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Operation Sea Lion

Index Operation Sea Lion

Operation Sea Lion, also written as Operation Sealion (Unternehmen Seelöwe), was Nazi Germany's code name for the plan for an invasion of the United Kingdom during the Battle of Britain in the Second World War. [1]

277 relations: Adlertag, Adolf Galland, Adolf Hitler, Aerial torpedo, Air supremacy, Airborne forces, Alderney, Alfred Jodl, Alternate history, Ambassador, Amphibious warfare, Andrew Gordon (naval historian), Anglo-Polish military alliance, Anti-tank warfare, Antwerp, Armistice of 22 June 1940, Armor-piercing shell, Army group, Arthur Seyss-Inquart, Atlantic Ocean, Attack on Mers-el-Kébir, Auxiliary Units, Axis powers, Barge, Basil Collier, Battery Oldenburg, Battle of Britain, Battle of Dunkirk, Battle of France, Battle of Wuhan, Belgium, Benito Mussolini, Berghof (residence), Berlin Diary, Bilge, Birmingham, Black propaganda, Blenheim Palace, Blockade, Blockade of Germany (1939–1945), Boulogne-sur-Mer, Brandenburgers, Brighton, British anti-invasion preparations of the Second World War, British Army, British Empire, Calais, Cap Blanc-Nez, Captain at sea, Channel Islands, ..., Chemical warfare, Cherbourg-Octeville, Commander-in-chief, Commander-in-Chief, Home Forces, Commerce raiding, Corpo Aereo Italiano, Court of St James's, Deep wading, Der Spiegel, Derek Robinson (novelist), Devon, Division (military), Dorset, Double-Cross System, Dover, Dover Strait coastal guns, 1940–1944, Dublin, Dunkirk, Dunkirk evacuation, E. R. Hooton, East Anglia, Eastbourne, Eastern Command (United Kingdom), Echelon formation, Edinburgh, Eduard Wagner, Edward VIII, Einsatzgruppen, English Channel, Erich Marcks, Erich Raeder, Ernst von Weizsäcker, Ernst Wilhelm Bohle, Fallschirmjäger (World War II), Führer, Fighter: The True Story of the Battle of Britain, Flame tank, Franco-Polish alliance (1921), Franz Halder, Franz Six, Galeazzo Ciano, Gallipoli, Gauleiter, Generalfeldmarschall, Gerd von Rundstedt, German Army (Wehrmacht), German battleship Bismarck, German battleship Tirpitz, German occupation of Norway, German-occupied Europe, GHQ Line, Gibraltar, Glasgow, Gloucester, Grand admiral, Great Britain, Gyrocompass, Hans Jeschonnek, Hansjürgen Reinicke, Harold Nicolson, Hastings, Hauts-de-France, Heinrich Himmler, Hermann Göring, Hitler's Table Talk, Home Fleet, Home Guard (United Kingdom), Hythe, Kent, Indian Ocean, Infantry, Invasion of Poland, Ireland, Isle of Wight, IV Corps (United Kingdom), James Corum, Jetty, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Johnston Press, Josef Terboven, Joseph Schmid, Kanalkampf, Karl Dönitz, Karl Kässbohrer Fahrzeugwerke, Kenneth Macksey, Kent, Kriegsmarine, Krupp, Krupp K5, Landwasserschlepper, Le Havre, Len Deighton, List of Adolf Hitler's directives, List of Royal Air Force stations, Liverpool, Lorraine 37L, Low Countries, Luftwaffe, Lyme Regis, Malta, Manchester, Marinefährprahm, Matilda II, May 1940 War Cabinet Crisis, Mediterranean Sea, Messerschmitt Bf 110, MI5, Minister for Foreign Affairs (Germany), Ministry of Information (United Kingdom), Motor Gun Boat, Motor Torpedo Boat, Motorized infantry, Mountain warfare, Mulberry harbour, Napoleon, Nazi Germany, Nebelwerfer, Nelson's Column, Netherlands, New Order (Nazism), Newcastle upon Tyne, Normandy, Normandy landings, North African Campaign, North Sea, Northampton, Northampton Chronicle & Echo, Norway, Norwegian Campaign, NSDAP/AO, Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, Oberkommando des Heeres, Operation Barbarossa, Operation Felix, Operation Green (Ireland), Operation Herbstreise, Operation Herkules, Operation Sea Lion (wargame), Operation Tannenbaum, Operation Weserübung, Operation Willi, Organisation Todt, Ostend, Oswald Mosley, Otto Bräutigam, Otto Schniewind, Panzer division, Panzer II, Panzer III, Panzer IV, Paratrooper, Pas-de-Calais, Peter Fleming (writer), Plymouth, Portsmouth, Pyrrhic victory, RAF Fighter Command, RAF Fighter Command Order of Battle 1940, Ramsgate, Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories, Reichskommissar, Reichsmarschall, Renault UE Chenillette, River Thames, Rottingdean, Royal Air Force, Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, Royal Navy, Royal Navy Submarine Service, Ruhr, Scapa Flow, Schnellkampfgeschwader 210, Scotland, Scuttling of the French fleet in Toulon, Sea state, Seilbomb, Sicherheitsdienst, Southern Command (United Kingdom), Special forces, Stephen Bungay, Strait of Dover, Strategic bombing, Sturmgeschütz III, Suez Canal, Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force, Surrender (military), Sussex, Switzerland, Sylt, The Black Book, The Blitz, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, The Wash, Tide, U-boat, United Ireland, United Kingdom, Upper Silesia, V Corps (United Kingdom), Valentine tank, Ventnor, Vicegerent, VII Corps (United Kingdom), Waffen-SS, Wallis Simpson, Walther von Brauchitsch, Wehrmacht, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, Western Front (World War II), Wilhelm Canaris, Wilhelmshaven, William L. Shirer, Winston Churchill, World War II, XII Corps (United Kingdom), 16th Army (Wehrmacht), 1st Canadian Division, 1st SS Panzer Division Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler, 21 cm K 12 (E), 28 cm SK L/40 gun, 3.7 cm Pak 36, 30.5 cm SK L/50 gun, 38 cm SK C/34 naval gun, 5 cm Pak 38, 52nd parallel north, 6th Army (Wehrmacht), 7.5 cm Leichtgeschütz 40, 9th Army (Wehrmacht). Expand index (227 more) »

Adlertag

Adlertag ("Eagle Day") was the first day of Unternehmen Adlerangriff ("Operation Eagle Attack"), which was the codename of a military operation by Nazi Germany's Luftwaffe (German air force) to destroy the British Royal Air Force (RAF).

