peninsula (полуо́стров Рыба́чий, poluostrov Rybachy; Giehkirnjárga; Fiskerhalvøya; Kalastajasaarento) is the northernmost part of continental European Russia.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Salla (Kuolajärvi until 1936) is a municipality of Finland, located in Lapland.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
The Sea of Azov (Азо́вское мо́ре, Azóvskoje móre; Азо́вське мо́ре, Azóvśke móre; Azaq deñizi, Азакъ денъизи, ازاق دﻩﯕىزى) is a sea in Eastern Europe.
Security Divisions (German: Sicherungs-Divisionen) were rear-area security units in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany.
Semyon Mikhailovich Budyonny (a; – October 26, 1973) was a Russian cavalryman, a military commander during the Russian Civil War and World War II, and a close political ally of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin.
Semyon Konstantinovich Timoshenko (Семён Константи́нович Тимоше́нко, Semën Konstantinovič Timošenko; Семе́н Костянти́нович Тимоше́нко, Semen Kostiantynovych Tymoshenko) (– 31 March 1970) was a Soviet military commander and Marshal of the Soviet Union.
The Separate Coastal Army (Приморская армия) was an army-level unit in the Red Army that fought in World War II.
Shlisselburg (p; Schlüsselburg; Nöteborg) is a town in Kirovsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located at the head of the Neva River on Lake Ladoga, east of St. Petersburg.
In economics, a shortage or excess demand is a situation in which the demand for a product or service exceeds its supply in a market.
The Siege of Leningrad (also known as the Leningrad Blockade (Блокада Ленинграда, transliteration: Blokada Leningrada) and the 900-Day Siege) was a prolonged military blockade undertaken from the south by the Army Group North of Nazi Germany and the Finnish Army in the north, against Leningrad, historically and currently known as Saint Petersburg, in the Eastern Front theatre of World War II.
Slavko Kvaternik (25 August 1878 – 7 June 1947) was a Croatian politician who, alongside Ante Pavelić, founded the Croatian nationalist movement known as the Ustaše and a direct perpetrator of the Holocaust in the Independent State of Croatia.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Smolensk (a) is a city and the administrative center of Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located on the Dnieper River, west-southwest of Moscow.
Sortavala (till 1918 Serdobol; Со́ртавала; Finnish and Sortavala; Sordavala) is a town in the Republic of Karelia, Russia, located at the northern tip of Lake Ladoga.
The Southern Front was a Front – a roughly Army group sized formation – of the Soviet Army during the Second World War.
The Southwestern Front was a name given to a Front (or Army group sized military formation) by the Imperial Russian Army during the First World War, by the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic during the Russian Civil War, and by the Red Army during the Second World War.
The Soviet Air Defence Forces (войска ПВО, voyska protivovozdushnoy oborony, voyska PVO, V-PVO, lit. Anti-Air Defence Troops; and formerly protivovozdushnaya oborona strany, PVO strany, lit. Anti-Air Defence of the Nation) was the air defence branch of the Soviet Armed Forces.
The Soviet Air Forces (r (VVS), literally "Military Air Forces") was the official designation of one of the air forces of the Soviet Union.
Soviet Central Asia refers to the section of Central Asia formerly controlled by the Soviet Union, as well as the time period of Soviet administration (1918–1991).
The Soviet invasion of Poland was a Soviet Union military operation that started without a formal declaration of war on 17 September 1939.
The Soviet offensive plans controversy is the debate among historians about whether Soviet leader Joseph Stalin planned to attack Axis forces in Eastern Europe prior to Operation Barbarossa.
The Soviet partisans were members of resistance movements that fought a guerrilla war against the Axis forces in the Soviet Union, the previously Soviet-occupied territories of interwar Poland in 1941–45 and eastern Finland.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
In the field of international relations, a sphere of influence (SOI) is a spatial region or concept division over which a state or organization has a level of cultural, economic, military, or political exclusivity, accommodating to the interests of powers outside the borders of the state that controls it.
The Stalin Line was a line of fortifications along the western border of the Soviet Union.
The Stavka (Ставка) was the high command of the armed forces in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union.
In physical geography, a steppe (p) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.
The Svir (Veps:, Karelian/Finnish: Syväri) is a river in Podporozhsky, Lodeynopolsky, and Volkhovsky districts in the north-east of Leningrad Oblast, Russia.
The T-34 is a Soviet medium tank that had a profound and lasting effect on the field of tank design.
A tank is an armoured fighting vehicle designed for front-line combat, with heavy firepower, strong armour, tracks and a powerful engine providing good battlefield maneuverability.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The Myth of the Eastern Front: The Nazi-Soviet War in American Popular Culture is a 2008 book by the American historians Ronald Smelser and Edward J. Davies of the University of Utah.
