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Operation Torch

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Operation Torch (8–16 November 1942, formerly Operation Gymnast) was a Anglo–American invasion of French North Africa, during the North African Campaign of the Second World War. [1]

187 relations: Adolf Hitler, Afrika Korps, Air marshal, Alexandria, Algeria, Algiers, Allied invasion of Sicily, Allies of World War II, Alphonse Juin, Andrew Cunningham, 1st Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope, Annaba, Antoine Béthouart, Arab world, Armistice of 22 June 1940, Army of Africa (France), Artillery battery, Arzew, Attack on Mers-el-Kébir, Axis powers, Banff-class sloop, Barbary Wars, Battle of Kasserine Pass, Battle of Medenine, Battle of Port Lyautey, Battle of Sidi Bou Zid, Battleship, Bernard Montgomery, Bertram Ramsay, Bizerte, British Raj, Casablanca, Case Anton, Charles de Gaulle, Charles Mast, Charles Noguès, Charles W. Ryder, Cherchell, Combined Chiefs of Staff, Commanding officer, Commodore (rank), Consul, Convoy SL 125, Counterattack, Coup d'état, Curtiss P-40 Warhawk, Dewoitine D.520, Djedeida, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Eighth Army (United Kingdom), Ernest King, ..., Ernest N. Harmon, Ernst Kals, Erwin Rommel, Es Sénia, Fernand Bonnier de La Chapelle, First Army (United Kingdom), Flag of the United States, Fleet Air Arm, Flotilla leader, François Darlan, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Free France, French Algeria, French Army, French Committee of National Liberation, French Expeditionary Corps (1943–44), French North Africa, French protectorate in Morocco, French West Africa, Front (military), Géo Gras Group, General (United Kingdom), General officer, Generalfeldmarschall, George Marshall, George S. Patton, Gibraltar, Gwido Langer, Hans-Jürgen von Arnim, Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis, Harold Burrough, Henri d'Astier de la Vigerie, Henri Giraud, Henry Kent Hewitt, History of Polish intelligence services, HMS Algerine, Italian Campaign (World War II), Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries, Jimmy Doolittle, José Aboulker, Kenitra, Kenneth Anderson (British Army officer), Libya, Lieutenant-general (United Kingdom), Line of communication, List of World War II battles, Lloyd Fredendall, Luftwaffe, Maghreb, Major general, Major general (United States), Maksymilian Ciężki, Manton S. Eddy, Marching Regiment of the Foreign Legion, Mark W. Clark, Mediterranean and Middle East theatre of World War II, Mediterranean Sea, Mersa Matruh, Middle East, Middle East Command, Mieczysław Zygfryd Słowikowski, Mohammedia, Morocco, Naval Battle of Casablanca, Nazi Germany, No. 1 Commando, No. 6 Commando, North African Campaign, North African Campaign timeline, Office of Public Sector Information, Operation Blackstone, Operation Brushwood, Operation Flagpole (World War II), Operation Kingpin (World War II), Operation Overlord, Operation Reservist, Operation Sledgehammer, Operation Terminal, Operations Vulcan and Strike, Oran, Orlando Ward, Pincer movement, President of the United States, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Rear admiral, Red Army, Robert Daniel Murphy, Safi, Morocco, Scuttling of the French fleet in Toulon, Second Battle of El Alamein, Sicily, Sir Thomas Troubridge, 1st Baronet, Sloop-of-war, Southern Europe, Soviet Union, Spain, Spain during World War II, SS Tynwald (1936), Tafraoui, Ténès, The Economist, Tripoli, Tunis, Tunisia, Tunisian Campaign, U-boat, UG convoys, United Kingdom, United States, United States Army Center of Military History, United States Army Rangers, United States Navy, Vice admiral, Vichy France, Vyvyan Evelegh, Walther Nehring, William Welsh (RAF officer), Winston Churchill, World War II, Zone libre, 11th Infantry Brigade and Headquarters South East, 168th Infantry Regiment (United States), 17th Armored Engineer Battalion, 18th Army Group, 19th Army Corps (France), 1st Armored Division (United States), 1st Infantry Division (United States), 1st Ranger Battalion (United States), 2nd Armored Division (United States), 33d Operations Group, 34th Infantry Division (United States), 36th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom), 39th Infantry Regiment (United States), 3rd Infantry Division (United States), 509th Infantry Regiment (United States), 78th Infantry Division (United Kingdom), 9th Infantry Division (United States). Expand index (137 more) »

Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.