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Adolf Galland

Adolf Joseph Ferdinand Galland (19 March 1912 – 9 February 1996) was a German Luftwaffe general and flying ace who served throughout the Second World War in Europe.

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Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.

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Aerial torpedo

An aerial torpedo, airborne torpedo or air-dropped torpedo is a naval weapon, a torpedo, that an aircraft—fixed-wing aircraft or helicopter—drops in the water, after which the weapon propels itself to the target.

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Air supremacy

Air supremacy is a position in war where a side holds complete control of air warfare and air power over opposing forces.

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Airborne forces

Airborne Military parachuting or gliding form of inserting personnel or supplies.

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Alderney

Alderney (Aurigny; Auregnais: Aoeur'gny) is the northernmost of the inhabited Channel Islands.

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Alfred Jodl

Alfred Josef Ferdinand Jodl (10 May 1890 – 16 October 1946) was a German general during World War II, who served as the Chief of the Operations Staff of the Armed Forces High Command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht).

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Alternate history

Alternate history or alternative history (Commonwealth English), sometimes abbreviated as AH, is a genre of fiction consisting of stories in which one or more historical events occur differently.

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Ambassador

An ambassador is an official envoy, especially a high-ranking diplomat who represents a state and is usually accredited to another sovereign state or to an international organization as the resident representative of their own government or sovereign or appointed for a special and often temporary diplomatic assignment.

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Amphibious warfare

Amphibious warfare is a type of offensive military operation that today uses naval ships to project ground and air power onto a hostile or potentially hostile shore at a designated landing beach.

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Andrew Gordon (naval historian)

Gilbert Andrew Hugh Gordon (born 23 July 1951) is a British naval historian.

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Anglo-Polish military alliance

The military alliance between the United Kingdom and Poland was formalised by the Anglo-Polish Agreement in 1939 and subsequent addenda of 1940 and 1944, for mutual assistance in case of military invasion from Germany, as specified in a secret protocol.

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Anti-tank warfare

Anti-tank warfare arose as a result of the need to develop technology and tactics to destroy tanks during World War I. Since the first tanks were developed by the Triple Entente in 1916 but not operated in battle until 1917, the first anti-tank weapons were developed by the German Empire.

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Antwerp

Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.

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Armistice of 22 June 1940

The Armistice of 22 June 1940 was signed at 18:36.

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Armor-piercing shell

An armor-piercing shell, AP for short, is a type of ammunition designed to penetrate armor.

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Army group

An army group is a military organization consisting of several field armies, which is self-sufficient for indefinite periods.

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Arthur Seyss-Inquart

Arthur Seyss-Inquart (German:; 22 July 189216 October 1946) was an Austrian Nazi politician who served as Chancellor of Austria for two days – from 11 to 13 March 1938 – before the Anschluss annexation of Austria by Nazi Germany, signing the constitutional law as acting head of state upon the resignation of President Wilhelm Miklas.

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Atlantic Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.

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Attack on Mers-el-Kébir

The Attack on Mers-el-Kébir (3 July 1940) also known as the Battle of Mers-el-Kébir, was part of Operation Catapult.

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Auxiliary Units

The Auxiliary Units or GHQ Auxiliary Units were specially trained, highly secret units created by the United Kingdom government during the Second World War, with the aim using irregular warfare to help combat any invasion of the United Kingdom by Nazi Germany, which the Germans codenamed Operation Sea Lion.

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Axis powers

The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.

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Barge

A barge is a flat-bottomed ship, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods.

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Basil Collier

Basil Collier (1908–1983), full name John Basil Collier, was a British author of books of military history, particularly military aviation, World War II and military and political strategy.

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Battery Oldenburg

Battery Oldenburg is a German artillery battery, built during World War II as part of the Atlantic Wall, and situated east of Calais.

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Battle of Britain

The Battle of Britain (Luftschlacht um England, literally "The Air Battle for England") was a military campaign of the Second World War, in which the Royal Air Force (RAF) defended the United Kingdom (UK) against large-scale attacks by Nazi Germany's air force, the Luftwaffe.

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Battle of Dunkirk

The Battle of Dunkirk was a military operation that took place in Dunkirk (Dunkerque), France, during the Second World War.

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Battle of France

The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.

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Battle of Wuhan

The Battle of Wuhan, popularly known to the Chinese as the Defense of Wuhan, and to the Japanese as the Capture of Wuhan, was a large-scale battle of the Second Sino-Japanese War.

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Belgium

Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.

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Benito Mussolini

Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).

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Berghof (residence)

The Berghof was Adolf Hitler's home in the Obersalzberg of the Bavarian Alps near Berchtesgaden, Bavaria, Germany.

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Berlin Diary

Berlin Diary (1934–1941) is a first-hand account of the rise of Nazi Germany and its road to war, as witnessed by the American journalist William L. Shirer.

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Bilge

The bilge (IPA: /bɪldʒ/) is the lowest compartment on a ship or seaplane, below the waterline, where the two sides meet at the keel.

