282 relations: Adolf Hitler, Air chief marshal, Airborne forces, Alan Goodrich Kirk, Albert Speer, Alençon, Allied advance from Paris to the Rhine, Allied Expeditionary Air Force, Allied invasion of Italy, Allied invasion of Sicily, Allies of World War II, Amphibious warfare, Armoured Vehicle Royal Engineers, Army Group B, Arromanches-les-Bains, Arthur Tedder, 1st Baron Tedder, Atlantic Wall, Avranches, Barrage balloon, Battle for Caen, Battle of France, Battle of Passchendaele, Battle of the Bulge, Battle of the Somme, Battle of Villers-Bocage, Bayeux, Bayeux Tapestry, Bény-sur-Mer, BBC, Bernard Montgomery, Bertram Ramsay, Bletchley Park, Blockship, Bocage, Boulogne-sur-Mer, Breakwater (structure), British Armed Forces, British Expeditionary Force (World War II), British logistics in the Normandy Campaign, Brittany, Caen, Caisson (engineering), Calvados (department), Canadian Army, Canadian War Museum, Canal de Caen à la Mer, Carentan, Caumont-l'Éventé, Chaff (countermeasure), Cherbourg-Octeville, ..., Churchill Crocodile, Churchill tank, Close air support, Combined Operations Headquarters, Commonwealth of Nations, Cotentin Peninsula, Czechoslovak government-in-exile, D-Day naval deceptions, Danish Agency for Culture and Palaces, DD tank, Death of Adolf Hitler, Depth sounding, Dieppe Raid, Division (military), Double agent, Double-Cross System, Douve, Dungeness (headland), Dunkirk evacuation, Dutch government-in-exile, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library, Museum and Boyhood Home, E-boat, Eastern Front (World War II), Elbeuf, English Channel, Enigma machine, Erwin Rommel, Exercise Tiger, Falaise Pocket, Falaise, Calvados, Führerbunker, First Canadian Army, First United States Army, First United States Army Group, Forêt de Rouvray, France, Frederick E. Morgan, Free Belgian forces, Free France, French North Africa, French Resistance, Friedrich Dollmann, Friendly fire, Günther von Kluge, General (United Kingdom), General (United States), Generalfeldmarschall, Generaloberst, George S. Patton, Gerd von Rundstedt, Gold Beach, Greek government-in-exile, Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, Hans von Salmuth, Hawker Typhoon, Hobart's Funnies, I Corps (United Kingdom), II Canadian Corps, Invasion of Normandy, Inveraray, Isigny-sur-Mer, Isle of Wight, Italian Campaign (World War II), J. Lawton Collins, J.J. Fedorowicz Publishing, James Earl Rudder, James Stagg, Joseph Stalin, Juan Pujol García, Juno Beach, Kent, King's Shropshire Light Infantry, Land mine, Landing craft tank, Le Havre, Le Mans, Leo Geyr von Schweppenburg, Liberation of Paris, Lieutenant colonel (United States), List of Allied forces in the Normandy Campaign, List of military cemeteries in Normandy, Lodgement, Loire, Luxembourg government in exile, M4 Sherman, Materiel, Mediterranean and Middle East theatre of World War II, Mediterranean Sea, Merderet, Miles Dempsey, Military deception, Mine flail, Mont Pinçon, Mulberry harbour, Nazi Germany, Newhaven, East Sussex, No. 218 (Gold Coast) Squadron RAF, No. 617 Squadron RAF, Normandy, Normandy landings, Nygaardsvold's Cabinet, OB West, Obersalzberg, Odon (river), Official History of the Canadian Army in the Second World War, Omaha Beach, Omar Bradley, Operation Atlantic, Operation Barbarossa, Operation Bluecoat, Operation Bodyguard, Operation Charnwood, Operation Cobra, Operation Dingson, Operation Downfall, Operation Dragoon, Operation Epsom, Operation Fortitude, Operation Goodwood, Operation Lüttich, Operation Market Garden, Operation Perch, Operation Pluto, Operation Roundup (1942), Operation Samwest, Operation Sledgehammer, Operation Torch, Operation Totalize, Operations research, Organisation Todt, Origins of the Cold War, Orne (river), Ostlegionen, Outline of war, Pas-de-Calais, Percy Hobart, Philip Vian, Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque, Phoenix breakwaters, Pillbox (military), Pincer movement, Pointblank directive, Pointe du Hoc, Polish Armed Forces in the West, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Quebec Conference, 1943, Rennes, Republic of Ireland, Rhine, Rhino tank, Rommel's asparagus, Rouen, Royal Air Force, Royal Hampshire Regiment, Saint-Lô, Saint-Malo, Sainte-Mère-Église, Second Army (United Kingdom), Seine, Slapton, Devon, Southampton, Southwick House, Special Air Service, Spelling alphabet, St Nazaire Raid, Strongpoint, Supermarine Spitfire, Supreme Allied Commander, Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force, Sussex, Sword Beach, The Copenhagen Post, The Longest Day (book), The Second World War (book), The Third Reich Trilogy, Tide, Tilly-sur-Seulles, Trafford Leigh-Mallory, Transport Plan, Turkestan Legion, Ultra, Unexploded ordnance, United States Army, United States Army Center of Military History, United States Army Central, Utah Beach, V Corps (United States), V-1 flying bomb, V-2 rocket, VII Corps (United States), VIII Corps (United Kingdom), Villers-Bocage, Calvados, Vire, Vistula–Oder Offensive, Walter Bedell Smith, Walter Model, Washington Conference (1943), Washington, D.C., Western Front (World War II), Winston Churchill, World War I, World War II, XXX Corps (United Kingdom), 101st Airborne Division, 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend, 15th Army (Wehrmacht), 1st Infantry Division (United States), 1st Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment, 20 July plot, 21st Army Group, 21st Panzer Division (Wehrmacht), 243rd Static Infantry Division (Wehrmacht), 29th Infantry Division (United States), 2nd Armored Division (France), 2nd Armored Division (United States), 2nd Canadian Division, 2nd Ranger Battalion (United States), 352nd Infantry Division, 3rd Canadian Division, 3rd Division (United Kingdom), 4th Infantry Division (United States), 5th Panzer Army, 6th Airborne Division (United Kingdom), 709th Static Infantry Division (Wehrmacht), 743rd Tank Battalion, 79th Infantry Division (United States), 7th Army (Wehrmacht), 82nd Airborne Division, 90th Infantry Division (United States), 91st Infantry Division (Wehrmacht), 9th Infantry Division (United States). 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Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Air chief marshal (Air Chf Mshl or ACM) is a four-star air officer rank which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force, where it is the most senior peacetime air force rank.
