542 relations: Accident-proneness, Acetorphine, Acetoxyketobemidone, Acetyldihydrocodeine, Acetylmorphone, Acetylpropionylmorphine, AD-1211, Addiction, Adrenorphin, Afghan morphine, Afghanistan, Agonist, AH-7921, Akuammine, Alazocine, Alfentanil, Alkaloid, Allodynia, Allosteric modulator, Allylnorpethidine, Allylprodine, Alphamethylthiofentanyl, Alvimopan, AM404, Amidorphin, Amphetamine, Analgesic, Anandamide, Anesthesia, Anileridine, Anticonvulsant, Antihistamine, AP-237, Appetite, Arcuate nucleus, Area postrema, Aspirin, Azaprocin, Back pain, BD-1047, BDPC, Benzethidine, Benzodiazepine, Benzylmorphine, Beta-Methylfentanyl, Betahydroxyfentanyl, Betahydroxythiofentanyl, Bezitramide, BIMU8, Binaltorphimine, ..., Biological half-life, Bisacodyl, Blood–brain barrier, Bone fracture, Bradycardia, Brainstem, Bremazocine, Brifentanil, BRL-52537, Bromadoline, BU-48, Buprenorphine, Butorphanol, BW373U86, C-8813, Caffeine, Calcium channel blocker, Cancer pain, Carfentanil, Casomorphin, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Central nervous system, Chemical synthesis, Chemoreceptor trigger zone, Chlornaltrexamine, Chloromorphide, Cholecystokinin antagonist, Choosing Wisely, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Chronic pain, Ciramadol, Clinical trial, Clonidine, Clonitazene, Cocaine, Codeine, Codeine methylbromide, Codeinone, Codoxime, Conorfone, Constipation, Controlled substance, Controlled Substances Act, Corticotropic cell, Corydalis, Crane (machine), CX-546, CX717, Cyclazocine, Cyclizine, Cyclorphan, Cyprenorphine, Cyprodime, DADLE, DAMGO, Delirium, Depressant, Dermorphin, Desmethylclozapine, Desmethylprodine, Desmetramadol, Desomorphine, Dextrallorphan, Dextromethadone, Dextromethorphan, Dextromoramide, Dextropropoxyphene, Dextrorotation and levorotation, Dextrorphan, Dezocine, Diacetyldihydromorphine, Diampromide, Diarrhea, Dibenzoylmorphine, Dietary fiber, Diethylthiambutene, Difenoxin, Dihydrocodeine, Dihydroetorphine, Dihydromorphine, Dimenoxadol, Dimepheptanol, Dimethylaminopivalophenone, Dimethylthiambutene, Dioxaphetyl butyrate, Diphenhydramine, Diphenoxylate, Dipipanone, Diprenorphine, Dipropanoylmorphine, Dizziness, Docusate, Domperidone, Donald Trump, Dose–response relationship, Downregulation and upregulation, Doxapram, Doxpicomine, DPDPE, DPI-221, DPI-287, DPI-3290, Drinking, Driving, Drotebanol, Droxypropine, Drug overdose, Drug tolerance, Drug withdrawal, Dynorphin, Dynorphin A, Dysphoria, Eluxadoline, Enadoline, Endocrine system, Endogeny (biology), Endomorphin, Endorphins, Enema, Enkephalin, Equianalgesic, Eseroline, Estradiol, Ethoheptazine, Ethylketazocine, Ethylmethylthiambutene, Ethylmorphine, Etonitazene, Etorphine, Etoxeridine, Euphoria, Exercise, Falling (accident), Faxeladol, Fentanyl, Fexofenadine, Fibre supplements, Fibromyalgia, First World, Forklift, Froehde reagent, Functional selectivity, Furethidine, G protein–coupled receptor, Gabapentin, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Gastrointestinal tract, Gastroparesis, GR-89696, Hallucination, Hallucinogen, Haloperidol, Harrison Narcotics Tax Act, Headache, Headache (journal), Heavy equipment, Herkinorin, Heroin, Heterocodeine, Hippocrates, Hives, Hodgkinsine, Human sexual activity, Hydrocodone, Hydrocodone/ibuprofen, Hydromorphinol, Hydromorphone, Hydroxypethidine, Hyperalgesia, Hypodermic needle, Hypogonadism, Hypothalamus, Hypothermia, Hypoventilation, IBNtxA, Ibogaine, Ibudilast, Ibuprofen, IC-26, ICI-199,441, ICI-204,448, Immune system, Immunodeficiency, Insufflation (medicine), International Narcotics Control Board, Intrathecal administration, Irregular menstruation, Irritable bowel