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Birmingham

Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England, with an estimated population of 1,101,360, making it the second most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Black propaganda

Black propaganda is false information and material that purports to be from a source on one side of a conflict, but is actually from the opposing side.

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Blenheim Palace

Blenheim Palace (pronounced) is a monumental English country house situated in the civil parish of Blenheim near Woodstock, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom.

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Blockade

A blockade is an effort to cut off supplies, war material or communications from a particular area by force, either in part or totally.

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Blockade of Germany (1939–1945)

The Blockade of Germany (1939–1945), also known as the Economic War, was carried out during World War II by the United Kingdom and France in order to restrict the supplies of minerals, metals, food and textiles needed by Nazi Germany - and later Fascist Italy - in order to sustain their war efforts.

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Boulogne-sur-Mer

Boulogne-sur-Mer, often called Boulogne (Latin: Gesoriacum or Bononia, Boulonne-su-Mér, Bonen), is a coastal city in Northern France.

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Brandenburgers

The Brandenburgers (Brandenburger) were members of the Brandenburg German special forces unit during World War II.

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Brighton

Brighton is a seaside resort on the south coast of England which is part of the city of Brighton and Hove, East Sussex, 47 miles (75 km) south of London.

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British anti-invasion preparations of the Second World War

British anti-invasion preparations of the Second World War entailed a large-scale division of military and civilian mobilisation in response to the threat of invasion by German armed forces in 1940 and 1941.

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British Army

The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

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Calais

Calais (Calés; Kales) is a city and major ferry port in northern France in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture.

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Cap Blanc-Nez

Cap Blanc-Nez (literally "Cape White Nose" in English; from Dutch Blankenesse, white headland) is a cape on the Côte d'Opale, in the Pas-de-Calais département, in northern France.

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Captain at sea

Captain at sea is a naval rank corresponding to command of a ship-of-the-line or capital ship.

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Channel Islands

The Channel Islands (Norman: Îles d'la Manche; French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche) are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy.

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Chemical warfare

Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons.

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Cherbourg-Octeville

Cherbourg-Octeville is a city and former commune situated at the northern end of the Cotentin peninsula in the northwestern French department of Manche.

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Commander-in-chief

A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.

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Commander-in-Chief, Home Forces

Commander-in-Chief, Home Forces was a senior officer in the British Army during the First and Second World Wars.

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Commerce raiding

Commerce raiding is a form of naval warfare used to destroy or disrupt logistics of the enemy on the open sea by attacking its merchant shipping, rather than engaging its combatants or enforcing a blockade against them.

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Corpo Aereo Italiano

The Corpo Aereo Italiano (literally, "Italian Air Corps"), or CAI, was an expeditionary force from the Italian Regia Aeronautica ("Royal Air Force") that participated in the Battle of Britain and the Blitz during the final months of 1940 during World War II.

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Court of St James's

The Court of St James's is the royal court for the Sovereign of the United Kingdom.

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Deep wading

Deep wading or deep fording is a technique used by some heavy semi-amphibious vehicles to traverse water that is several metres deep - the vehicle drives on the riverbed/lakebed/seabed and uses screens or a pipe (a snorkel) that reaches above the water surface for an air supply.

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Der Spiegel

Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.

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Derek Robinson (novelist)

Derek Robinson (born 12 April 1932) is a British author best known for his military aviation novels full of black humour.

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Devon

Devon, also known as Devonshire, which was formerly its common and official name, is a county of England, reaching from the Bristol Channel in the north to the English Channel in the south.

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Division (military)

A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers.

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Dorset

Dorset (archaically: Dorsetshire) is a county in South West England on the English Channel coast.

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Double-Cross System

The Double-Cross System or XX System was a World War II counter-espionage and deception operation of the British Security Service, a civilian organisation usually referred to by its cover title MI5.

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Dover

Dover is a town and major ferry port in the home county of Kent, in South East England.

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Dover Strait coastal guns, 1940–1944

The Dover Strait coastal guns were British and German long-range coastal artillery pieces, on the English Channel coasts of Kent, England and the Pas-de-Calais, occupied France.

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Dublin

Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.

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Dunkirk

Dunkirk (Dunkerque; Duinkerke(n)) is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.

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Dunkirk evacuation

The Dunkirk evacuation, code-named Operation Dynamo, and also known as the Miracle of Dunkirk, was the evacuation of Allied soldiers during World War II from the beaches and harbour of Dunkirk, in the north of France, between 26 May and 4 June 1940.

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E. R. Hooton

Edward R. Hooton is a defence writer, who has written several books including publications for the Jane's Information Group.

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East Anglia

East Anglia is a geographical area in the East of England.

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Eastbourne

Eastbourne is a town, seaside resort and borough in the non-metropolitan county of East Sussex on the south coast of England, east of Brighton.

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Eastern Command (United Kingdom)

Eastern Command was a Command of the British Army.

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Echelon formation

An echelon formation is a (usually military) formation in which its units are arranged diagonally.

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Edinburgh

Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann; Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.

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Eduard Wagner

Eduard Wagner (1 April 1894 – 23 July 1944) was a general in the Army of Nazi Germany who served as quartermaster-general in World War II.

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Edward VIII

Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Empire, and Emperor of India, from 20 January 1936 until his abdication on 11 December the same year, after which he became the Duke of Windsor.

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Einsatzgruppen

Einsatzgruppen ("task forces" or "deployment groups") were Schutzstaffel (SS) paramilitary death squads of Nazi Germany that were responsible for mass killings, primarily by shooting, during World War II (1939–45).

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English Channel

The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.

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Erich Marcks

Erich Marcks (6 June 1891 – 12 June 1944) was a German general in the Wehrmacht during World War II.

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Erich Raeder

Erich Johann Albert Raeder (24 April 1876 – 6 November 1960) was a German grand admiral who played a major role in the naval history of World War II.

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Ernst von Weizsäcker

Ernst Heinrich Freiherr von Weizsäcker (25 May 1882 – 4 August 1951) was a German naval officer, diplomat and politician.

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Ernst Wilhelm Bohle

Ernst Wilhelm Bohle (28 July 1903 – 9 November 1960) was the leader of the Foreign Organization of the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP; Nazi Party) from 1933 until 1945.

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Fallschirmjäger (World War II)

The Fallschirmjäger were the paratrooper (Fallschirmjäger) branch of the German Luftwaffe before and during World War II.

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Führer

Führer (These are also cognates of the Latin peritus ("experienced"), Sanskrit piparti "brings over" and the Greek poros "passage, way".-->, spelled Fuehrer when the umlaut is not available) is a German word meaning "leader" or "guide".

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Fighter: The True Story of the Battle of Britain

Fighter: The True Story of the Battle of Britain is a Second World War military history book by English author Len Deighton.

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Flame tank

A flame tank is a type of tank equipped with a flamethrower, most commonly used to supplement combined arms attacks against fortifications, confined spaces, or other obstacles.

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Franco-Polish alliance (1921)

The Franco-Polish alliance was the military alliance between Poland and France that was active between 1921 and 1940.

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Franz Halder

Franz Halder (30 June 1884 – 2 April 1972) was a German general and the chief of the Oberkommando des Heeres staff (OKH, Army High Command) from 1938 until September 1942, when he was dismissed after frequent disagreements with Adolf Hitler.

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Franz Six

Dr.

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Galeazzo Ciano

Gian Galeazzo Ciano, 2nd Count of Cortellazzo and Buccari (18 March 1903 – 11 January 1944) was Foreign Minister of Fascist Italy from 1936 until 1943 and Benito Mussolini's son-in-law.

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Gallipoli

The Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu Yarımadası; Χερσόνησος της Καλλίπολης, Chersónisos tis Kallípolis) is located in the southern part of East Thrace, the European part of Turkey, with the Aegean Sea to the west and the Dardanelles strait to the east.

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Gauleiter

A Gauleiter was the party leader of a regional branch of the NSDAP (more commonly known as the Nazi Party) or the head of a Gau or of a Reichsgau.

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Generalfeldmarschall

Generalfeldmarschall (general field marshal, field marshal general, or field marshal;; abbreviated to Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states and the Holy Roman Empire; in the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, the rank Feldmarschall was used.

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Gerd von Rundstedt

Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (12 December 1875 – 24 February 1953) was a Field Marshal in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.

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German Army (Wehrmacht)

The German Army (Heer) was the land forces component of the Wehrmacht, the regular German Armed Forces, from 1935 until it was demobilized and later dissolved in August 1946.

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German battleship Bismarck

Bismarck was the first of two s built for Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine.

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German battleship Tirpitz

Tirpitz was the second of two s built for Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine (navy) during World War II.

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German occupation of Norway

The German occupation of Norway began on 9 April 1940 after German forces invaded the neutral Scandinavian country of Norway.

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German-occupied Europe

German-occupied Europe refers to the sovereign countries of Europe which were occupied by the military forces of Nazi Germany at various times between 1939 and 1945 and administered by the Nazi regime.

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GHQ Line

The GHQ Line (General Headquarters Line) was a defence line built in the United Kingdom during World War II to contain an expected German invasion.

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Gibraltar

Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.

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Glasgow

Glasgow (Glesga; Glaschu) is the largest city in Scotland, and third most populous in the United Kingdom.

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Gloucester

Gloucester is a city and district in Gloucestershire, England, of which it is the county town.

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Grand admiral

Grand admiral is a historic naval rank, the highest rank in the several European navies that used it.

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Great Britain

Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.

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Gyrocompass

A gyrocompass is a type of non-magnetic compass which is based on a fast-spinning disc and the rotation of the Earth (or another planetary body if used elsewhere in the universe) to find geographical direction automatically.

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Hans Jeschonnek

Hans Jeschonnek (9 April 1899 – 18 August 1943) was a German Generaloberst and a Chief of the General Staff of Nazi Germany′s Luftwaffe during World War II.

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Hansjürgen Reinicke

Hans-Jürgen "Hansjürgen" Rudolf ReinickeSome sources concatenate his first name Hans-Jürgen and spell it Hansjürgen.

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Harold Nicolson

Sir Harold George Nicolson (21 November 1886 – 1 May 1968) was a British diplomat, author, diarist and politician.

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Hastings

Hastings is a town and borough in East Sussex on the south coast of England, east of the county town of Lewes and south east of London.

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Hauts-de-France

Hauts-de-France (translates to "Upper France" in English; Heuts-d'Franche) is a region of France created by the territorial reform of French Regions in 2014, from a merger of Nord-Pas-de-Calais and Picardy.

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Heinrich Himmler

Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (Protection Squadron; SS), and a leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) of Germany.

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Hermann Göring

Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering;; 12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German political and military leader as well as one of the most powerful figures in the Nazi Party (NSDAP) that ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945.

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Hitler's Table Talk

"Hitler's Table Talk" (German: Tischgespräche im Führerhauptquartier) is the title given to a series of World War II monologues delivered by Adolf Hitler, which were transcribed from 1941 to 1944.

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Home Fleet

The Home Fleet was a fleet of the Royal Navy that operated in the United Kingdom's territorial waters from 1902 with intervals until 1967.

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Home Guard (United Kingdom)

The Home Guard (initially Local Defence Volunteers or LDV) was a defence organisation of the British Army during the Second World War.

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Hythe, Kent

Hythe is a small coastal market town on the edge of Romney Marsh, in the district of Folkestone and Hythe on the south coast of Kent.

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Indian Ocean

The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).

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Infantry

Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.

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Invasion of Poland

The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.

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Ireland

Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.