Airborne Military parachuting or gliding form of inserting personnel or supplies.
Admiral Alan Goodrich Kirk (October 30, 1888 – October 15, 1963) was a senior officer in the United States Navy and a diplomat.
Berthold Konrad Hermann Albert Speer (March 19, 1905 – September 1, 1981) was a German architect who was, for most of World War II, Reich Minister of Armaments and War Production for Nazi Germany.
Alençon is a commune in Normandy, France, capital of the Orne department.
The Allied advance from Paris to the Rhine was a phase in the Western European Campaign of World War II.
The Allied Expeditionary Air Force (AEAF) (also known as the Allied Armies’ Expeditionary Air Force, AAEAF) was a component of the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF) which controlled the tactical air power of the Allied forces during Operation Overlord.
The Allied invasion of Italy was the Allied amphibious landing on mainland Italy that took place on 3 September 1943 during the early stages of the Italian Campaign of World War II.
The Allied invasion of Sicily, codenamed Operation Husky, was a major campaign of World War II, in which the Allies took the island of Sicily from the Axis powers (Italy and Nazi Germany).
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Amphibious warfare is a type of offensive military operation that today uses naval ships to project ground and air power onto a hostile or potentially hostile shore at a designated landing beach.
Armoured Vehicle Royal Engineers (AVRE), also known as Assault Vehicle Royal Engineers is the title given to a series of armoured military engineering vehicles operated by the Royal Engineers (RE) for the purpose of protecting engineers during frontline battlefield operations.
Army Group B (German: Heeresgruppe B) was the title of three German Army Groups that saw action during World War II.
Arromanches-les-Bains (or, simply Arromanches) is a commune in the Calvados department in the Normandie region of northwestern France.
Marshal of the Royal Air Force Arthur William Tedder, 1st Baron Tedder, (11 July 1890 – 3 June 1967) was a senior Royal Air Force commander.
The Atlantic Wall (Atlantikwall) was an extensive system of coastal defence and fortifications built by Nazi Germany between 1942 and 1944 along the coast of continental Europe and Scandinavia as a defence against an anticipated Allied invasion of Nazi-occupied Europe from the United Kingdom during World War II.
Avranches is a commune in the Manche department in the Normandy region in northwestern France.
A barrage balloon is a large kite balloon used to defend against aircraft attack by raising aloft cables which pose a collision risk, making the attacker's approach more difficult.
The Battle for Caen (June to August 1944) is the name for the fighting between the British Second Army and German Panzergruppe West in the Second World War for control of the city of Caen and vicinity, during the Battle of Normandy.
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.
The Battle of Passchendaele (Flandernschlacht, Deuxième Bataille des Flandres), also known as the Third Battle of Ypres, was a campaign of the First World War, fought by the Allies against the German Empire.
The Battle of the Bulge (16 December 1944 – 25 January 1945) was the last major German offensive campaign on the Western Front during World War II.
The Battle of the Somme (Bataille de la Somme, Schlacht an der Somme), also known as the Somme Offensive, was a battle of the First World War fought by the armies of the British Empire and France against the German Empire.
The Battle of Villers-Bocage took place during the Second World War on 13 June 1944, one week after the Normandy Landings by the Western Allies that began the conquest of German-occupied France.
Bayeux is a commune in the Calvados department in Normandy in northwestern France.
The Bayeux Tapestry (Tapisserie de Bayeux or La telle du conquest; Tapete Baiocense) is an embroidered cloth nearly long and tall, which depicts the events leading up to the Norman conquest of England concerning William, Duke of Normandy, and Harold, Earl of Wessex, later King of England, and culminating in the Battle of Hastings.
Bény-sur-Mer is a commune in the Calvados department (14) in the Normandy region, la Basse-Normandie, in northwestern France, 4.7 km from Bernières-sur-Mer and 5.2 km from Saint-Aubin-sur-Mer.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, (17 November 1887 – 24 March 1976), nicknamed "Monty" and "The Spartan General", was a senior British Army officer who fought in both the First World War and the Second World War.
Admiral Sir Bertram Home Ramsay, KCB, KBE, MVO (20 January 1883 – 2 January 1945) was a Royal Navy officer.
Bletchley Park was the central site for British (and subsequently, Allied) codebreakers during World War II.
A blockship is a ship deliberately sunk to prevent a river, channel, or canal from being used.
Bocage is a terrain of mixed woodland and pasture.
Boulogne-sur-Mer, often called Boulogne (Latin: Gesoriacum or Bononia, Boulonne-su-Mér, Bonen), is a coastal city in Northern France.
Breakwaters are structures constructed on coasts as part of coastal management or to protect an anchorage from the effects of both weather and longshore drift.
The British Armed Forces, also known as Her/His Majesty's Armed Forces, are the military services responsible for the defence of the United Kingdom, its overseas territories and the Crown dependencies.
The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was the name of the British Army in Western Europe during the Second World War from 2 September 1939 when the BEF GHQ was formed until 31 May 1940, when GHQ closed down.
British logistics in the Normandy Campaign played a key role in the success of Operation Overlord, the Allied invasion of France in June 1944.
Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.
Caen (Norman: Kaem) is a commune in northwestern France.
In geotechnical engineering, a caisson is a watertight retaining structure used, for example, to work on the foundations of a bridge pier, for the construction of a concrete dam, or for the repair of ships.
Calvados is a department in the Normandy region in northwestern France.
The Canadian Army (French: Armée canadienne) is the command responsible for the operational readiness of the conventional ground forces of the Canadian Armed Forces.
The Canadian War Museum (CWM) (Musée canadien de la guerre) is Canada's national museum of military history.
Canal de Caen à la Mer (Canal from Caen to the sea) also called the "Caen Canal") is a short canal in the department (préfecture) of Calvados, France, connecting the Port of Caen, in the city of Caen, downstream to the town of Ouistreham and the English Channel. Running from north north-east to south south-west, the canal runs parallel to the Orne River which feeds it, it is long, and comprises two locks. Digging began in 1837, and when it was opened on August 23, 1857 it was only deep. It was deepened in 1920. The canal began with the dock at St. Peter's Basin (Bassin Saint-Pierre), in the downtown area of Caen. The canal is made up of a group of quays and docks. The current depth is, and the width can reach in the dock of Calix). The quay at Blainville-sur-Orne measures more than. It acts as the fourth commercial French port for the importation of exotic wood, generally coming from the Gulf of Guinea. It also loads and unloads iron, fertilizer, coal, and construction material. The port exports cereals that are produced in the area and has a silo capacity of 33,000 tons. One of the two locks at the port of Ouistreham, at the mouth of the canal, can accommodate ships of more than length. Also at Blainville is a Renault Trucks manufacturing plant. The plant is across the canal from the town, to the southeast, between the canal and the Orne River. Just across the river from the plant is the community of Colombelles. The channel passes the side of the Château de Bénouville. The famous Pegasus Bridge (aka "Ham"), from D-Day, June 6, 1944, crossed the canal near the village of Bénouville. The canal was considered both tactically and strategically important during the opening phases of the Battle of Normandy, as it was located on the eastern flank of the Allied beachhead area. The bridge was replaced in 1994.
Carentan is a small rural town near the north-eastern base of the French Cotentin Peninsula in Normandy in north-western France near the port city of Cherbourg, with a population somewhat over 6,000.
Caumont-l'Éventé is a former commune in the Calvados department in northwestern France.
Chaff, originally called Window by the British and Düppel by the Second World War era German Luftwaffe (from the Berlin suburb where it was first developed), is a radar countermeasure in which aircraft or other targets spread a cloud of small, thin pieces of aluminium, metallized glass fibre or plastic, which either appears as a cluster of primary targets on radar screens or swamps the screen with multiple returns.
Cherbourg-Octeville is a city and former commune situated at the northern end of the Cotentin peninsula in the northwestern French department of Manche.
The Churchill Crocodile was a British flame-throwing tank of late Second World War.
The Tank, Infantry, Mk IV (A22) Churchill was a British heavy infantry tank used in the Second World War, best known for its heavy armour, large longitudinal chassis with all-around tracks with multiple bogies, its ability to climb steep slopes, and its use as the basis of many specialist vehicles.
In military tactics, close air support (CAS) is defined as air action such as air strikes by fixed or rotary-winged aircraft against hostile targets that are in close proximity to friendly forces and which requires detailed integration of each air mission with fire and movement of these forces and attacks with aerial bombs, glide bombs, missiles, rockets, aircraft cannons, machine guns, and even directed-energy weapons such as lasers.
Combined Operations Headquarters was a department of the British War Office set up during Second World War to harass the Germans on the European continent by means of raids carried out by use of combined naval and army forces.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
The Cotentin Peninsula, also known as the Cherbourg Peninsula, is a peninsula in Normandy that forms part of the northwest coast of France.
The Czechoslovak government-in-exile, sometimes styled officially as the Provisional Government of Czechoslovakia (Czech: Prozatímní státní zřízení československé), was an informal title conferred upon the Czechoslovak National Liberation Committee, initially by British diplomatic recognition.
Operations Taxable, Glimmer and Big Drum were tactical military deceptions conducted on 6 June 1944 in support of the Allied landings in Normandy.
The Danish Agency for Culture and Palaces (Slots- og Kulturstyrelsen) is an agency under the aegis of the Danish Ministry of Culture.
DD or Duplex Drive tanks, nicknamed "Donald Duck tanks", were a type of amphibious swimming tank developed by the British during the Second World War.
Adolf Hitler was a German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party, Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Depth sounding refers to the act of measuring depth.
The Dieppe Raid was an Allied assault on the German-occupied port of Dieppe, France on 19 August 1942, during the Second World War.
A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers.
In the field of counterintelligence, a double agent (also double secret agent) is an employee of a secret intelligence service for one country, whose primary purpose is to spy on a target organization of another country, but who, in fact, has been discovered by the target organization and is now spying on their own country's organization for the target organization.
The Double-Cross System or XX System was a World War II counter-espionage and deception operation of the British Security Service, a civilian organisation usually referred to by its cover title MI5.
The Douve or Ouve is a river, 79 kilometres in length, which rises in the commune of Tollevast, near Cherbourg in the department of Manche.
Dungeness is a headland on the coast of Kent, England, formed largely of a shingle beach in the form of a cuspate foreland.
The Dunkirk evacuation, code-named Operation Dynamo, and also known as the Miracle of Dunkirk, was the evacuation of Allied soldiers during World War II from the beaches and harbour of Dunkirk, in the north of France, between 26 May and 4 June 1940.
The Dutch government in exile (Nederlandse regering in ballingschap), also known as the London Cabinet (Londens cabinet) was the government in exile of the Netherlands, headed by Queen Wilhelmina, that evacuated to London after the German invasion of the country during World War II on 10 May 1940.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
The Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library, Museum and Boyhood Home is the presidential library and museum of Dwight David Eisenhower, the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961), located in his hometown of Abilene, Kansas.