syndrome, Isoaminile, Isomer, Itch, Α-Methylacetylfentanyl, Α-Methylfentanyl, Δ-opioid receptor, Κ-opioid receptor, Μ-opioid receptor, J-113,397, JDTic, Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, JTC-801, Ketamine, Ketazocine, Ketobemidone, Lactulose, Laxative, Lefetamine, Leu-enkephalin, Levacetylmethadol, Levallorphan, Levomethadone, Levomethorphan, Levomoramide, Levophenacylmorphan, Levopropoxyphene, Levorphanol, Lofentanil, Loperamide, LPK-26, Luteinizing hormone, Lymphocyte, Macrophage, Magnesium, Magnesium hydroxide, MCOPPB, Melanotroph, Memantine, Menstruation, Menthol, Meprodine, Meptazinol, Met-enkephalin, Metazocine, Metethoheptazine, Methadone, Methallorphan, Metheptazine, Methorphan, Methyldesorphine, Methyldihydromorphine, Methylketobemidone, Methylnaltrexone, Methylphenidate, Metoclopramide, Metofoline, Metopon, Migraine, Milnacipran, Mineral oil, Miosis, Mirfentanil, Mitragyna speciosa, Mitragynine, Mitragynine pseudoindoxyl, Modafinil, Morpheridine, Morphiceptin, Morphine, Morphine-6-glucuronide, Morphine-N-oxide, Morphinone, MT-45, Myalgia, Myrophine, N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid, N-Phenethyl-14-ethoxymetopon, N-Phenethylnormorphine, Nalbuphine, Nalfurafine, Nalmefene, Nalorphine, Naloxazone, Naloxegol, Naloxonazine, Naloxone, Naltrexone, Naltriben, Naltrindole, Naproxen, Narcotic, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Nausea, Nefopam, Nervous system, Neural adaptation, Neuralgia, Neuropathic pain, Neurotransmission, Nicocodeine, Nicodicodeine, Nicomorphine, NMDA receptor antagonist, NNC 63-0532, Nociceptin, Nociceptin receptor, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Norbinaltorphimine, Norbuprenorphine, Norcodeine, Norlevorphanol, Normethadone, Normorphine, Norpropoxyphene, Nortilidine, Noscapine, Ocfentanil, Octreotide, Ohmefentanyl, Oliceridine, Ondansetron, Opiate, Opioid antagonist, Opioid epidemic, Opioid overdose, Opioid peptide, Opioid receptor, Opioid rotation, Opioid use disorder, Opioid-induced hyperalgesia, Opioidergic, Opiorphin, Opium, Oripavine, Orphenadrine, Orthostatic hypotension, Osteoporosis, Over-the-counter drug, Oxilorphan, Oxpheneridine, Oxycodone, Oxycodone/naloxone, Oxycodone/paracetamol, Oxymorphazone, Oxymorphone, Oxytocin, Pain, Pain management, Palliative care, Papaver somniferum, Papaveretum, Papaverine, Paracetamol, Paradox, Parafluorofentanyl, Pentamorphone, Pentazocine, PEPAP, Peptide, Pericine, Peripheral nervous system, Peripherally selective drug, Perspiration, Pethidine, Pharmacodynamics, Phenadoxone, Phenampromide, Phenanthrene, Phenaridine, Phenazocine, Pheneridine, Phenomorphan, Phenoperidine, Phenyltoloxamine, Pholcodine, Phosphodiesterase inhibitor, Picenadol, Piminodine, Piperidylthiambutene, Piritramide, Pituitary gland, Placebo, Polyethylene glycol, Potency (pharmacology), Pregabalin, Prochlorperazine, Prodilidine, Prodine, Proenkephalin, Profadol, Proglumide, Proheptazine, Promethazine, Proopiomelanocortin, Properidine, Propiram, Propylketobemidone, Prosidol, Pseudomorphine, Psychoactive drug, Pyrrolidinylthiambutene, Quadazocine, R-4066, Racemoramide, Racemorphan, RAM-378, Receptor antagonist, Remifentanil, Repinotan, Rheumatoid arthritis, Rhinorrhea, Ro4-1539, Ro64-6198, RWJ-394674, Salvia divinorum, Salvinorin A, Sameridine, Samidorphan, SB-612,111, SC-17599, Sedation, Semorphone, Senna glycoside, Serotonin, Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Sex steroid, Sexual dysfunction, Shortness of breath, Sigma receptor, Signal transduction, Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, SNC-80, Somnolence, Spinal cord, Spiradoline, Stimulant, Substance abuse, Substance dependence, Substance use disorder, Sufentanil, Supraoptic nucleus, