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Index Ophthalmology

Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine and surgery (both methods are used) that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyeball and orbit. [1]

192 relations: Adam Zamenhof, Albrecht von Graefe, Alcmaeon of Croton, Allvar Gullstrand, American Academy of Ophthalmology, Andreas Vesalius, Anterior segment of eyeball, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Aristotle, Arlt's line, Australia, Avicenna, Bangladesh, Blurred vision, Board certification, Book of Optics, Book of the Ten Treatises of the Eye, Boston, British Journal of Ophthalmology, Canada, Carl Ferdinand von Arlt, Carol Shields (ophthalmologist), Cataract, Cataract surgery, Celsus, Charles Kelman, Charles Schepens, Chinese Ophthalmology, Ciliary body, Conjunctiva, Consultant (medicine), Continuing medical education, Copiale cipher, Cork (city), Cornea, Couching, Couching (ophthalmology), Diabetic retinopathy, Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine, Doctor of Philosophy, Dry eye syndrome, Dublin, Ebers Papyrus, Electromagnet, Empiricism, Epiphora (medicine), Ernst Abbe, Ernst Fuchs (doctor), Exophthalmos, ..., Eye, Eye care professional, Eye color, Eye disease, Eye examination, Eye neoplasm, Far-sightedness, Filatov Institute of Eye Diseases and Tissue Therapy, Finland, First French Empire, Fluorescein angiography, Foreign body, François Pourfour du Petit, Franciscus Donders, Frederik Ruysch, Fuchs heterochromic iridocyclitis, Fuchs' dystrophy, Galen, Galway, Georg Joseph Beer, George III of the United Kingdom, Gerard of Cremona, Gerhard Meyer-Schwickerath, Glasses, Glaucoma, Glossary of medicine, Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus, Greek language, Harold Ridley (ophthalmologist), Health Service Executive, Herman Snellen, Hermann von Helmholtz, Hippocrates, Hirschberg test, Human eye, Hunayn ibn Ishaq, Ibn al-Haytham, Ibn al-Nafis, Ignacio Barraquer, India, Ioannis Pallikaris, Iridectomy, Istanbul University, Jacques Daviel, JAMA Ophthalmology, Jan E. Goldstein, Jean-Étienne-Marie Portalis, Jerry A. Shields, John Freke (surgeon), Jose Barraquer, Joseph Forlenze, Joseph Igersheimer, Jules Gonin, Julius Hirschberg, Keratomileusis, King Edward Medical University, LASIK, Limerick, Macular degeneration, Magnifying glass, Marcello Malpighi, Marshall M. Parks, Massachusetts, Master of Science, Medical school, Medical ultrasound, Medicine, Melanoma, Micro lathe, Microkeratome, Microscope, Moorfields Eye Hospital, Napoleon, Nasolacrimal duct, Near-sightedness, Nepal, Neuro-ophthalmology, New Zealand, Nobel Prize, Ocular tonometry, Oculoplastics, Online Etymology Dictionary, Ophthalmic pathology, Ophthalmoscopy, Optical coherence tomography, Optometry, Orbit (anatomy), Orthoptics, Pakistan, Pediatric ophthalmology, Phacoemulsification, Physician, Polara family, Polymath, Ponce Denis Écouchard Lebrun, Posterior chamber of eyeball, Posterior segment of eyeball, Prentice position, Radial keratotomy, Refractive error, Refractive surgery, Republic of Ireland, Residency (medicine), Retina, Retinoblastoma, Royal College, Royal College of Ophthalmologists, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, Rufus of Ephesus, Sanskrit, Sligo, Slit lamp, Snellen chart, Specialist registrar, Specialty (medicine), St Bartholomew's Hospital, Stewart Duke-Elder, Strabismus, Surgery, Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita, Svyatoslav Fyodorov, Tadeusz Krwawicz, Theodor Leber, Tsutomu Sato (ophthalmologist), Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, University College London, University of Chicago Press, University of Hamburg, Uveitis, Veterinary medicine, Vision rehabilitation, Visual acuity, Visual field test, Vitreology, Vitreous body, Vladimir Filatov, Waterford. Expand index (142 more) »

Adam Zamenhof

Adam Zamenhof (1888 – 29 January 1940) was a Jewish-Polish physician known for his work on ophthalmology and the son of L. L. Zamenhof, the inventor of Esperanto.

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Albrecht von Graefe

Friedrich Wilhelm Ernst Albrecht von Gräfe, often Anglicized to Graefe (22 May 182820 July 1870), was a Prussian pioneer of German ophthalmology.

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Alcmaeon of Croton

Alcmaeon of Croton (in Magna Graecia) (Ἀλκμαίων ὁ Κροτωνιάτης, Alkmaiōn, gen.: Ἀλκμαίωνος; 5th century BC) has been described as one of the most eminent natural philosophers and medical theorists of antiquity.

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Allvar Gullstrand

Allvar Gullstrand (5 June 1862 – 28 July 1930) was a Swedish ophthalmologist and optician.

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American Academy of Ophthalmology

The American Academy of Ophthalmology (Academy) is a professional medical association of ophthalmologists.

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Andreas Vesalius

Andreas Vesalius (31 December 1514 – 15 October 1564) was a 16th-century Flemish anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body).

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Anterior segment of eyeball

The anterior segment or anterior cavity is the front third of the eye that includes the structures in front of the vitreous humour: the cornea, iris, ciliary body, and lens.

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Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek FRS (24 October 1632 – 26 August 1723) was a Dutch businessman and scientist in the Golden Age of Dutch science and technology.

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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Arlt's line

Arlt's line is a thick band of scar tissue in the conjunctiva of the eye, near the lid margin, that is associated with eye infections.

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.

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Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.

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Blurred vision

Blurred vision is an ocular symptom.

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Board certification

Board certification is the process by which a physician or other professional demonstrates a mastery of basic knowledge and skills through written, practical, or simulator-based testing.

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Book of Optics

The Book of Optics (Kitāb al-Manāẓir; Latin: De Aspectibus or Perspectiva; Italian: Deli Aspecti) is a seven-volume treatise on optics and other fields of study composed by the medieval Arab scholar Ibn al-Haytham, known in the West as Alhazen or Alhacen (965– c. 1040 AD).

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Book of the Ten Treatises of the Eye

Hunayn ibn Ishaq's Book of the Ten Treatises of the Eye is a 9th-century theory of vision based upon the cosmological natures of pathways from the brain to the object being perceived.

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Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.

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British Journal of Ophthalmology

The British Journal of Ophthalmology is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of ophthalmology.

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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Carl Ferdinand von Arlt

Carl Ferdinand Ritter von Arlt (April 18, 1812 – March 7, 1887) was an Austrian ophthalmologist born in Ober-Graupen, a village near Teplitz (Teplice) in Bohemia.

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Carol Shields (ophthalmologist)

Carol Lally Shields (born July 8, 1957) biography at the University of Notre Dame Athletics Monogram Club (official website).

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A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye which leads to a decrease in vision.

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Cataract surgery

Cataract surgery is the removal of the natural lens of the eye (also called "crystalline lens") that has developed an opacification, which is referred to as a cataract.

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Celsus (Κέλσος. Kélsos) was a 2nd-century Greek philosopher and opponent of early Christianity.

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Charles Kelman

Charles D. Kelman (May 23, 1930 – June 1, 2004) was an ophthalmologist and a pioneer in cataract surgery.

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Charles Schepens

Charles Louis Schepens (March 13, 1912 - March 28, 2006) was an influential Belgian (later American) ophthalmologist, regarded by many in the profession as "the father of modern retinal surgery",American Academy of Ophthalmology.

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Chinese Ophthalmology

Chinese ophthalmology (Chinese 中医眼科学, pinyin: zhōngyī yǎnkē xué) is part of the Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).

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Ciliary body

The ciliary body is a part of the eye that includes the ciliary muscle, which controls the shape of the lens, and the ciliary epithelium, which produces the aqueous humor.

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The conjunctiva lines the inside of the eyelids and covers the sclera (the white of the eye).

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Consultant (medicine)

In the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, and parts of the Commonwealth, consultant is the title of a senior hospital-based physician or surgeon who has completed all of his or her specialist training and been placed on the specialist register in their chosen speciality.

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Continuing medical education

Continuing medical education (CME) refers to a specific form of continuing education (CE) that helps those in the medical field maintain competence and learn about new and developing areas of their field.

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Copiale cipher

The Copiale cipher is an encrypted manuscript consisting of 75,000 handwritten characters filling 105 pages in a bound volume.

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Cork (city)

Cork (from corcach, meaning "marsh") is a city in south-west Ireland, in the province of Munster, which had a population of 125,622 in 2016.

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The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.

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In embroidery, couching and laid work are techniques in which yarn or other materials are laid across the surface of the ground fabric and fastened in place with small stitches of the same or a different yarn.

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Couching (ophthalmology)

Couching is the earliest documented form of cataract surgery.

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Diabetic retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy, also known as diabetic eye disease, is a medical condition in which damage occurs to the retina due to diabetes mellitus.

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Doctor of Medicine

A Doctor of Medicine (MD from Latin Medicinae Doctor) is a medical degree, the meaning of which varies between different jurisdictions.

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Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine

Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) is a professional doctoral degree for physicians and surgeons offered by medical schools in the United States.

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Doctor of Philosophy

A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD or Ph.D.; Latin Philosophiae doctor) is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries.

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Dry eye syndrome

Dry eye syndrome (DES), also known as keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), is the condition of having dry eyes.

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Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.

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Ebers Papyrus

The Ebers Papyrus, also known as Papyrus Ebers, is an Egyptian medical papyrus of herbal knowledge dating to circa 1550 BC.

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An electromagnet is a type of magnet in which the magnetic field is produced by an electric current.

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In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.

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Epiphora (medicine)

Epiphora is an overflow of tears onto the face.

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Ernst Abbe

Ernst Karl Abbe HonFRMS (23 January 1840 – 14 January 1905) was a German physicist, optical scientist, entrepreneur, and social reformer.

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Ernst Fuchs (doctor)

Ernst Fuchs (14 June 1851, Vienna – 21 November 1930, Vienna) was an Austrian ophthalmologist, physician and researcher.

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Exophthalmos (also called exophthalmus, exophthalmia, proptosis, or exorbitism) is a bulging of the eye anteriorly out of the orbit.

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Eyes are organs of the visual system.

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Eye care professional

An eye care professional (ECP) is an individual who provides a service related to the eyes or vision.

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Eye color

Eye color is a polygenic phenotypic character determined by two distinct factors: the pigmentation of the eye's iris and the frequency-dependence of the scattering of light by the turbid medium in the stroma of the iris.

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Eye disease

This is a partial list of human eye diseases and disorders.

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Eye examination

An eye examination is a series of tests performed by an ophthalmologist (medical doctor), optometrist, or orthoptist assessing vision and ability to focus on and discern objects, as well as other tests and examinations pertaining to the eyes.

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Eye neoplasm

Eye neoplasms can affect all parts of the eye, and can be a benign tumor or a malignant tumor (cancer).

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Far-sightedness, also known as hyperopia, is a condition of the eye in which light is focused behind, instead of on, the retina.

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Filatov Institute of Eye Diseases and Tissue Therapy

The Filatov Institute is a research institute and a large ophthalmology (eye) hospital in Odessa, Ukraine.

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Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.

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First French Empire

The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.

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Fluorescein angiography

Fluorescein angiography (FA), fluorescent angiography (FAG), or fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) is a technique for examining the circulation of the retina and choroid (parts of the fundus) using a fluorescent dye and a specialized camera.

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Foreign body

In the field of medicine, a foreign body, sometimes known as FB (Latin: corpus alienum), is any object originating outside the body of an organism.

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François Pourfour du Petit

François Pourfour du Petit (June 24, 1664 – June 18, 1741) was a French anatomist, ophthalmologist and surgeon who was a native of Paris.

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Franciscus Donders

Franciscus (Franz) Cornelius Donders FRS FRSE (27 May 1818 – 24 March 1889) was a Dutch ophthalmologist.

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Frederik Ruysch

Frederik Ruysch (March 28, 1638 – February 22, 1731) was a Dutch botanist and anatomist.

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Fuchs heterochromic iridocyclitis

Fuchs heterochromic iridocyclitis (FHI) is a chronic unilateral uveitis appearing with the triad of heterochromia, predisposition to cataract and glaucoma, and keratitic precipitates on the posterior corneal surface.

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Fuchs' dystrophy

Fuchs' dystrophy, also referred to as Fuchs' corneal endothelial dystrophy (FCED) and Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy (FED), is a slowly progressing corneal dystrophy that usually affects both eyes and is slightly more common in women than in men.

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Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.

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Galway (Gaillimh) is a city in the West of Ireland, in the province of Connacht.

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Georg Joseph Beer

Georg Joseph Beer (23 December 1763 – 11 April 1821) was an Austrian ophthalmologist.

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George III of the United Kingdom

George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.

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Gerard of Cremona

Gerard of Cremona (Latin: Gerardus Cremonensis; c. 1114 – 1187) was an Italian translator of scientific books from Arabic into Latin.

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Gerhard Meyer-Schwickerath

Gerhard Rudolph Edmund Meyer-Schwickerath (July 10, 1920 – January 20, 1992) was a German ophthalmologist, university lecturer and researcher.

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Glasses, also known as eyeglasses or spectacles, are devices consisting of glass or hard plastic lenses mounted in a frame that holds them in front of a person's eyes, typically using a bridge over the nose and arms which rest over the ears.

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Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases which result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss.

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Glossary of medicine

This glossary of medical terms is a list of definitions about medicine, its sub-disciplines, and related fields.

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Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus

Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus (4 February 1776, Bremen – 16 February 1837, Bremen) was a German physician, naturalist, and proto-evolutionary biologist.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Harold Ridley (ophthalmologist)

Sir Nicholas Harold Lloyd Ridley (10 July 1906, Kibworth Harcourt, Leicestershire – 25 May 2001, Salisbury, Wiltshire) was an English ophthalmologist who invented the intraocular lens and pioneered intraocular lens surgery for cataract patients.

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Health Service Executive

The Health Service Executive (HSE) (Feidhmeannacht na Seirbhíse Sláinte) is responsible for the provision of health and personal social services for everyone living in Ireland, with public funds.

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Herman Snellen

Herman Snellen (February 19, 1834 – January 18, 1908) was a Dutch ophthalmologist who introduced the Snellen chart to study visual acuity (1862).

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Hermann von Helmholtz

Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist who made significant contributions in several scientific fields.

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Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.

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Hirschberg test

In the fields of optometry and ophthalmology, the Hirschberg test, also Hirschberg corneal reflex test, is a screening test that can be used to assess whether a person has strabismus (ocular misalignment).

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Human eye

The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure.

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Hunayn ibn Ishaq

Hunayn ibn Ishaq al-Ibadi (also Hunain or Hunein) (أبو زيد حنين بن إسحاق العبادي;, Iohannitius, ܚܢܝܢ ܒܪ ܐܝܣܚܩ) (809 – 873) was an influential Arab Nestorian Christian translator, scholar, physician, and scientist.

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Ibn al-Haytham

Hasan Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized Alhazen; full name أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم) was an Arab mathematician, astronomer, and physicist of the Islamic Golden Age.

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Ibn al-Nafis

Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي), known as Ibn al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس), was an Arab physician mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood.

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Ignacio Barraquer

Ignacio Barraquer Barraquer (March 25, 1884 – May 13, 1965) was a Spanish ophthalmologist known for his contributions to the advancement of cataract surgery.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Ioannis Pallikaris

Ioannis G. Pallikaris (Παλλήκαρης Ιωάννης, born November 18, 1947) is a Greek ophthalmologist who in 1989 performed the first LASIK procedure on a human eye.

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An iridectomy, also known as a surgical iridectomy or corectomy, is the surgical removal of part of the iris.

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Istanbul University

Istanbul University (İstanbul Üniversitesi) is a prominent Turkish university located in Istanbul.

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Jacques Daviel

Jacques Daviel (11 August 1696 – 30 September 1762) was a French ophthalmologist credited with originating the first significant advance in cataract surgery since couching was invented in ancient India.

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JAMA Ophthalmology

JAMA Ophthalmology (formerly Archives of Ophthalmology) is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of ophthalmology.

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Jan E. Goldstein

Jan Ellen Goldstein (born 1946) is an American intellectual historian of Modern Europe.

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Jean-Étienne-Marie Portalis

Jean-Étienne-Marie Portalis (1 April 1746 – 25 August 1807) was a French jurist and politician in time of the French Revolution and the First Empire.

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Jerry A. Shields

Jerry A. Shields (born June 9, 1937) is an ophthalmologist practicing at the Wills Eye Institute in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, specializing in ocular oncology.

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John Freke (surgeon)

John Freke (1688–1756) was an English surgeon.

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Jose Barraquer

José Ignacio Barraquer Moner (24 January 1916 – 13 February 1998) was a Spanish ophthalmologist born in Barcelona who did most of his life’s work in Bogotá, Colombia.

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Joseph Forlenze

Joseph-Nicolas-Blaise Forlenze (born Giuseppe Nicolò Leonardo Biagio Forlenza, 3 February 1757 – 22 July 1833), was an Italian ophthalmologist and surgeon, considered one of the most important ophthalmologists between the 18th and the 19th century.

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Joseph Igersheimer

Joseph Igersheimer(1879–1965) was a German born ophthalmologist known for his work on arsphenamine for the treatment of syphilis.

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Jules Gonin

Jules Gonin (10 August 1870 – May 1935) was a Professor of ophthalmology in Lausanne who pioneered the procedure of ignipuncture, the first successful surgery for the treatment of retinal detachments.

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Julius Hirschberg

Julius Hirschberg (18 September 1843 – 17 February 1925) was a German ophthalmologist and medical historian.

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Keratomileusis, from Greek κέρας (kéras: horn) and σμίλευσις (smileusis: carving), or corneal reshaping, is the surgical improvement of the refractive state of the cornea by surgically reshaping it.

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King Edward Medical University

King Edward Medical University (جامعہ طبی کنگ ایڈورڈ) is a medical university located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.

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LASIK or Lasik (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis), commonly referred to as laser eye surgery or laser vision correction, is a type of refractive surgery for the correction of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism.

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Limerick (Luimneach) is a city in County Limerick, Ireland.

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Macular degeneration

Macular degeneration, also known as age-related macular degeneration (AMD or ARMD), is a medical condition which may result in blurred or no vision in the center of the visual field.

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Magnifying glass

A magnifying glass (called a hand lens in laboratory contexts) is a convex lens that is used to produce a magnified image of an object.

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Marcello Malpighi

Marcello Malpighi (10 March 1628 – 29 November 1694) was an Italian biologist and physician, who is referred to as the "Father of microscopical anatomy, histology, physiology and embryology".

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Marshall M. Parks

Marshall Miller Parks (July 6, 1918 – July 25, 2005) was an American ophthalmologist known to many as "the father of pediatric ophthalmology".

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Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.

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Master of Science

A Master of Science (Magister Scientiae; abbreviated MS, M.S., MSc, M.Sc., SM, S.M., ScM, or Sc.M.) is a master's degree in the field of science awarded by universities in many countries, or a person holding such a degree.

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Medical school

A medical school is a tertiary educational institution —or part of such an institution— that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degree for physicians and surgeons.

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Medical ultrasound

Medical ultrasound (also known as diagnostic sonography or ultrasonography) is a diagnostic imaging technique based on the application of ultrasound.

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Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.

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Melanoma, also known as malignant melanoma, is a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes.

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Micro lathe

A micro lathe (also styled micro-lathe or microlathe) is a machine tool used for the complex shaping of metal and other solid materials.

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A microkeratome is a precision surgical instrument with an oscillating blade designed for creating the corneal flap in LASIK or ALK surgery.

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A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.

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Moorfields Eye Hospital

Moorfields Eye Hospital is a specialist NHS eye hospital in London, England run by Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust.

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Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.

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Nasolacrimal duct

The nasolacrimal duct (sometimes called the tear duct) carries tears from the lacrimal sac of the eye into the nasal cavity.

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Near-sightedness, also known as short-sightedness and myopia, is a condition of the eye where light focuses in front of, instead of on, the retina.

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Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.

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Neuro-ophthalmology is an academically-oriented subspecialty that merges the fields of neurology and ophthalmology, often dealing with complex systemic diseases that have manifestations in the visual system.

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New Zealand

New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

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Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.

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Ocular tonometry

Tonometry is the procedure eye care professionals perform to determine the intraocular pressure (IOP), the fluid pressure inside the eye.

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Oculoplastics, or oculoplastic surgery, includes a wide variety of surgical procedures that deal with the orbit (eye socket), eyelids, tear ducts, and the face.

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Online Etymology Dictionary

The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary written and compiled by Douglas Harper that describes the origins of English-language words.

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Ophthalmic pathology

Ophthalmic pathology is the subspecialty of surgical pathology and also a subspecialty of ophthalmology which deals with the diagnosis and characterization of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the eyes.

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Ophthalmoscopy, also called funduscopy, is a test that allows a health professional to see inside the fundus of the eye and other structures using an ophthalmoscope (or funduscope).

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Optical coherence tomography

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging technique that uses coherent light to capture micrometer-resolution, two- and three-dimensional images from within optical scattering media (e.g., biological tissue).

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Optometry is a health care profession which involves examining the eyes and applicable visual systems for defects or abnormalities as well as the medical diagnosis and management of eye disease.

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Orbit (anatomy)

In anatomy, the orbit is the cavity or socket of the skull in which the eye and its appendages are situated.

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Orthoptics is a profession allied to eye care profession whose primary emphasis is the diagnosis and non-surgical management of strabismus (wandering eye), amblyopia (lazy eye) and eye movement disorders.

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Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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Pediatric ophthalmology

Pediatric ophthalmology is a sub-speciality of ophthalmology concerned with eye diseases, visual development, and vision care in children.

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Phacoemulsification is a modern cataract surgery in which the eye's internal lens is emulsified with an ultrasonic handpiece and aspirated from the eye.

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A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.

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Polara family

Polara is a noble family from Modica, a town in the Province of Ragusa, Sicily, Italy.

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A polymath (πολυμαθής,, "having learned much,"The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century Latin: uomo universalis, "universal man") is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas—such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.

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Ponce Denis Écouchard Lebrun

Ponce Denis Écouchard Lebrun (11 August 1729 – 31 August 1807) was a French lyric poet.

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Posterior chamber of eyeball

The posterior chamber is a narrow space behind the peripheral part of the iris, and in front of the suspensory ligament of the lens and the ciliary processes.

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Posterior segment of eyeball

The posterior segment or posterior cavity is the back two-thirds of the eye that includes the anterior hyaloid membrane and all of the optical structures behind it: the vitreous humor, retina, choroid, and optic nerve.

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Prentice position

The Prentice position is an orientation of a prism, used in optics, optometry and ophthalmology.

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Radial keratotomy

Radial keratotomy (RK) is a refractive surgical procedure to correct myopia (nearsightedness) that was developed in 1974, by Svyatoslav Fyodorov, a Russian ophthalmologist.

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Refractive error

Refractive error, also known as refraction error, is a problem with focusing light accurately onto the retina due to the shape of the eye.

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Refractive surgery

Refractive eye surgery is any eye surgery used to improve the refractive state of the eye and decrease or eliminate dependency on glasses or contact lenses.

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Republic of Ireland

Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.

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Residency (medicine)

Residency is a stage of graduate medical training.

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The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.

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Retinoblastoma (Rb) is a rare form of cancer that rapidly develops from the immature cells of a retina, the light-detecting tissue of the eye.

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Royal College

A Royal College in some Commonwealth countries is technically a college which has received royal patronage and permission to use the prefix Royal.

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Royal College of Ophthalmologists

The Royal College of Ophthalmologists, founded in 1988, is an independent professional body and one of the Medical Royal Colleges.

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Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow

The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow, is an institute of physicians and surgeons in Glasgow, Scotland.

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Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI; Coláiste Ríoga na Máinleá in Éirinn) is a professional association and educational institution that is responsible for the medical speciality of surgery throughout the island of Ireland.

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Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh

The Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (RCSEd) is a professional organisation of surgeons located in Nicolson Street, Edinburgh, within the William Henry Playfair designed Surgeons' Hall and adjoining buildings.

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Rufus of Ephesus

Rufus of Ephesus (Ῥοῦφος ὁ Ἐφέσιος, fl. late 1st century AD) was a Greek physician and author who wrote treatises on dietetics, pathology, anatomy, and patient care.