E-boat was the Western Allies' designation for the fast attack craft (German: Schnellboot, or S-Boot, meaning "fast boat") of the Kriegsmarine during World War II.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
Elbeuf is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in northern France.
The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
The Enigma machines were a series of electro-mechanical rotor cipher machines developed and used in the early- to mid-20th century to protect commercial, diplomatic and military communication.
Erwin Rommel (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was a German general and military theorist.
Exercise Tiger, or Operation Tiger, was the code name for one in a series of large-scale rehearsals for the D-Day invasion of Normandy, which took place in April 1944 on Slapton Sands in Devon.
The Falaise Pocket or Battle of the Falaise Pocket (12 – 21 August 1944) was the decisive engagement of the Battle of Normandy in the Second World War.
Falaise is a commune in the Calvados department in the Normandy region in northwestern France.
The Führerbunker was an air raid shelter located near the Reich Chancellery in Berlin, Germany.
The First Canadian Army (1reArmée canadienne) was a field army and the senior formation of the Canadian Army that served on the Western Front from July 1944 until May 1945 during the Second World War.
The First Army is the oldest and longest established field army of the United States Army, having seen service in both World War I and World War II, under some of the most famous and distinguished officers of the U.S. Army.
First United States Army Group (often abbreviated FUSAG) was a fictitious (paper command) Allied Army Group in World War II prior to D-Day, part of Operation Quicksilver, created to deceive the Germans about where the Allies would land in France.
The once vast Forêt de Rouvray ("Forest of Rouvray", from Gallo-Romance ROBORETU “oak wood″ or more probably French rouvre “sessile oak” and old suffix -ey (ill spelled as -ay, modern -aie), meaning a “collection of the same trees”) was a forest that extended from west of Paris in the Île-de-France region westwards into Normandy, virtually unbroken, threaded by the winding loops of the River Seine, traversed by forest traces and dotted with isolated woodland hamlets, as far as Rouen.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Lieutenant-General Sir Frederick Edgworth Morgan (5 February 1894 – 19 March 1967) was a senior officer of the British Army who fought in both world wars.
The Free Belgian forces (Forces belges libres, Vrije Belgische Strijdkrachten) were soldiers from Belgium and its colonies who fought as part of the Allied armies during World War II, after the official Belgian surrender to Nazi Germany.
Free France and its Free French Forces (French: France Libre and Forces françaises libres) were the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle during the Second World War and its military forces, that continued to fight against the Axis powers as one of the Allies after the fall of France.
French North Africa was a collection of territories in North Africa controlled by France, centering on French Algeria.
The French Resistance (La Résistance) was the collection of French movements that fought against the Nazi German occupation of France and against the collaborationist Vichy régime during the Second World War.
Friedrich Karl Albert Dollmann (2 February 188228 JuneReynolds, M: Steel Inferno, p. 163. Dell Publishing, 1997.D'Este, C: Decision in Normandy, pp. 241–242. Penguin Books, 2004. 1944) was a German general during World War II, most notably serving during the early phases of the Allied invasion of Normandy in June 1944.
Friendly fire is an attack by a military force on non-enemy, own, allied or neutral, forces while attempting to attack the enemy, either by misidentifying the target as hostile, or due to errors or inaccuracy.
Günther von Kluge (30 October 1882 – 19 August 1944) was a German field marshal during World War II.
General (or full general to distinguish it from the lower general officer ranks) is the highest rank currently achievable by serving officers of the British Army.
In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and United States Air Force, general (abbreviated as GEN in the Army or Gen in the Air Force and Marine Corps) is a four-star general officer rank, with the pay grade of O-10.
Generalfeldmarschall (general field marshal, field marshal general, or field marshal;; abbreviated to Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states and the Holy Roman Empire; in the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, the rank Feldmarschall was used.
Generaloberst, in English Colonel General, was, in Germany and Austria-Hungary—the German Reichswehr and Wehrmacht, the Austro-Hungarian Common Army, and the East German National People's Army, as well as the respective police services—the second highest general officer rank, ranking above full general but below general field marshal.
General George Smith Patton Jr. (November 11, 1885 – December 21, 1945) was a senior officer of the United States Army who commanded the U.S. Seventh Army in the Mediterranean theater of World War II, but is best known for his leadership of the U.S. Third Army in France and Germany following the Allied invasion of Normandy in June 1944.
Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (12 December 1875 – 24 February 1953) was a Field Marshal in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Gold, commonly known as Gold Beach, was the code name for one of the five areas of the Allied invasion of German-occupied France in the Normandy landings on 6 June 1944, during the Second World War.
The Greek government-in-exile was the government in exile of Greece formed in the aftermath of the Battle of Greece, and the subsequent occupation of Greece by Nazi Germany and the Fascist Italy.
The Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict is the first international treaty that focuses exclusively on the protection of cultural property in armed conflict. It was signed at The Hague, Netherlands on 14 May 1954 and entered into force on 7 August 1956. As of June 2018, it has been ratified by 132 states. The provisions of the 1954 Convention were supplemented and clarified by two protocols concluded in 1954 and 1999. All three agreements are part of International Humanitarian Law, which, in the form of further agreements, primarily includes provisions defining the permissible means and methods of warfare and aiming at the widest possible protection of persons not involved in the fighting. In contrast to these parts of International Humanitarian Law, the agreements on the protection of cultural property were drawn up under the auspices of the United Nations (UN); the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is primarily responsible for the dissemination and monitoring of compliance. In addition to rules designed to ensure the protection and respect of cultural property during an armed conflict, these agreements also provide for security measures to be implemented in times of peace. As of June 2018, 132 states are party to the Hague Convention of 1954, 109 and 77 states respectively have acceded to the Protocols of 1954 and 1999. Blue Shield International, based in The Hague, is active in the field of international coordination with regard to military and civil structures for the protection of cultural assets. The guiding principles of the Convention and the motivation for its conclusion, dissemination and respect are summarised in the preamble, which states, among other things, "... that any damage to cultural property, irrespective of the people it belongs to, is a damage to the cultural heritage of all humanity, because every people contributes to the world's culture...".