The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany is a book by William L. Shirer chronicling the rise and fall of Nazi Germany from the birth of Adolf Hitler in 1889 to the end of World War II in 1945.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
The Wehrmacht: History, Myth, Reality is a 2002 book by German historian Wolfram Wette which dealt with the issue of Wehrmacht's criminality during World War II and the legend of its "clean hands".
The 3rd Army (Armata a 3-a Română) was a field army of the Romanian Land Forces active from the 19th century to the 1990s.
The Third Crusade (1189–1192), was an attempt by European Christian leaders to reconquer the Holy Land following the capture of Jerusalem by the Ayyubid sultan, Saladin, in 1187.
Below is the timeline of the events of the Eastern Front of World War II, the conflict between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union from 1941 to 1945.
The Tripartite Pact, also known as the Berlin Pact, was an agreement between Germany, Italy and Japan signed in Berlin on 27 September 1940 by, respectively, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Galeazzo Ciano and Saburō Kurusu.
Tula (p) is an industrial city and the administrative center of Tula Oblast, Russia, located south of Moscow, on the Upa River.
The Turkmens (Türkmenler, Түркменлер, IPA) are a nation and Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily the Turkmen nation state of Turkmenistan.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR or UkrSSR or UkSSR; Украї́нська Радя́нська Соціалісти́чна Респу́бліка, Украї́нська РСР, УРСР; Украи́нская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика, Украи́нская ССР, УССР; see "Name" section below), also known as the Soviet Ukraine, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union from the Union's inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991. The republic was governed by the Communist Party of Ukraine as a unitary one-party socialist soviet republic. The Ukrainian SSR was a founding member of the United Nations, although it was legally represented by the All-Union state in its affairs with countries outside of the Soviet Union. Upon the Soviet Union's dissolution and perestroika, the Ukrainian SSR was transformed into the modern nation-state and renamed itself to Ukraine. Throughout its 72-year history, the republic's borders changed many times, with a significant portion of what is now Western Ukraine being annexed by Soviet forces in 1939 from the Republic of Poland, and the addition of Zakarpattia in 1946. From the start, the eastern city of Kharkiv served as the republic's capital. However, in 1934, the seat of government was subsequently moved to the city of Kiev, Ukraine's historic capital. Kiev remained the capital for the rest of the Ukrainian SSR's existence, and remained the capital of independent Ukraine after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Geographically, the Ukrainian SSR was situated in Eastern Europe to the north of the Black Sea, bordered by the Soviet republics of Moldavia, Byelorussia, and the Russian SFSR. The Ukrainian SSR's border with Czechoslovakia formed the Soviet Union's western-most border point. According to the Soviet Census of 1989 the republic had a population of 51,706,746 inhabitants, which fell sharply after the breakup of the Soviet Union. For most of its existence, it ranked second only to the Russian SFSR in population, economic and political power.
Uman (Умань,; Humań) is a city located in Cherkasy Oblast (province) in central Ukraine, to the east of Vinnytsia.
Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will with the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), compulsion, or other forms of extreme hardship to themselves or members of their families.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Army War College (USAWC) is a U.S. Army educational institution in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, on the 500-acre (2 km²) campus of the historic Carlisle Barracks.
Untermensch (underman, sub-man, subhuman; plural: Untermenschen) is a term that became infamous when the Nazis used it to describe non-Aryan "inferior people" often referred to as "the masses from the East", that is Jews, Roma, and Slavs – mainly ethnic Poles, Serbs, and later also Russians.
Valeri Danilov (also spelled: Valeriy; Russian:Валерий Дмитриевич Данилов) is a Russian military historian and a retired officer (Colonel).
Vaseline Also pronounced with the main stress on the last syllable.
The Verman River (Верман Река, 'Vermanjoki') is a river in Murmansk Oblast, Russia.
Vladimir Bogdanovich Rezun, Влади́мир Богда́нович Резу́н, born April 20, 1947, in Barabash, Primorsky Krai, and known as Viktor Suvorov (Ви́ктор Суво́ров), is a Russian writer and a former Soviet military intelligence officer who defected to the United Kingdom.
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
Vladimir Nevezhin (Владимир Александрович Невежин) is a Russian historian (Doctor of History Sciences), is working as a professor in Moscow, chief scientific collaborator at the Institute of Russian History (of the Russian Academy of Science) and member of the editorial board of the journal Отечественная история (History of the Fatherland).
The Volga (p) is the longest river in Europe.