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Isle of Wight

The Isle of Wight (also referred to informally as The Island or abbreviated to IOW) is a county and the largest and second-most populous island in England.

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IV Corps (United Kingdom)

IV Corps was a corps-sized formation of the British Army, formed in both the First World War and the Second World War.

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James Corum

James Sterling Corum is an American air power historian and scholar of counter-insurgency. He has written several books on counterinsurgency and other topics. He is a retired lieutenant colonel in the US Army Reserve.

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Jetty

A jetty is a structure that projects from the land out into water.

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Joachim von Ribbentrop

Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von Ribbentrop (30 April 1893 – 16 October 1946), more commonly known as Joachim von Ribbentrop, was Foreign Minister of Nazi Germany from 1938 until 1945.

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Johnston Press

Johnston Press plc is a multimedia company based in Edinburgh, Scotland.

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Josef Terboven

Josef Antonius Heinrich Terboven (23 May 1898 – 8 May 1945) was a Nazi leader, best known as the Reichskommissar for Norway during the German occupation of Norway and the Quisling regime.

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Joseph Schmid

Joseph Beppo Schmid Born 24 September 1901, Died 30 August 1956, was a German General serving in the Luftwaffe during World War II and recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross, awarded by Nazi Germany for successful military leadership.

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Kanalkampf

The Kanalkampf (Channel Battle) was the German name for air operations by the German Luftwaffe against the British Royal Air Force (RAF) over the English Channel, which marked the beginning of the Battle of Britain in July 1940, during the Second World War.

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Karl Dönitz

Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz (sometimes spelled Doenitz;; 16 September 1891 24 December 1980) was a German admiral who played a major role in the naval history of World War II.

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Karl Kässbohrer Fahrzeugwerke

Karl Kässbohrer Fahrzeugwerke GmbH was a German vehicle manufacturer in Ulm.

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Kenneth Macksey

Kenneth John Macksey MC (1 July 1923 – 30 November 2005) was a British author and historian who specialized in military history and military biography, particularly of the Second World War.

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Kent

Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties.

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Kriegsmarine

The Kriegsmarine (literally "War Navy") was the navy of Germany from 1935 to 1945.

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Krupp

The Krupp family (see pronunciation), a prominent 400-year-old German dynasty from Essen, became famous for their production of steel, artillery, ammunition, and other armaments.

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Krupp K5

The Krupp K5 (railway gun), was a railway gun used by Nazi Germany throughout World War II.

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Landwasserschlepper

Landwasserschlepper was an unarmed amphibious tractor produced in Germany during World War II.

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Le Havre

Le Havre, historically called Newhaven in English, is an urban French commune and city in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region of northwestern France.

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Len Deighton

Leonard Cyril Deighton (born 18 February 1929), known as Len Deighton, is a British author.

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List of Adolf Hitler's directives

Adolf Hitler's directives or Führer's directives (Führerbefehle) were instructions and strategic plans issued by Adolf Hitler himself.

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List of Royal Air Force stations

This list of RAF Stations is a list of all current Royal Air Force stations (military air bases), airfields, and administrative headquarters of the Royal Air Force.

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Liverpool

Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 in 2017.

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Lorraine 37L

The Lorraine 37L or Tracteur de ravitaillement pour chars 1937 L, ("Tank Supply Tractor 1937 L") was a light tracked armoured vehicle developed by the Lorraine company during the Interwar period or Interbellum, before the Second World War, to an April 1936 French Army requirement for a fully armoured munition and fuel supply carrier to be used by tank units for front line resupply.

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Low Countries

The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.

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Luftwaffe

The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.

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Lyme Regis

Lyme Regis is a town in West Dorset, England, west of Dorchester and east of Exeter.

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Malta

Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.

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Manchester

Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.

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Marinefährprahm

The Marinefährprahm (MFP), "naval ferry barge", was the largest landing craft operated by Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II.

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Matilda II

The Infantry Tank Mark II, best known as the Matilda, was a British infantry tank of the Second World War.

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May 1940 War Cabinet Crisis

The May 1940 War Cabinet Crisis was a confrontation between Winston Churchill, newly appointed as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, and Viscount Halifax, the Foreign Secretary, which took place between 25 and 28 May.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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Messerschmitt Bf 110

--> The Messerschmitt Bf 110, often known non-officially as the Me 110, was a twin-engine heavy fighter (Zerstörer—German for "Destroyer") and fighter-bomber (Jagdbomber or Jabo) developed in Nazi Germany in the 1930s and used by the Luftwaffe during World War II.

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MI5

The Security Service, also MI5 (Military Intelligence, Section 5), is the United Kingdom's domestic counter-intelligence and security agency and is part of its intelligence machinery alongside the Secret Intelligence Service (MI6), Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) and Defence Intelligence (DI).

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Minister for Foreign Affairs (Germany)

The Federal Minister for Foreign Affairs (Bundesminister des Auswärtigen) is the head of the Federal Foreign Office and a member of the Cabinet of Germany.

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Ministry of Information (United Kingdom)

The Ministry of Information (MOI), headed by the Minister of Information, was a United Kingdom government department created briefly at the end of the First World War and again during the Second World War.

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Motor Gun Boat

Motor Gun Boat (MGB) was a Royal Navy term for a small military vessel of the Second World War.

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Motor Torpedo Boat

Motor Torpedo Boat (MTB) was the name given to fast torpedo boats by the Royal Navy and the Royal Canadian Navy.

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Motorized infantry

In NATO and most other western countries, motorized infantry is infantry that is transported by trucks or other un-protected motor vehicles.

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Mountain warfare

Mountain warfare refers to warfare in the mountains or similarly rough terrain.

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Mulberry harbour

Mulberry harbours were temporary portable harbours developed by the United Kingdom during the Second World War to facilitate the rapid offloading of cargo onto beaches during the Allied invasion of Normandy in June 1944.

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Napoleon

Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Nebelwerfer

The Nebelwerfer ("Smoke Mortar") was a World War II German series of weapons.

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Nelson's Column

Nelson's Column is a monument in Trafalgar Square in central London built to commemorate Admiral Horatio Nelson, who died at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805.

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Netherlands

The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.

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New Order (Nazism)

The New Order (German: Neuordnung), or the New Order of Europe (German: Neuordnung Europas), was the political order which Nazi Germany wanted to impose on the conquered areas under its dominion.

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Newcastle upon Tyne

Newcastle upon Tyne, commonly known as Newcastle, is a city in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 103 miles (166 km) south of Edinburgh and 277 miles (446 km) north of London on the northern bank of the River Tyne, from the North Sea.

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Normandy

Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.

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Normandy landings

The Normandy landings were the landing operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II.

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North African Campaign

The North African Campaign of the Second World War took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943.

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North Sea

The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.

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Northampton

Northampton is the county town of Northamptonshire in the East Midlands of England.

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Northampton Chronicle & Echo

The Northampton Chronicle & Echo (known locally as "The Chron") is a local newspaper serving Northampton, England, and the surrounding towns and villages.

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Norway

Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.

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Norwegian Campaign

The Norwegian Campaign (9 April to 10 June 1940) was fought in Norway between Norway, the Allies and Germany in World War II after the latter's invasion of the country.

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NSDAP/AO

The NSDAP/AO was the foreign organization branch of the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP).

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Oberkommando der Wehrmacht

The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW, "High Command of the Armed Forces") was the High Command of the Wehrmacht (armed forces) of Nazi Germany during World War II.

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Oberkommando des Heeres

The Oberkommando des Heeres (OKH) was the High Command of the German Army during the Era of Nazi Germany.

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Operation Barbarossa

Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.

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Operation Felix

Operation Felix was the codename for a proposed German seizure of Gibraltar during World War II, subject to the co-operation of Spanish caudillo Francisco Franco.

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Operation Green (Ireland)

Operation Green (Unternehmen Grün) often also referred to as Case Green (Fall Grün) or Plan Green (Plan Grün), was a full-scale operations plan for a Nazi German invasion of Ireland in support of Operation Sea Lion (Unternehmen Seelöwe), the invasion of the United Kingdom, during World War II.

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Operation Herbstreise

During World War II, Operation Herbstreise (Autumn Journey in German) was a planned series of deception operations to support the German invasion of the United Kingdom (Operation Seelöwe).

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Operation Herkules

Operation Herkules (Unternehmen Herkules/Operazione C3) was the German code-name given to an abortive plan for the invasion of Malta during World War II.

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Operation Sea Lion (wargame)

Operation Sea Lion was a major wargame conducted at Royal Military Academy Sandhurst in 1974.

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Operation Tannenbaum

Operation Tannenbaum ("Fir Tree"), known earlier as Operation Grün ("Green"), was a planned but cancelled invasion of Switzerland by Nazi Germany and Italy during World War II.

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Operation Weserübung

Operation Weserübung was the code name for Germany's assault on Denmark and Norway during the Second World War and the opening operation of the Norwegian Campaign.

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Operation Willi

Operation Willi was the German code name for the unsuccessful attempt by the SS to kidnap Edward, Duke of Windsor in July 1940 and induce him to work with German dictator Adolf Hitler for either a peace settlement with Britain, or a restoration to the throne after the German conquest of Great Britain.

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Organisation Todt

The Todt Organisation (Organisation Todt, OT) was a civil and military engineering group in the Third Reich from 1933 to 1945, named after its founder, Fritz Todt, an engineer and senior Nazi figure.

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Ostend

Ostend (Oostende, or; Ostende; Ostende) is a Belgian coastal city and municipality, located in the province of West Flanders.

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Oswald Mosley

Sir Oswald Ernald Mosley, 6th Baronet of Ancoats (16 November 1896 – 3 December 1980) was a British politician who rose to fame in the 1920s as a Member of Parliament and later in the 1930s became leader of the British Union of Fascists (BUF).

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Otto Bräutigam

Otto Bräutigam (14 May 1895 – 30 April 1992) was a German diplomat and lawyer, who worked for the Auswärtiges Amt as well as the Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories of Alfred Rosenberg in Nazi Germany.

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Otto Schniewind

Otto Schniewind (14 December 1887 – 26 March 1964) was a German General Admiral during World War II.

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Panzer division

A panzer division is one of the armored (tank) divisions in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.

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Panzer II

The Panzer II is the common name used for a family of German tanks used in World War II.

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Panzer III

The Panzerkampfwagen III, commonly known as the Panzer III, was a medium tank developed in the 1930s by Germany, and was used extensively in World War II.

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Panzer IV

The Panzerkampfwagen IV (PzKpfw IV), commonly known as the Panzer IV, was a German medium tank developed in the late 1930s and used extensively during the Second World War.

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Paratrooper

Paratroopers are military parachutists—military personnel trained in parachuting into an operation and usually functioning as part of an airborne force.

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Pas-de-Calais

Pas-de-Calais is a department in northern France named after the French designation of the Strait of Dover, which it borders ('pas' meaning passage).

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Peter Fleming (writer)

Lieutenant Colonel Robert Peter Fleming (31 May 1907 – 18 August 1971) was a British adventurer, soldier and travel writer.

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Plymouth

Plymouth is a city situated on the south coast of Devon, England, approximately south-west of Exeter and west-south-west of London.

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Portsmouth

Portsmouth is a port city in Hampshire, England, mainly on Portsea Island, south-west of London and south-east of Southampton.

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Pyrrhic victory

A Pyrrhic victory is a victory that inflicts such a devastating toll on the victor that it is tantamount to defeat.

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RAF Fighter Command

RAF Fighter Command was one of the commands of the Royal Air Force.