Hans von Salmuth (11 November 1888 – 1 January 1962) was a German general and war criminal during World War II.
The Hawker Typhoon (Tiffy in RAF slang) is a British single-seat fighter-bomber, produced by Hawker Aircraft.
Hobart's Funnies were a number of unusually modified tanks operated during the Second World War by the 79th Armoured Division of the British Army or by specialists from the Royal Engineers.
I Corps ("First Corps") was an army corps in existence as an active formation in the British Army for most of the 80 years from its creation in the First World War until the end of the Cold War, longer than any other corps.
II Canadian Corps was a corps-level formation that, along with I (British) Corps (August 1, 1944 to April 1, 1945) and I Canadian Corps (April 6, 1943 to November 1943, and April 1, 1945 until the end of hostilities), comprised the First Canadian Army in Northwest Europe during World War II.
The Western Allies of World War II launched the largest amphibious invasion in history when they assaulted Normandy, located on the northern coast of France, on 6 June 1944.
Inveraray; (or; Inbhir Aora; "mouth of the Aray") is a town in Argyll and Bute, Scotland.
Isigny-sur-Mer is a commune in the Calvados department and Normandy region of north-western France.
The Isle of Wight (also referred to informally as The Island or abbreviated to IOW) is a county and the largest and second-most populous island in England.
The Italian Campaign of World War II consisted of the Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war in Europe.
General Joseph "Lightning Joe" Lawton Collins (May 1, 1896 – September 12, 1987) was a senior United States Army officer who served in World War II and became Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the Korean War.
J.J. Fedorowicz Publishing is a Canadian publishing house that specialises in literature on the German armed forces of the World War II era.
James Earl Rudder (May 6, 1910 – March 23, 1970) was a United States Army major general who as a lieutenant colonel was the commander of the historic Pointe du Hoc battle which was part of the Invasion of Normandy.
Group Captain James Martin Stagg, CB, OBE, FRSE (30 June 1900 – 23 June 1975) was a British Royal Air Force meteorologist who notably persuaded General Dwight D. Eisenhower to change the date of the Allied invasion of Europe in World War II, from the 5th of June to the 6th of June 1944.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Juan Pujol García MBE (14 February 1912 – 10 October 1988) was a Spanish citizen who deliberately became a double agent against Nazi Germany during World War II.
Juno or Juno Beach was one of five beaches of the Allied invasion of German-occupied France in the Normandy landings on 6 June 1944 during the Second World War.
Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties.
The King's Shropshire Light Infantry (KSLI) was a light infantry regiment of the British Army, formed in the Childers Reforms of 1881, but with antecedents dating back to 1755.
A land mine is an explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it.
The landing craft, tank (or tank landing craft) was an amphibious assault craft for landing tanks on beachheads.
Le Havre, historically called Newhaven in English, is an urban French commune and city in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region of northwestern France.
Le Mans is a city in France, on the Sarthe River.
Leo Freiherr Geyr von Schweppenburg (2 March 1886 – 27 January 1974) was a general in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II, noted for his pioneering stance and expertise in the field of armoured warfare.
The Liberation of Paris (also known as the Battle for Paris and Belgium; Libération de Paris) was a military action that took place during World War II from 19 August 1944 until the German garrison surrendered the French capital on 25 August 1944.
In the United States Army, U.S. Marine Corps, and U.S. Air Force, a lieutenant colonel is a field grade military officer rank just above the rank of major and just below the rank of colonel.
This is a list of Allied forces in the Normandy Campaign between 6 June-25 August 1944.
The following military cemeteries were established in the French region of Normandy in memory for casualties of the World War II battles there.
A lodgement is an enclave taken by and defended by force of arms against determined opposition made by increasing the size of a bridgehead, beachhead or airhead into a substantial defended area, at least the rear parts of which are out of direct line of fire.
The Loire (Léger; Liger) is the longest river in France and the 171st longest in the world.
The Luxembourgish government in exile (Lëtzebuerger Exil Regierung, Gouvernement en exil luxembourgeois, Luxemburgische Exilregierung), also known as the Luxembourgish government in London, was the government in exile of Luxembourg during the Second World War.
The M4 Sherman, officially Medium Tank, M4, was the most widely used medium tank by the United States and Western Allies in World War II.
Materiel, more commonly matériel in US English and also listed as the only spelling in some UK dictionaries (both pronounced, from French matériel meaning equipment or hardware), refers to military technology and supplies in military and commercial supply chain management.
The Mediterranean and Middle East Theatre was a major theatre of operations during the Second World War.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
The Merderet is a 36 km long river in Normandy, France which is tributary to the Douve River.
General Sir Miles Christopher Dempsey, (15 December 1896 – 5 June 1969) was a senior British Army officer who served in both world wars.
Military deception refers to attempts to mislead enemy forces during warfare.
A mine flail is a vehicle-mounted device that makes a safe path through a mine-field by deliberately detonating land mines in front of the vehicle that carries it.
Mont Pinçon is the highest point of the department of Calvados, in Normandy, with an elevation of.
Mulberry harbours were temporary portable harbours developed by the United Kingdom during the Second World War to facilitate the rapid offloading of cargo onto beaches during the Allied invasion of Normandy in June 1944.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Newhaven is a town in the Lewes District of East Sussex in England.
Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.
The Normandy landings were the landing operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II.
Nygaardsvold's Cabinet (later becoming the Norwegian government-in-exile) was appointed on 20 March 1935, the second Labour cabinet in Norway.
The German Army Command in the West (Oberbefehlshaber West (German: initials OB West) was the overall command of the Westheer, the German Armed Forces on the Western Front during World War II. It was directly subordinate to German Armed Forces High Command. The area under the command of the OB West varied as the war progressed. At its farthest extent it reached the French Atlantic coast. By the end of World War II in Europe it was reduced to commanding troops in Bavaria.
Obersalzberg is a mountainside retreat situated above the market town of Berchtesgaden in Bavaria, Germany.
The Odon is a river in the Calvados department, in Normandy, northwestern France.
The Official History of the Canadian Army in the Second World War was a three volume set of books, based on the wartime work of the Historical Section of the General Staff.
Omaha, commonly known as Omaha Beach, was the code name for one of the five sectors of the Allied invasion of German-occupied France in the Normandy landings on June 6, 1944, during World War II.
General of the Army Omar Nelson Bradley (February 12, 1893 – April 8, 1981), nicknamed Brad, was a senior officer of the United States Army during and after World War II.
Operation Atlantic (18–21 July 1944) was a Canadian offensive during the Battle of Normandy in the Second World War.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
Operation Bluecoat was an offensive in the Battle of Normandy, from 30 July until 7 August 1944, during the Second World War.
Operation Bodyguard was the code name for a World War II deception plan employed by the Allied states before the 1944 invasion of north-west Europe.
Operation Charnwood was an Anglo-Canadian offensive that took place from 8 to 9 July 1944, during the Battle for Caen, part of the larger Operation Overlord (code-name for the Battle of Normandy), in the Second World War.
Operation Cobra was the codename for an offensive launched by the First United States Army (Lieutenant General Omar Bradley) seven weeks after the D-Day landings, during the Normandy Campaign of World War II.
Operation Dingson (5–18 June 1944) was an operation in the Second World War, conducted by 178 Free French paratroops of the 4th Special Air Service (SAS), commanded by Colonel Pierre-Louis Bourgoin, who jumped into German occupied France near Vannes, Morbihan, Southern Brittany, in Plumelec, on the night of 5 June 1944 (11 h 30) with Captain Pierre Marienne and 17 men, then advanced to Saint-Marcel (8–18 June).
Operation Downfall was the proposed Allied plan for the invasion of Japan near the end of World War II.
Operation Dragoon (initially Operation Anvil) was the code name for the Allied invasion of Southern France on 15August 1944.
Operation Epsom, also known as the First Battle of the Odon, was a British Second World War offensive that took place between 26 and 30 June 1944, during the Battle of Normandy.
For the Australian immigration checking operation, see Australian Border Force#Operation Fortitude Operation Fortitude was the code name for a World War II military deception employed by the Allied nations as part of an overall deception strategy (code named Bodyguard) during the build-up to the 1944 Normandy landings.
Operation Goodwood was a British offensive in the Second World War, that took place between 18 and 20 July 1944 as part of the battle for Caen in Normandy, France.
Operation Lüttich was a codename given to a German counter-attack during the Battle of Normandy, which took place around the American positions near Mortain from 7 August to 13 August 1944.
Operation Market Garden (17–25 September 1944) was an unsuccessful Allied military operation planned, and predominantly led, by the British.
Operation Perch was a British offensive of the Second World War which took place from 7 to 14 June 1944, during the early stages of the Battle of Normandy.
Operation Pluto (Pipe-Lines Under The Ocean) was a Second World War operation by British engineers, oil companies, and the British Armed Forces; to construct undersea oil pipelines under the English Channel between England and France in support of Operation Overlord, the Allied invasion of Normandy in June 1944.
Operation Roundup was the codename for a 1942 plan for an invasion of Northern France by Allied forces during World War II.
During World War II, Operation Samwest (5–12 June 1944) was a large raid conducted by 116 Free French paratroops of the 4th Special Air Service Regiment.
Operation Sledgehammer was a World War II Allied plan for a cross-Channel invasion of Europe, as the first step in helping to reduce pressure on the Soviet Red Army by establishing a Second Front.
Operation Torch (8–16 November 1942, formerly Operation Gymnast) was a Anglo–American invasion of French North Africa, during the North African Campaign of the Second World War.
Operation Totalize (also spelled Operation Totalise in recent British sources) was an offensive launched by Allied troops in the First Canadian Army during the later stages of Operation Overlord, from 8 to 9 August 1944.
Operations research, or operational research in British usage, is a discipline that deals with the application of advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions.
The Todt Organisation (Organisation Todt, OT) was a civil and military engineering group in the Third Reich from 1933 to 1945, named after its founder, Fritz Todt, an engineer and senior Nazi figure.
The Origins of the Cold War involved the breakdown of relations between the Soviet Union versus the United States, Great Britain and their allies in the years 1945–1949.
The Orne (Ptolemeus Olina) is a river in Normandy, within northwestern France.
Ostlegionen ("eastern legions"), Ost-Bataillone ("eastern battalions"), Osttruppen ("eastern troops"), Osteinheiten ("eastern units") were military units in the Heer (army) of Nazi Germany, during World War II that were made up of personnel from countries comprising the Soviet Union.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to war: War – organised and often prolonged armed conflict that is carried out by states and/or non-state actors – is characterised by extreme violence, social disruption, and economic destruction.
Pas-de-Calais is a department in northern France named after the French designation of the Strait of Dover, which it borders ('pas' meaning passage).
Major General Sir Percy Cleghorn Stanley Hobart (14 June 1885 – 19 February 1957), also known as "Hobo", was a British military engineer noted for his command of the 79th Armoured Division during World War II.
Admiral of the Fleet Sir Philip Louis Vian & Two Bars (15 July 1894 – 27 May 1968) was a Royal Navy officer who served in both World Wars.
Philippe François Marie Leclerc de Hauteclocque (22 November 1902 – 28 November 1947) was a French general during the Second World War.
The Phoenix breakwaters were a set of reinforced concrete caissons built as part of the artificial Mulberry harbours that were assembled as part of the follow-up to the Normandy landings during World War II.
Pillboxes are concrete dug-in guard posts, normally equipped with loopholes through which to fire weapons.
The pincer movement, or double envelopment, is a military maneuver in which forces simultaneously attack both flanks (sides) of an enemy formation.
The Pointblank directive authorised the initiation of Operation Pointblank, the code name for the primary portion of the Allied Combined Bomber Offensive intended to cripple or destroy the German aircraft fighter strength, thus drawing it away from frontline operations and ensuring it would not be an obstacle to the invasion of Northwest Europe.
La Pointe du Hoc is a promontory with a cliff overlooking the English Channel on the north-western coast of Normandy in the Calvados department, France.
The Polish Armed Forces in the West refers to the Polish military formations formed to fight alongside the Western Allies against Nazi Germany and its allies during World War II.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
The First Quebec Conference (codenamed "QUADRANT") was a highly secret military conference held during World War II between the British, Canadian and United States governments.
Rennes (Roazhon,; Gallo: Resnn) is a city in the east of Brittany in northwestern France at the confluence of the Ille and the Vilaine.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
"Rhino tank" (initially called "Rhinoceros") was the American nickname for Allied tanks fitted with "tusks", or hedgerow cutting devices, during World War II.
Rommel's asparagus (German: Rommelspargel - the German word Spargel means '"asparagus") were logs which the Axis placed in the fields and meadows of Normandy to cause damage to the expected invasion of Allied military gliders and paratroopers.
Rouen (Frankish: Rodomo; Rotomagus, Rothomagus) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
The Hampshire Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army, created as part of the Childers Reforms in 1881 by the amalgamation of the 37th (North Hampshire) Regiment of Foot and the 67th (South Hampshire) Regiment of Foot.
Saint-Lô is a commune in north-western France, the capital of the Manche department in the region of Normandy.
Saint-Malo (Gallo: Saent-Malô) is a historic French port in Brittany on the Channel coast.
Sainte-Mère-Église is a commune in the Manche department in Normandy in northwestern France.
The British Second Army was a field army active during the First and Second World Wars.
The Seine (La Seine) is a river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France.
Slapton is a village and civil parish in the South Hams district of Devon, England.
Southampton is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Hampshire, England.
Southwick House is a manor house of the Southwick Estate in Hampshire, England, about north of Portsmouth.
The Special Air Service (SAS) is a special forces unit of the British Army.
A spelling alphabet, word-spelling alphabet, voice procedure alphabet, radio alphabet, or telephone alphabet is a set of words used to stand for the letters of an alphabet in oral communication.
The St Nazaire Raid or Operation Chariot was a successful British amphibious attack on the heavily defended Normandie dry dock at St Nazaire in German-occupied France during the Second World War.
In military tactics, a strongpoint is a key point in a defensive fighting position which anchors the overall defense line.
The Supermarine Spitfire is a British single-seat fighter aircraft used by the Royal Air Force and other Allied countries before, during and after World War II.
Supreme Allied Commander is the title held by the most senior commander within certain multinational military alliances.
Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF) was the headquarters of the Commander of Allied forces in north west Europe, from late 1943 until the end of World War II.
Sussex, from the Old English Sūþsēaxe (South Saxons), is a historic county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex.
Sword, commonly known as Sword Beach, was the code name given to one of the five main landing areas along the Normandy coast during the initial assault phase, Operation Neptune, of Operation Overlord, the Allied invasion of German-occupied France that commenced on 6 June 1944.
The Copenhagen Post is a weekly newspaper providing Danish news in English both nationally and internationally; it is the only English-language newspaper published in Denmark.
The Longest Day is a book by Cornelius Ryan published in 1959, telling the story of D-Day, the first day of the World War II invasion of Normandy.
The Second World War is a narrative history of World War II by British historian Antony Beevor.
The Third Reich Trilogy is a series of three narrative history books by the British historian Richard J. Evans covering the rise and collapse of Nazi Germany in detail, with a focus on the internal politics and the decision-making process.
Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of Earth.
Tilly-sur-Seulles is a commune in the Calvados department in the Normandy region in northwestern France.
Air Chief Marshal Sir Trafford Leigh-Mallory, (11 July 1892 – 14 November 1944) was a senior commander in the Royal Air Force.
The Transportation Plan was a plan for strategic bombing during World War II against bridges, rail centres, including marshalling yards and repair shops in France with the goal of limiting the German military response to the invasion of France in June 1944.
The Turkestan Legion (Turkistanische Legion) was the name for the military units composed of the Turkic peoples who fought in the Wehrmacht during World War II.
Ultra was the designation adopted by British military intelligence in June 1941 for wartime signals intelligence obtained by breaking high-level encrypted enemy radio and teleprinter communications at the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) at Bletchley Park.
Unexploded ordnance (UXO, sometimes abbreviated as UO), unexploded bombs (UXBs), or explosive remnants of war (ERW) are explosive weapons (bombs, shells, grenades, land mines, naval mines, cluster munition, etc.) that did not explode when they were employed and still pose a risk of detonation, sometimes many decades after they were used or discarded.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Army Center of Military History (CMH) is a directorate within the Office of the Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army.
The United States Army Central, formerly the Third United States Army, commonly referred to as the Third Army and as ARCENT is a military formation of the United States Army, which saw service in World War I and World War II, in the 1991 Gulf War, and in the coalition occupation of Iraq.
Utah, commonly known as Utah Beach, was the code name for one of the five sectors of the Allied invasion of German-occupied France in the Normandy landings on June 6, 1944 (D-Day), during World War II.
V Corps was a regular corps of the United States Army during World War I, World War II, Cold War, Kosovo, and War on Terrorism.
The V-1 flying bomb (Vergeltungswaffe 1 "Vengeance Weapon 1")—also known to the Allies as the buzz bomb, or doodlebug, and in Germany as Kirschkern (cherrystone) or Maikäfer (maybug)—was an early cruise missile and the only production aircraft to use a pulsejet for power.