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Afrika Korps

The Afrika Korps or German Africa Corps (Deutsches Afrikakorps, DAK) was the German expeditionary force in Africa during the North African Campaign of World War II.

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Air marshal

Air Marshal (Air Mshl or AM) is a three-star air-officer rank which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force.

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Alexandria

Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.

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Algeria

Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.

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Algiers

Algiers (الجزائر al-Jazā’er, ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.

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Allied invasion of Sicily

The Allied invasion of Sicily, codenamed Operation Husky, was a major campaign of World War II, in which the Allies took the island of Sicily from the Axis powers (Italy and Nazi Germany).

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Allies of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).

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Alphonse Juin

Alphonse Pierre Juin (16 December 1888 – 27 January 1967) was a senior French Army officer who became a Marshal of France.

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Andrew Cunningham, 1st Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope

Admiral of the Fleet Andrew Browne Cunningham, 1st Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope, (7 January 1883 – 12 June 1963) was a senior officer of the British Royal Navy during the Second World War.

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Annaba

Annaba (عنّابة), ("Jujube Town"), formerly known as Bona, and then Bône, is a seaport city in the northeastern corner of Algeria, close to Tunisia.

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Antoine Béthouart

Marie Émile Antoine Béthouart (17 December 1889 – 17 October 1982) was a French Army general who served during World War I and World War II.

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Arab world

The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.

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Armistice of 22 June 1940

The Armistice of 22 June 1940 was signed at 18:36.

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Army of Africa (France)

The Army of Africa (Armée d’Afrique) was an unofficial but commonly used term for those portions of the French Army recruited from or normally stationed in French North Africa (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia) from 1830 until the end of the Algerian War in 1962.

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Artillery battery

In military organizations, an artillery battery is a unit of artillery, mortars, rocket artillery, multiple rocket launchers, surface to surface missiles, ballistic missiles, cruise missiles etc, so grouped to facilitate better battlefield communication and command and control, as well as to provide dispersion for its constituent gunnery crews and their systems.

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Arzew

Arzew or Arzeu (أرزيو Berber; erziouw) is a port city in Algeria, 25 miles (40 km) from Oran.

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Attack on Mers-el-Kébir

The Attack on Mers-el-Kébir (3 July 1940) also known as the Battle of Mers-el-Kébir, was part of Operation Catapult.

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Axis powers

The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.

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Banff-class sloop

The Banff-class sloops were a group of ten ships of the Royal Navy.

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Barbary Wars

The Barbary Wars were a series of conflicts that culminated in two wars fought at different times over the same reasons between the United States, Sweden, and the Barbary states (the de jure possessions of the Ottoman Empire, but de facto independent, Tunis, Algiers, and Tripoli) of North Africa in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

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Battle of Kasserine Pass

The Battle of Kasserine Pass was a battle of the Tunisia Campaign of World War II that took place in February 1943.

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Battle of Medenine

The Battle of Medenine, also known as Operation Capri (Unternehmen Capri), was an Axis spoiling attack at Medenine in Tunisia on 6 March 1943.

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Battle of Port Lyautey

The Battle of Port Lyautey began on 8 November 1942 for the city of Port Lyautey, today known as Kenitra, in French Morocco.