The Vuoksi (Вуокса; Vuoksi; Vuoksen) is a river running through the northernmost part of the Karelian Isthmus from Lake Saimaa in southeastern Finland to Lake Ladoga in northwestern Russia.
Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov (né Skryabin; 9 March 1890 – 8 November 1986) was a Soviet politician and diplomat, an Old Bolshevik, and a leading figure in the Soviet government from the 1920s, when he rose to power as a protégé of Joseph Stalin.
Vyazma (Вя́зьма) is a town and the administrative center of Vyazemsky District in Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located on the Vyazma River, about halfway between Smolensk, the administrative center of the oblast, and Mozhaysk.
Vyborg (p; Viipuri,; Viborg; Wiborg; Viiburi) is a town in, and the administrative center of, Vyborgsky District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia.
The Waffen-SS (Armed SS) was the armed wing of the Nazi Party's SS organisation.
Walther von Brauchitsch (4 October 1881 – 18 October 1948) was a German field marshal and the Commander-in-Chief of the German Army during the Nazi era.
A war diary is a regularly updated official record kept by military units of their activities during wartime.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
The Western Front was a front of the Red Army, one of the Red Army Fronts during World War II.
Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb (5 September 1876 – 29 April 1956) was a German field marshal and World War II war criminal.
William Lawrence Shirer (February 23, 1904 – December 28, 1993) was an American journalist and war correspondent.
The Winter War was a military conflict between the Soviet Union (USSR) and Finland.
Winterization is the process of preparing something for winter.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
World War II In HD Colour is a 13-episode television documentary series recounting the major events of World War II narrated by Robert Powell.
The XXXVI Corps was a German military formation in World War II.
Yad Vashem (יָד וַשֵׁם; literally, "a monument and a name") is Israel's official memorial to the victims of the Holocaust.
The Soviet Army's Yelnya Offensive operation (August 30 – September 8, 1941) was part of the Battle of Smolensk during the German Operation Barbarossa on the German-Soviet War.
Zapadnaya Litsa River (Западная Лица; Sapadnaja Liza) is a river in the north of the Kola Peninsula in Murmansk Oblast, Russia.
The 10th Army of the Soviet Union's Red Army was a field army active from 1939 to 1944.
The 10th Mechanized Corps was a formation in the Soviet Red Army during the Second World War.
The 11th Army was an army of the Red Army, formed four times.
The 11th Army (11.) was a World War II field army.
The Soviet Union's 12th Army was a field army formed multiple times during the Russian Civil War and World War II.
The 12th Mechanized Corps was a formation in the Soviet Red Army during the Second World War.
The 13th Army (Russian: 13-я армия 13-ya armiya) was a name given to several field armies of the Soviet Union's Red Army, first created during the Russian Civil War.
The 14th Army was a field army of the Soviet Army, formed twice.
The 16th Army was a Soviet field army active from 1940 to 1945.
The 16th Army (16.) was a World War II field army of the Wehrmacht.
The German Seventeenth Army (German: 17. Armee) was a World War II field army.
The 17th Mechanized Corps (Military Unit Number 9406) was a mechanised unit of the Red Army.
The 18th Army of the Soviet Union's Red Army was formed on 21 June 1941 on the basis of HQ Kharkov Military District and armies of the Kiev Special Military District.
The 18th Army (German: 18. Armee) was a World War II field army in the German Wehrmacht.
The 19th Army was a field army of the Soviet Union's Red Army, formed in 1941 and active during the Second World War.
The 1st Mechanized Corps was a formation in the Soviet Red Army during World War II.
The 1st Panzer Army (1.) was a German tank army which was a large armoured formation of the Wehrmacht during World War II.
The 20th Army was a field army of the Red Army that fought on the Eastern Front during World War II.
The 20th Motor Rifle Division (Cyrillic: 20 гвардейская мотострелковая Прикарпатско-Берлинская дивизия) was a formation of the Russian Ground Forces, originally formed within the Soviet Red Army as the 3rd Mechanised Corps.
The German 20th Infantry Division was an infantry division of Nazi Germany.
The 20th Mechanized Corps (Military Unit Number 2802) was a mechanized corps of the Red Army.
The Soviet 21st Army was a field army of the Red Army during World War II.
The 22nd Army was a field army of the Russian Ground Forces, part of the Moscow Military District.
The 23rd Army was a Field Army of the Soviet Union's Red Army.
The 24th Army was a field army of the Soviet Union's Red Army, formed in 1941 and active during the Second World War.
The 25th Mechanized Corps (Military Unit Number 7655) was a Mechanized corps of the Red Army.