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Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

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Sligo (—) is a coastal seaport and the county town of County Sligo, Ireland, within the western province of Connacht.

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Slit lamp

The slit lamp is an instrument consisting of a high-intensity light source that can be focused to shine a thin sheet of light into the eye.

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Snellen chart

A Snellen chart is an eye chart that can be used to measure visual acuity.

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Specialist registrar

A specialist registrar (SpR) is a doctor in the Republic of Ireland and in the United Kingdom who is receiving advanced training in a specialist field of medicine in order to eventually become a consultant.

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Specialty (medicine)

A specialty, or speciality, in medicine is a branch of medical practice.

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St Bartholomew's Hospital

St Bartholomew's Hospital, also known simply as Barts and later more formally as The Royal Hospital of St Bartholomew, is a hospital located at Farringdon in the City of London and founded in 1123.

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Stewart Duke-Elder

Sir William Stewart Duke-Elder (22 April 1898 – 27 March 1978), a Scottish ophthalmologist who was a dominant force in his field for more than a quarter of a century.

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Strabismus, also known as crossed eyes, is a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object.

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Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.

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Sushruta, or Suśruta (Sanskrit: सुश्रुत, lit. "well heard") was an ancient Indian physician during 1500 BCE to 1000 BCE, known as the main author of the treatise The Compendium of Suśruta (Sanskrit: ''Suśruta-saṃhitā'').

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Sushruta Samhita

The Sushruta Samhita (सुश्रुतसंहिता, IAST: Suśrutasaṃhitā, literally "Suśruta's Compendium") is an ancient Sanskrit text on medicine and surgery, and one of the most important such treatises on this subject to survive from the ancient world.

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Svyatoslav Fyodorov

Svyatoslav Nikolayevich Fyodorov (born August 8, 1927 – June 2, 2000) was a Russian ophthalmologist, politician, professor, full member of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Russian Academy of Medical Sciences.

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Tadeusz Krwawicz

Tadeusz Krwawicz (January 15, 1910 – August 17, 1988) was a Polish ophthalmologist.

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Theodor Leber

Theodor Karl Gustav von Leber (29 February 1840 – 17 April 1917) was a German ophthalmologist from Karlsruhe.

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Tsutomu Sato (ophthalmologist)

Tsutomu Sato (1902 - June 9, 1960) was a Japanese ophthalmologist who performed an early version of the radial keratotomy and was the first professor at the Research Institute of Ophthalmology at Juntendo University School of Medicine.

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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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University College London

University College London (UCL) is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.

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University of Chicago Press

The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.

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University of Hamburg

The University of Hamburg (Universität Hamburg, also referred to as UHH) is a comprehensive university in Hamburg, Germany.

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Uveitis is the inflammation of the uvea, the pigmented layer that lies between the inner retina and the outer fibrous layer composed of the sclera and cornea.

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Veterinary medicine

Veterinary medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease, disorder and injury in non-human animals.

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Vision rehabilitation

Vision rehabilitation (often called vision rehab) is a term for a medical rehabilitation to improve vision or low vision.

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Visual acuity

Visual acuity (VA) commonly refers to the clarity of vision.

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Visual field test

A visual field test is an eye examination that can detect dysfunction in central and peripheral vision which may be caused by various medical conditions such as glaucoma, stroke, pituitary disease, brain tumours or other neurological deficits.

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Vitreology is a historic reference to a subspecialised field of ophthalmology and vision science that deals exclusively with the health and disease of the vitreous body within the eye.

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Vitreous body

The vitreous body is the clear gel that fills the space between the lens and the retina of the eyeball of humans and other vertebrates.

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Vladimir Filatov

Vladimir Petrovich Filatov (Владимир Филaтoв, 15 February 1875 in Mikhaylovka, Penza Governorate, Russian Empire – 30 October 1956 in Odessa, Ukrainian SSR) was a Russian and Ukrainian ophthalmologist and surgeon best known for his development of tissue therapy.

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Waterford (from Old Norse Veðrafjǫrðr, meaning "ram (wether) fjord") is a city in Ireland.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ophthalmology

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