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Battle of Sidi Bou Zid

The Battle of Sidi Bou Zid (Unternehmen Frühlingswind/Operation Spring Breeze) took place during the Tunisia Campaign from 14–17 February 1943, in World War II. The battle was fought around Sidi Bou Zid, where a large number of American units were mauled by German and Italian forces. It resulted in the Axis recapturing the strategically important town of Sbeitla in central Tunisia. The success at Sidi Bou Zid was reversed by April by counter-attacks by British and American forces. The battle was planned by the Germans to be a two-part offensive-defensive operation against US positions in western Tunisia. Generaloberst Hans-Jürgen von Arnim commanded several experienced combat units, including the 10th Panzer Division and the 21st Panzer Division of the 5th Panzer Army, which were to sweep north and west towards the Kasserine Pass, while another battle group attacked Sidi Bou Zid from the south. Facing the attack was the II US Corps (Major General Lloyd Fredendall). In a few days, the Axis attack forced the II US Corps to take up new defensive positions outside Sbiba. Axis troops were then given time to consolidate their new front line west of Sbeitla. The success of the offensive led the German High Command to conclude that despite being well equipped, American forces were no match for experienced Axis combat troops.

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Battleship

A battleship is a large armored warship with a main battery consisting of large caliber guns.

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Bernard Montgomery

Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, (17 November 1887 – 24 March 1976), nicknamed "Monty" and "The Spartan General", was a senior British Army officer who fought in both the First World War and the Second World War.

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Bertram Ramsay

Admiral Sir Bertram Home Ramsay, KCB, KBE, MVO (20 January 1883 – 2 January 1945) was a Royal Navy officer.

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Bizerte

Bizerte (بنزرت); historically: Phoenician: Hippo Acra, Hippo Diarrhytus and Hippo Zarytus), also known in English as Bizerta, is a town of Bizerte Governorate in Tunisia. It is the northernmost city in Africa, located 65 km (40mil) north of the capital Tunis. The city had 142,966 inhabitants in 2014.

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British Raj

The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.

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Casablanca

Casablanca (ad-dār al-bayḍāʾ; anfa; local informal name: Kaẓa), located in the central-western part of Morocco bordering the Atlantic Ocean, is the largest city in Morocco.

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Case Anton

Operation Anton, or Fall Anton, in German, was the codename for the military occupation of Vichy France carried out by Germany and Italy in November 1942.

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Charles de Gaulle

Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.

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Charles Mast

Emmanuel Charles Mast (7 January 1889 – 30 September 1977) was a major general who participated in the liberation of North Africa in 1942 and was Resident General of France in Tunisia between 1943 and 1947.

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Charles Noguès

Charles Noguès (13 August 1876 - 20 April 1971) was a French general.

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Charles W. Ryder

Major General Charles Wolcott Ryder CB (January 16, 1892 – August 17, 1960) was a senior United States Army officer who served with distinction in both World War I and World War II.

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Cherchell

Cherchell (older Cherchel, شرشال) is a seaport town in the Province of Tipaza, Algeria, 55 miles west of Algiers.

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Combined Chiefs of Staff

The Combined Chiefs of Staff (CCS) was the supreme military staff for the United States and Great Britain during World War II.

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Commanding officer

The commanding officer (CO) or, if the incumbent is a general officer, commanding general (CG), is the officer in command of a military unit.

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Commodore (rank)

Commodore is a naval rank used in many navies that is superior to a navy captain, but below a rear admiral.

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Consul

Consul (abbrev. cos.; Latin plural consules) was the title of one of the chief magistrates of the Roman Republic, and subsequently a somewhat significant title under the Roman Empire.

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Convoy SL 125

Convoy SL 125 was the 125th of the numbered series of World War II SL convoys of merchant ships from '''S'''ierra '''L'''eone to Liverpool.

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Counterattack

A counterattack is a tactic employed in response to an attack, with the term originating in "war games".

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Coup d'état

A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.

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Curtiss P-40 Warhawk

The Curtiss P-40 Warhawk is an American single-engined, single-seat, all-metal fighter and ground-attack aircraft that first flew in 1938.

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Dewoitine D.520

The Dewoitine D.520 was a French fighter aircraft that entered service in early 1940, shortly after the beginning of the Second World War.

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Djedeida

Djedeida is a town and commune in the Manouba Governorate, Tunisia.

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Dwight D. Eisenhower

Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.

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Eighth Army (United Kingdom)

The Eighth Army was a field army formation of the British Army during the Second World War, fighting in the North African and Italian campaigns.

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Ernest King

Ernest Joseph King (23 November 1878 – 25 June 1956) was Commander in Chief, United States Fleet (COMINCH) and Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) during World War II.

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Ernest N. Harmon

Major General Ernest Nason Harmon (February 26, 1894 – November 13, 1979) was a senior officer of the United States Army.

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Ernst Kals

Ernst Kals (2 August 1905 – 2 November 1979) was a Kapitän zur See with the Kriegsmarine during World War II.

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Erwin Rommel

Erwin Rommel (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was a German general and military theorist.

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Es Sénia

Es Sénia (السانية) (formerly La Sénia) is a municipality in Oran Province, Algeria.

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Fernand Bonnier de La Chapelle

Fernand Bonnier de La Chapelle (1922 – December 26, 1942) was a member of the French resistance during World War II.

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First Army (United Kingdom)

The First Army was a formation of the British Army that existed during the First and Second World Wars.

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Flag of the United States

The flag of the United States of America, often referred to as the American flag, is the national flag of the United States.

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Fleet Air Arm

The Fleet Air Arm (FAA) is the branch of the British Royal Navy responsible for the operation of naval aircraft.

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Flotilla leader

A flotilla leader was a warship suitable for commanding a flotilla of destroyers or other small warships, typically a small cruiser or a large destroyer (known as a destroyer leader).

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François Darlan

Jean Louis Xavier François Darlan (7 August 1881 – 24 December 1942) was a French Admiral and political figure.

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Franklin D. Roosevelt

Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.

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Free France

Free France and its Free French Forces (French: France Libre and Forces françaises libres) were the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle during the Second World War and its military forces, that continued to fight against the Axis powers as one of the Allies after the fall of France.

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French Algeria

French Algeria (Alger to 1839, then Algérie afterwards; unofficially Algérie française, االجزائر المستعمرة), also known as Colonial Algeria, began in 1830 with the invasion of Algiers and lasted until 1962, under a variety of governmental systems.

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French Army

The French Army, officially the Ground Army (Armée de terre) (to distinguish it from the French Air Force, Armée de L'air or Air Army) is the land-based and largest component of the French Armed Forces.

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French Committee of National Liberation

The French Committee of National Liberation (Comité français de Libération nationale) was a provisional government of Free France formed by the French generals Henri Giraud and Charles de Gaulle to provide united leadership, organize and coordinate the campaign to liberate France from Nazi Germany during World War II.

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French Expeditionary Corps (1943–44)

The French Expeditionary Corps (Corps Expéditionnaire Français, CEF), also known as the French Expeditionary Corps in Italy (Corps Expéditionaire Français en Italie, CEFI.), was an expeditionary force composed of Free French soldiers that fought in the Italian Campaign during World War II under the command of General Alphonse Juin.

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French North Africa

French North Africa was a collection of territories in North Africa controlled by France, centering on French Algeria.

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French protectorate in Morocco

The French protectorate in Morocco (Protectorat français au Maroc; حماية فرنسا في المغرب Ḥimāyat Faransā fi-l-Maḡrib) was established by the Treaty of Fez.

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French West Africa

French West Africa (Afrique occidentale française, AOF) was a federation of eight French colonial territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea, Ivory Coast, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso), Dahomey (now Benin) and Niger.

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Front (military)

A military front or battlefront is a contested armed frontier between opposing forces.

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Géo Gras Group

The Géo Gras Group was a French resistance movement that played a decisive role during Operation Torch, the British-American invasion of French North Africa during WWII.

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General (United Kingdom)

General (or full general to distinguish it from the lower general officer ranks) is the highest rank currently achievable by serving officers of the British Army.

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General officer

A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.

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Generalfeldmarschall

Generalfeldmarschall (general field marshal, field marshal general, or field marshal;; abbreviated to Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states and the Holy Roman Empire; in the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, the rank Feldmarschall was used.

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George Marshall

George Catlett Marshall Jr. (December 31, 1880 – October 16, 1959) was an American statesman and soldier.

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George S. Patton

General George Smith Patton Jr. (November 11, 1885 – December 21, 1945) was a senior officer of the United States Army who commanded the U.S. Seventh Army in the Mediterranean theater of World War II, but is best known for his leadership of the U.S. Third Army in France and Germany following the Allied invasion of Normandy in June 1944.

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Gibraltar

Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.

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Gwido Langer

Lt.

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Hans-Jürgen von Arnim

Hans-Jürgen von Arnim (4 April 1889 – 1 September 1962) was a German general in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II who commanded several armies.

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Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis

Field Marshal Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis, (10 December 1891 – 16 June 1969) was a senior British Army officer who served with distinction in both the First World War and the Second World War and, afterwards, as Governor General of Canada, the 17th since Canadian Confederation.

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Harold Burrough

Admiral Sir Harold Martin Burrough (4 July 1889 – 22 October 1977) was a senior Royal Navy officer and Assistant Chief of Naval Staff to the Royal Navy during World War II.

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Henri d'Astier de la Vigerie

Henri d'Astier de La Vigerie (11 September 1897 – 10 October 1952) was a French soldier, ''Résistance'' member, and conservative politician.

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Henri Giraud

Henri Honoré Giraud (18 January 1879 – 11 March 1949) was a French general who was captured in both World Wars, but escaped both times.

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Henry Kent Hewitt

Henry Kent Hewitt (February 11, 1887 – September 15, 1972) was the United States Navy commander of amphibious operations in north Africa and southern Europe through World War II.

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History of Polish intelligence services

This article covers the history of Polish Intelligence services dating back to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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HMS Algerine

Eight ships of the Royal Navy have been named HMS Algerine.

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Italian Campaign (World War II)

The Italian Campaign of World War II consisted of the Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war in Europe.

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Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries

The Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries, or Jewish exodus from Arab countries, was the departure, flight, expulsion, evacuation and migration of 850,000 Jews, primarily of Sephardi and Mizrahi background, from Arab and Muslim countries, mainly from 1948 to the early 1970s.

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Jimmy Doolittle

James Harold Doolittle (December 14, 1896 – September 27, 1993) was an American aviation pioneer.

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José Aboulker

José Aboulker (5 March 1920–17 November 2009) was a French Algerian Jew and leading figure in French Algeria of the anti-Nazi resistance in World War II.

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Kenitra

Kenitra (Moroccan Arabic:, Qniṭra; القنيطرة, al-Qonayṭéra, the little bridge) is a city in northern Morocco, formerly (1932–1956) known as Port Lyautey.

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Kenneth Anderson (British Army officer)

General Sir Kenneth Arthur Noel Anderson, (25 December 1891 – 29 April 1959) was a senior British Army officer who saw service in both world wars.

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Libya

Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.

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Lieutenant-general (United Kingdom)

Lieutenant general (Lt Gen), formerly more commonly lieutenant-general, is a senior rank in the British Army and the Royal Marines.

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Line of communication

A line of communication (or communications) is the route that connects an operating military unit with its supply base.

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List of World War II battles

This is a list of World War II battles.

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Lloyd Fredendall

Lieutenant General Lloyd Ralston Fredendall (December 28, 1883 – October 4, 1963) was a senior officer of the United States Army who fought during World War II.

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Luftwaffe

The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.

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Maghreb

The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.

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Major general

Major general (abbreviated MG, Maj. Gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries.

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Major general (United States)

In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and United States Air Force, major general is a two-star general-officer rank, with the pay grade of O-8.

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Maksymilian Ciężki

Maksymilian Ciężki (Samter, Province of Posen (now Szamotuły, Poland), 24 November 1898 – 9 November 1951 in London, England) was the head of the Polish Cipher Bureau's German section (BS–4) in the 1930s, during which time—from December 1932—the Bureau decrypted German Enigma messages.

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Manton S. Eddy

Lieutenant General Manton Sprague Eddy (May 16, 1892 – April 10, 1962) was a senior United States Army officer who served in both World War I and World War II.

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Marching Regiment of the Foreign Legion

The Marching Regiment (Régiment de Marche) of the French Foreign Legion (RMLE) was a French military unit that fought in World War I and World War II.

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Mark W. Clark

Mark Wayne Clark (May 1, 1896 – April 17, 1984) was a United States Army officer who saw service during World War I, World War II, and the Korean War.

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Mediterranean and Middle East theatre of World War II

The Mediterranean and Middle East Theatre was a major theatre of operations during the Second World War.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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Mersa Matruh

Mersa Matruh (مرسى مطروح) is a seaport in Egypt, the capital of the Matrouh Governorate.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Middle East Command

Middle East Command, later Middle East Land Forces, was a British Army Command established prior to the Second World War in Egypt.

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Mieczysław Zygfryd Słowikowski

Mieczysław Zygfryd Słowikowski (Jazgarzew, near Warsaw, 1896–1989, London), also known as "Rygor-Słowikowski," was a Polish Army officer whose intelligence work in North Africa facilitated Allied preparations for the 1942 Operation Torch landings.

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Mohammedia

Mohammedia (المحمدية, Berber: Fḍala) is a port city on the west coast of Morocco between Casablanca and Rabat in the region of Casablanca-Settat.

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Morocco

Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.

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Naval Battle of Casablanca

The Naval Battle of Casablanca was a series of naval engagements fought between American ships covering the invasion of North Africa and Vichy French ships defending the neutrality of French Morocco in accordance with the Second Armistice at Compiègne during World War II.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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No. 1 Commando

The No.

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No. 6 Commando

No.

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North African Campaign

The North African Campaign of the Second World War took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943.

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North African Campaign timeline

Timeline of the North African Campaign.

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Office of Public Sector Information

The Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) is the body responsible for the operation of Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO) and of other public information services of the United Kingdom.

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Operation Blackstone

Operation Blackstone was a part of Operation Torch, the Allied landings in North Africa during World War II.

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Operation Brushwood

Operation Brushwood was a part of Operation Torch, Allied landings in Africa during World War II.

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Operation Flagpole (World War II)

Operation Flagpole was part of the run-up to Operation Torch, the planned Allied invasion of North Africa during World War II.

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Operation Kingpin (World War II)

Operation Kingpin was part of the run-up to Operation Torch, the planned Allied invasion of North Africa during World War II.

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Operation Overlord

Operation Overlord was the codename for the Battle of Normandy, the Allied operation that launched the successful invasion of German-occupied Western Europe during World War II.

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Operation Reservist

Operation Reservist was an Allied military operation during the Second World War.

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Operation Sledgehammer

Operation Sledgehammer was a World War II Allied plan for a cross-Channel invasion of Europe, as the first step in helping to reduce pressure on the Soviet Red Army by establishing a Second Front.

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Operation Terminal

Operation Terminal was an Allied operation during World War II.

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Operations Vulcan and Strike

Operation Vulcan (22 April–6 May 1943) and Operation Strike (6–12 May 1943) were the final ground attack by the Allied forces against the Italian and German forces in Tunis, Cap Bon, and Bizerte, the last Axis toeholds in North Africa, during the Tunisia Campaign of the Second World War.

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Oran

Oran (وَهران, Wahrān; Berber language: ⵡⴻⵂⵔⴰⵏ, Wehran) is a major coastal city located in the north-west of Algeria.

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Orlando Ward

Major General Orlando Ward (November 4, 1891 – February 4, 1972) was a career United States Army officer who fought in both World War I and World War II.

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Pincer movement

The pincer movement, or double envelopment, is a military maneuver in which forces simultaneously attack both flanks (sides) of an enemy formation.

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President of the United States

The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.

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Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.

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Rear admiral

Rear admiral is a naval commissioned officer rank above that of a commodore (U.S equivalent of Commander) and captain, and below that of a vice admiral.

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Red Army

The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

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Robert Daniel Murphy

Robert Daniel Murphy (October 28, 1894 – January 9, 1978) was an American diplomat.

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Safi, Morocco

Safi (Berber: Asfi, ⴰⵙⴼⵉ; أسفي, Portuguese: Safim) is a city in western Morocco on the Atlantic Ocean.

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Scuttling of the French fleet in Toulon

The French fleet in Toulon was scuttled on 27 November 1942 to avoid capture by Nazi German forces.

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Second Battle of El Alamein

The Second Battle of El Alamein (23 October – 11 November 1942) was a battle of the Second World War that took place near the Egyptian railway halt of El Alamein. With the Allies victorious, it was the watershed of the Western Desert Campaign. The First Battle of El Alamein had prevented the Axis from advancing further into Egypt. In August 1942, Lieutenant-General Sir Bernard Law Montgomery took command of the Eighth Army following the sacking of General Claude Auchinleck and the death of his replacement Lieutenant-General William Gott in an air crash. The Allied victory turned the tide in the North African Campaign and ended the Axis threat to Egypt, the Suez Canal and the Middle Eastern and Persian oil fields via North Africa. The Second Battle of El Alamein revived the morale of the Allies, being the first big success against the Axis since Operation Crusader in late 1941. The battle coincided with the Allied invasion of French North Africa in Operation Torch, which started on 8 November, the Battle of Stalingrad and the Guadalcanal Campaign.

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Sicily

Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.

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Sir Thomas Troubridge, 1st Baronet

Rear Admiral Sir Thomas Troubridge, 1st Baronet (c. 1758 – 1 February 1807) was a Royal Navy officer.

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Sloop-of-war

In the 18th century and most of the 19th, a sloop-of-war in the Royal Navy was a warship with a single gun deck that carried up to eighteen guns.

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Southern Europe

Southern Europe is the southern region of the European continent.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Spain

Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Spain during World War II

The Spanish State under the dictatorship of General Franco did not officially join the Axis Powers during World War II.

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SS Tynwald (1936)

TSS (RMS) Tynwald No. 165281 was a passenger vessel which served with the Isle of Man Steam Packet Company from 1937 until she was requisitioned for war service at the end of 1940.

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Tafraoui

Tafraoui is a municipality in Oran Province, Algeria close to the city of Oran.

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Ténès

Ténès (Tinas; تنس) is a town in Algeria located around 200 kilometers west of the capital Algiers.

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The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.

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Tripoli

Tripoli (طرابلس,; Berber: Oea, or Wy't) is the capital city and the largest city of Libya, with a population of about 1.1 million people in 2015.

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Tunis

Tunis (تونس) is the capital and the largest city of Tunisia.

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Tunisia

Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.

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Tunisian Campaign

The Tunisian Campaign (also known as the Battle of Tunisia) was a series of battles that took place in Tunisia during the North African Campaign of the Second World War, between Axis and Allied forces.

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U-boat

U-boat is an anglicised version of the German word U-Boot, a shortening of Unterseeboot, literally "undersea boat".

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UG convoys

The UG convoys were a series of east-bound trans-Atlantic convoys from the '''U'''nited States to '''G'''ibraltar carrying food, ammunition, and military hardware to the United States Army in North Africa and southern Europe during World War II.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Army Center of Military History

The United States Army Center of Military History (CMH) is a directorate within the Office of the Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army.

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United States Army Rangers

The United States Army Rangers are designated U.S. Army Ranger units, past or present, or are graduates of the U.S. Army Ranger School.