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RAF Fighter Command Order of Battle 1940

This article lists the RAF Fighter Command order of battle at 15 September 1940, during the Battle of Britain.

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Ramsgate

Ramsgate is a seaside town in the district of Thanet in east Kent, England.

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Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories

The Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories (Reichsministerium für die besetzten Ostgebiete or RMfdbO) was created by Adolf Hitler in July 1941 and headed by the Nazi theoretical expert and Baltic German, Alfred Rosenberg.

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Reichskommissar

Reichskommissar (rendered as Commissioner of the Empire or as Reich - or Imperial Commissioner), in German history, was an official gubernatorial title used for various public offices during the period of the German Empire and the Nazi Third Reich.

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Reichsmarschall

Reichsmarschall, Marshal of the Reich (literal translation: Empire or Realm), was the highest rank in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.

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Renault UE Chenillette

The Renault UE Chenillette was a light tracked armoured carrier and prime mover produced by France between 1932 and 1940.

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River Thames

The River Thames is a river that flows through southern England, most notably through London.

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Rottingdean

Rottingdean is a coastal village next to the town of Brighton and within the city of Brighton and Hove, in East Sussex, on the south coast of England.

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Royal Air Force

The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.

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Royal Military Academy Sandhurst

The Royal Military Academy Sandhurst (RMAS or RMA Sandhurst), commonly known simply as Sandhurst, is one of several military academies of the United Kingdom and is the British Army's initial officer training centre.

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Royal Navy

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.

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Royal Navy Submarine Service

The Royal Navy Submarine Service is the submarine element of the Royal Navy.

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Ruhr

The Ruhr (Ruhrgebiet), or the Ruhr district, Ruhr region, Ruhr area or Ruhr valley, is a polycentric urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Scapa Flow

Scapa Flow viewed from its eastern end in June 2009 Scapa Flow is a body of water in the Orkney Islands, Scotland, sheltered by the islands of Mainland, Graemsay, Burray,S.

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Schnellkampfgeschwader 210

Schnellkampfgeschwader 210 (SKG 210) was a Luftwaffe fast-bomber wing during the Second World War.

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Scotland

Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

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Scuttling of the French fleet in Toulon

The French fleet in Toulon was scuttled on 27 November 1942 to avoid capture by Nazi German forces.

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Sea state

In oceanography, a sea state is the general condition of the free surface on a large body of water—with respect to wind waves and swell—at a certain location and moment.

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Seilbomb

A Seilbombe (plural Seilbomben), literally "rope bomb", was a secret German weapon developed during the Second World War designed to disable the electrical power grid of an invaded territory.

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Sicherheitsdienst

Sicherheitsdienst (Security Service), full title Sicherheitsdienst des Reichsführers-SS (Security Service of the Reichsführer-SS), or SD, was the intelligence agency of the SS and the Nazi Party in Nazi Germany.

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Southern Command (United Kingdom)

Southern Command was a Command of the British Army.

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Special forces

Special forces and special operations forces are military units trained to conduct special operations.

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Stephen Bungay

Stephen Francis Bungay (born 2 September 1954) is a British management consultant, historian and author who has made a special study of the Battle of Britain.

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Strait of Dover

The Strait of Dover or Dover Strait, historically known as the Dover Narrows (pas de Calais - Strait of Calais); Nauw van Kales or Straat van Dover), is the strait at the narrowest part of the English Channel, marking the boundary between the Channel and North Sea, separating Great Britain from continental Europe. The shortest distance across the strait,, is from the South Foreland, northeast of Dover in the English county of Kent, to Cap Gris Nez, a cape near to Calais in the French département of Pas-de-Calais. Between these points lies the most popular route for cross-channel swimmers. The entire strait is within the territorial waters of France and the United Kingdom, but a right of transit passage under the UNCLOS exists allowing unrestricted shipping. On a clear day, it is possible to see the opposite coastline of England from France and vice versa with the naked eye, with the most famous and obvious sight being the white cliffs of Dover from the French coastline and shoreline buildings on both coastlines, as well as lights on either coastline at night, as in Matthew Arnold's poem "Dover Beach".

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Strategic bombing

Strategic bombing is a military strategy used in a total war with the goal of defeating the enemy by destroying its morale or its economic ability to produce and transport materiel to the theatres of military operations, or both.

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Sturmgeschütz III

The Sturmgeschütz III (StuG III) assault gun was Germany's second most-produced armoured fighting vehicle during World War II after the Sd.Kfz. 251 half-track.

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Suez Canal

thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.

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Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force

Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF) was the headquarters of the Commander of Allied forces in north west Europe, from late 1943 until the end of World War II.

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Surrender (military)

Surrender, in military terms, is the relinquishment of control over territory, combatants, fortifications, ships or armament to another power.

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Sussex

Sussex, from the Old English Sūþsēaxe (South Saxons), is a historic county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex.

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Switzerland

Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Sylt

Sylt (Sild; Söl'ring North Frisian: Söl) is an island in northern Germany, part of Nordfriesland district, Schleswig-Holstein, and well known for the distinctive shape of its shoreline.

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The Black Book

The Sonderfahndungsliste G.B. ("Special Search List Great Britain") was a secret list of prominent British residents to be arrested, produced in 1940 by the SS as part of the preparation for the proposed invasion of Britain codenamed ''Unternehmen Seelöwe'' (Operation Sea Lion).

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The Blitz

The Blitz was a German bombing offensive against Britain in 1940 and 1941, during the Second World War.

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The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich

The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany is a book by William L. Shirer chronicling the rise and fall of Nazi Germany from the birth of Adolf Hitler in 1889 to the end of World War II in 1945.

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The Wash

The Wash is a largely rectangular bay and estuary at the north-west corner of East Anglia on the East coast of England, where Norfolk meets Lincolnshire.

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Tide

Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of Earth.

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U-boat

U-boat is an anglicised version of the German word U-Boot, a shortening of Unterseeboot, literally "undersea boat".

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United Ireland

United Ireland (also referred to as Irish reunification) is the proposition that the whole of Ireland should be a single sovereign state.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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Upper Silesia

Upper Silesia (Górny Śląsk; Silesian Polish: Gůrny Ślůnsk; Horní Slezsko; Oberschlesien; Silesian German: Oberschläsing; Silesia Superior) is the southeastern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia, located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic.

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V Corps (United Kingdom)

V Corps was a corps-sized formation of the British Army that saw service in both World War I and World War II.

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Valentine tank

The Tank, Infantry, Mk III, Valentine was an infantry tank produced in the United Kingdom during the Second World War.

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Ventnor

Ventnor is a seaside resort and civil parish established in the Victorian era on the south-east coast of the Isle of Wight, England, eleven miles from Newport.

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Vicegerent

Vicegerent is the official administrative deputy of a ruler or head of state: vice (in place of) + gerere (to carry on, conduct).

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VII Corps (United Kingdom)

VII Corps was an army corps of the British Army active in the First and Second World Wars.

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Waffen-SS

The Waffen-SS (Armed SS) was the armed wing of the Nazi Party's SS organisation.

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Wallis Simpson

Wallis Simpson (born Bessie Wallis Warfield; 19 June 1896 – 24 April 1986), later known as the Duchess of Windsor, was an American socialite whose intended marriage to the British king Edward VIII caused a constitutional crisis that led to Edward's abdication.

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Walther von Brauchitsch

Walther von Brauchitsch (4 October 1881 – 18 October 1948) was a German field marshal and the Commander-in-Chief of the German Army during the Nazi era.

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Wehrmacht

The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".

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Weidenfeld & Nicolson

Weidenfeld & Nicolson Ltd (established 1948), often shortened to W&N or Weidenfeld, is a British publisher of fiction and reference books.

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Western Front (World War II)

The Western Front was a military theatre of World War II encompassing Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Germany. World War II military engagements in Southern Europe and elsewhere are generally considered under separate headings. The Western Front was marked by two phases of large-scale combat operations. The first phase saw the capitulation of the Netherlands, Belgium, and France during May and June 1940 after their defeat in the Low Countries and the northern half of France, and continued into an air war between Germany and Britain that climaxed with the Battle of Britain. The second phase consisted of large-scale ground combat (supported by a massive air war considered to be an additional front), which began in June 1944 with the Allied landings in Normandy and continued until the defeat of Germany in May 1945.

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Wilhelm Canaris

Wilhelm Franz Canaris (1 January 1887 – 9 April 1945) was a German admiral and chief of the Abwehr, the German military intelligence service, from 1935 to 1944.

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Wilhelmshaven

Wilhelmshaven (meaning William's Harbour) is a coastal town in Lower Saxony, Germany.

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William L. Shirer

William Lawrence Shirer (February 23, 1904 – December 28, 1993) was an American journalist and war correspondent.

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Winston Churchill

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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XII Corps (United Kingdom)

XII Corps was an army corps of the British Army that fought in the First and Second World Wars.

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16th Army (Wehrmacht)

The 16th Army (16.) was a World War II field army of the Wehrmacht.

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1st Canadian Division

The 1st Canadian Division is an operational command and control formation of the Canadian Joint Operations Command, based at CFB Kingston.

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1st SS Panzer Division Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler

The 1st SS Panzer Division "Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler", short LSSAH, (1.) began as Adolf Hitler's personal bodyguard, responsible for guarding the Führer's person, offices, and residences.

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21 cm K 12 (E)

The 21 cm Kanone 12 in Eisenbahnlafette (21 cm K 12 (E)) was a large German railroad gun used in the Second World War and deployed on the English Channel coast in occupied France.

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28 cm SK L/40 gun

The 28 cm SK L/40SK - Schnelladekanone (quick loading cannon); L - Länge in Kaliber (length in caliber) was a German naval gun that was used in World War I and World War II as the main armament of the - and pre-dreadnoughts.

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3.7 cm Pak 36

The Pak 36 (Panzerabwehrkanone 36) is a 3.7 cm caliber German anti-tank gun used during the Second World War.

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30.5 cm SK L/50 gun

The 30.5 cm SK L/50 gunIn Imperial German Navy gun nomenclature, "SK" (Schnelladekanone) denotes that the gun is quick firing, while the L/50 denotes the length of the gun.

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38 cm SK C/34 naval gun

The 38 cm SK C/34SK - Schnelladekanone (quick loading cannon); C - Construktionsjahr (year of design) naval gun was developed by Germany mid to late 1930s.

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5 cm Pak 38

The 5 cm Pak 38 (L/60) (5 cm Panzerabwehrkanone 38 (L/60)) was a German anti-tank gun of 50 mm calibre.

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52nd parallel north

The 52nd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 52 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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6th Army (Wehrmacht)

The 6th Army, a field-army unit of the German Wehrmacht during World War II (1939-1945), has become widely remembered for its destruction by the Red Army at the Battle of Stalingrad in the winter of 1942/43.

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7.5 cm Leichtgeschütz 40

The 7.5 cm Leichtgeschütz 40 was a recoilless gun used by the German Army during World War II.

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9th Army (Wehrmacht)

The 9th Army (9.) was a World War II field army.

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Redirects here:

German invasion of Britain, German invasion of britain, Invasion of UK, Nazi invasion of Britain, Nazi invasion of English, Nazi invasion of the United Kingdom, Operation Sea-Lion, Operation Sea-lion, Operation Sealion, Operation Seeloewe, Operation Seelowe, Operation Seelöwe, Operation sea lion, Tauchpanzer, Unternehmen Seelöwe.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Sea_Lion

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