The V-2 (Vergeltungswaffe 2, "Retribution Weapon 2"), technical name Aggregat 4 (A4), was the world's first long-range guided ballistic missile.
The VII Corps of the United States Army was one of the two principal corps of the United States Army Europe during the Cold War.
VIII Corps was a British Army corps formation that existed during the First and Second World Wars.
Villers-Bocage is a commune in the Calvados department in the Normandy region in Northern France.
Vire is a town and a former commune in the Calvados department in the Normandy region in northwestern France.
The Vistula–Oder Offensive was a successful Red Army operation on the Eastern Front in the European Theatre of World War II in January 1945.
General Walter Bedell "Beetle" Smith (5 October 1895 – 9 August 1961) was a senior officer of the United States Army who served as General Dwight D. Eisenhower's chief of staff at Allied Forces Headquarters (AFHQ) during the Tunisia Campaign and the Allied invasion of Italy in 1943 during World War II.
Walter Model (24 January 1891 – 21 April 1945) was a German field marshal during World War II.
The Third Washington Conference (codenamed Trident) was held in Washington, D.C from May 12 to May 25, 1943.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
The Western Front was a military theatre of World War II encompassing Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Germany. World War II military engagements in Southern Europe and elsewhere are generally considered under separate headings. The Western Front was marked by two phases of large-scale combat operations. The first phase saw the capitulation of the Netherlands, Belgium, and France during May and June 1940 after their defeat in the Low Countries and the northern half of France, and continued into an air war between Germany and Britain that climaxed with the Battle of Britain. The second phase consisted of large-scale ground combat (supported by a massive air war considered to be an additional front), which began in June 1944 with the Allied landings in Normandy and continued until the defeat of Germany in May 1945.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
XXX Corps (30 Corps) was a corps of the British Army during the Second World War.
The 101st Airborne Division ("Screaming Eagles") is an elite modular specialized light infantry division of the US Army.
12th SS Panzer Division "Hitlerjugend" (12.) was a German armoured division of the Waffen-SS during World War II.
The 15th Army (German: 15. Armee) was a World War II field army.
The 1st Infantry Division is a combined arms division of the United States Army, and is the oldest continuously serving in the Regular Army.
The 1st Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment (1er Régiment de Parachutistes d'Infanterie de Marine, 1er R.P.I.Ma) is one of three regiments (1er R.P.I.Ma, 13e Régiment de Dragons Parachutistes (13e R.D.P), 4e R.H.F.S) in the French Army Special Forces Command (COM FST).
On 20 July 1944, Claus von Stauffenberg and other conspirators attempted to assassinate Adolf Hitler, Führer of Nazi Germany, inside his Wolf's Lair field headquarters near Rastenburg, East Prussia.
The 21st Army Group was a World War II British headquarters formation, in command of two field armies and other supporting units, consisting primarily of the British Second Army and the First Canadian Army.
The 21st Panzer Division was a German armoured division best known for its role in the battles of the North African Campaign from 1941–1943 during World War II when it was one of the two armoured divisions making up the Deutsches Afrikakorps (DAK).
The 243rd Static Infantry Division was an infantry division of the German Army raised in July 1943.
The 29th Infantry Division (29th I.D.), also known as the "Blue and Gray", is an infantry division of the United States Army based in Fort Belvoir, Virginia.
The French 2nd Armored Division (2e Division Blindée, 2e DB), commanded by General Philippe Leclerc, fought during the final phases of World War II in the Western Front.
The 2nd Armored Division ("Hell on Wheels") was an armored division of the United States Army.
The 2nd Canadian Division (2 Cdn Div) is responsible for generating and maintaining an operationally ready, multi-purpose land force for the Canadian Army in the province of Quebec, Canada, in order to meet Canada's defence objectives, domestically and overseas.
The 2nd Ranger Battalion, currently based at Joint Base Lewis–McChord south of Seattle, Washington, United States, is the second of three ranger battalions belonging to the United States Army's 75th Ranger Regiment.
The 352nd Infantry Division (352. Infanterie-Division) was an infantry division of the German Army during World War II.
The 3rd Canadian Division is a formation of the Canadian Army.
The 3rd (United Kingdom) Division, known at various times as the Iron Division, 3rd (Iron) Division, Monty's Iron Sides or as Iron Sides;Delaforce is a regular army division of the British Army.
The 4th Infantry Division is a division of the United States Army based at Fort Carson, Colorado.
The 5th Panzer Army, also known as Panzer Group West and Panzer Group Eberbach (German: 5.Panzer-Armee, Panzergruppe West, Panzergruppe Eberbach) was a panzer army which saw action in the Western Front and North Africa.
The 6th Airborne Division was an airborne infantry division of the British Army during the Second World War.
The 709th Static Infantry Division was a German Army infantry division in World War II.
The 743rd Tank Battalion was an independent tank battalion that participated in the European Theater of Operations with the United States Army in World War II.
The 79th Infantry Division (formerly known as the 79th Division) was an infantry formation of the United States Army Reserve in World Wars I and II.
The 7th Army was a World War II field army of the German land forces.
The 82nd Airborne Division is an airborne infantry division of the United States Army, specializing in parachute assault operations into denied areas.
The 90th Infantry Division ("Tough 'Ombres") was a unit of the United States Army that served in World War I and World War II.
The 91st Air Landing Division (German 91. Luftlande-Infanterie-Division) was a German Army infantry division in World War II.
The 9th Infantry Division ("Old Reliables") was created as the 9th Division during World War I, but never deployed overseas.
Allied invasion of France, Battle for Normandy, Battle of Normandy, Battle of normandy, Invasion of France (Allies), Normandy Campaign, Normandy breakout, Normandy breakout campaign, Normandy campaign, Operation overlord essay.