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United States Navy

The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.

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Vice admiral

Vice admiral is a senior naval flag officer rank, equivalent to lieutenant general and air marshal.

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Vichy France

Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.

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Vyvyan Evelegh

Major General Vyvyan Evelegh, (14 December 1898 – 27 August 1958) was a senior officer of the British Army during the Second World War, commanding the 78th Infantry Division (otherwise known as the Battleaxe Division) and the 6th Armoured Division in Tunisia and Italy.

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Walther Nehring

Walther Nehring (15 August 1892 – 20 April 1983) was a German general in the Wehrmacht during World War II who commanded the Afrika Korps.

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William Welsh (RAF officer)

Air Marshal Sir William Lawrie Welsh, (10 February 1891 – 2 January 1962) was a Royal Air Force officer who commanded British air operations during Operation Torch.

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Winston Churchill

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Zone libre

The zone libre (free zone) was a partition of the French metropolitan territory during World War II, established at the Second Armistice at Compiègne on 22 June 1940.

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11th Infantry Brigade and Headquarters South East

The 11th Infantry Brigade and Headquarters South East is a regular British Army brigade formation that is part of the Army’s 'Adaptable Force' meaning it has operational units under command, as well as regional responsibilities across the South East of England.

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168th Infantry Regiment (United States)

The 168th Infantry Regiment ("Third Iowa") is an infantry regiment of the United States Army.

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17th Armored Engineer Battalion

17th Armored Engineer Battalion are part of the 2nd Armored Division "Hell on Wheels".

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18th Army Group

The 18th Army Group was an Allied formation in the Second World War.

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19th Army Corps (France)

The French 19th Army Corps (19e Corps d'Armée) was formed in 1873.

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1st Armored Division (United States)

The 1st Armored Division—nicknamed "Old Ironsides"—is a combined arms division of the United States Army.

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1st Infantry Division (United States)

The 1st Infantry Division is a combined arms division of the United States Army, and is the oldest continuously serving in the Regular Army.

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1st Ranger Battalion (United States)

The 1st Ranger Battalion, currently based at Hunter Army Airfield in Savannah, Georgia, United States, is the first of three ranger battalions belonging to the United States Army's 75th Ranger Regiment.

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2nd Armored Division (United States)

The 2nd Armored Division ("Hell on Wheels") was an armored division of the United States Army.

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33d Operations Group

The 33d Operations Group is the flying component of the 33d Fighter Wing, assigned to Air Education and Training Command of the United States Air Force.

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34th Infantry Division (United States)

The 34th Infantry Division is an infantry division of the United States Army, part of the National Guard, that participated in World War I, World War II and multiple current conflicts.

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36th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

The 36th Infantry Brigade was an infantry brigade formation of British Army that fought in World War I, as part of 12th (Eastern) Division, on the Western Front.

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39th Infantry Regiment (United States)

The 39th Infantry Regiment is a parent regiment in the United States Army.

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3rd Infantry Division (United States)

The 3rd Infantry Division (nicknamed "The Rock of the Marne)" is an Infantry division of the United States Army based at Fort Stewart, Georgia.

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509th Infantry Regiment (United States)

The 509th Infantry Regiment is an airborne infantry regiment of the United States Army.

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78th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

The 78th Infantry Division, also known as the Battleaxe Division, was an infantry division of the British Army, raised during World War II that fought, with great distinction, in Tunisia, Sicily and Italy from late 1942–1945.

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9th Infantry Division (United States)

The 9th Infantry Division ("Old Reliables") was created as the 9th Division during World War I, but never deployed overseas.

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Redirects here:

Allied invasion of North Africa, Allied invasion of North Africa., Allied landings in North Africa, Battle of Tafarquay, Battle of Youk-Les-Bains, Operation Goalpost, Operation Gymnast, Operation TORCH, Operation torch, Torch Landings, Torch landings, Western Task Force.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Torch

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