The 26th Army (Russian: 26-я армия 26-ya armiya) was a field army of the Soviet Union's Red Army, active from 1941.
The 26th Mechanized Corps (Military Unit Number 7476) was a Mechanized corps of the Red Army.
The 27th Army was a field army of the Soviet Union's Red Army, which fought in World War II.
The 28th Army was a field army of the Red Army and the Soviet Ground Forces, formed three times in 1941–42 and active during the postwar period for many years in the Belorussian Military District.
The 2nd Army (German: 2. Armee Oberkommando) was a World War II field army.
The 2nd Mechanised Corps was a formation in the Soviet Red Army during the Second World War.
The 2nd Panzer Army (2.) was a German armoured formation during World War II, formed from the 2nd Panzer Group on October 5, 1941.
The 2nd Rifle Corps of the Red Army was formed in September 1922 as the 2nd Army Corps.
The 34th Army was part of the Red Army during the Second World War.
The 37th Army was an Army-level formation of the Soviet Union during the Second World War. The army was formed twice during the war.
The 3rd Army was a Soviet Red Army field army during World War II.
The 3rd Panzer Army (3.) was a German armoured formation during World War II, formed from the 3rd Panzer Group on 1 January 1942.
The 40th Army of the Soviet Union's Soviet Army was an army-level command that participated in World War II from 1941 to 1945 and was reformed specifically for the Soviet War in Afghanistan from 1979 to circa 1990.
The 48th Army was a field army of the Soviet Red Army, active from 1941 to 1945.
The 4th Airborne Corps was an airborne corps of the Red Army in World War II.
The 4th Army was a Soviet field army of World War II that served on the Eastern front of World War II and in the Caucasus during the Cold War.
The 4th Army was a field army of the Wehrmacht during World War II.
The 4th Mechanized Corps was a formation in the Soviet Red Army during the Second World War.
The 4th Panzer Army (German: 4. Panzerarmee) was, before being designated a full army, the Panzer Group 4 (Panzergruppe 4), a German panzer army during World War II.
The 4th Territorial Army Corps previously the 4th Army Corps was a corps of the Romanian Land Forces active from at least 1941 to 2000.
The 50th Army was a Soviet field army during World War II.
The 52nd Army was a field army of the Red Army of the Soviet Union in World War II, formed twice.
The Red Army's 54th Army was a Soviet field army during the Second World War.
The 55th Army was a field army of the Red Army during World War II.
The 5th Guards Zimovnikovskaya order Kutuzov II degree Motor Rifle Division, (Military Unit Number (V/Ch) 51852 from 1979) named on the 60th anniversary of the USSR, was a military formation of the Soviet Ground Forces.
The 5th Mechanised Corps was a mechanised corps of the Red Army, formed on three occasions.
The 5th Red Banner Army is a Russian Ground Forces formation in the Far East Military District.
The 6th Army was a field army of the Soviet Red Army formed four times during World War II and active with the Russian Ground Forces until 1998.
The 6th Army, a field-army unit of the German Wehrmacht during World War II (1939-1945), has become widely remembered for its destruction by the Red Army at the Battle of Stalingrad in the winter of 1942/43.
The Soviet Red Army's 7th Army first saw action in the 1939–40 Winter War against Finland.
The 7th Mechanized Corps was a mechanized corps of the Red Army, formed three times.
The 8th Army was a field army of the Soviet Red Army during the Second World War.
The 8th Mechanized Corps, was a mechanized corps of the Soviet Ground Forces.
The 9th Army of the Soviet Union's Red Army was a Soviet field army, active from 1939 – 43.
The 9th Army (9.) was a World War II field army.
The 9th Mechanized Corps was a mechanized corps of the Soviet Red Army, formed twice.
1941 Invasion of Russia, Barbarossa plan, Crusade against Bolshevism, Fall Barbarossa, German attack on the Soviet Union, German attack on the USSR, German invasion, German invasion of Russia, German invasion of Soviet Union, German invasion of the Soviet Union, German invasion of the USSR, German offensive against the Soviet Union, Germany invaded the USSR, Hitler's invasion of russia, Invasion of Russia (World War II), Invasion of the Soviet Union, Invasion of the Soviet Union (World War II), Invasion of the Soviet Union by Nazi Germany, Invasion of the USSR by Nazi Germany, Nazi German invasion of the Soviet Union, Nazi German invasion of the USSR, Nazi Germany invaded the USSR, Nazi invasion of Russia, Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union, Nazi invasion of the USSR, Operation Barbarosa, Operation Barbarrossa, Operation barbarossa, Operation barberossa, Unternehmen Barbarossa.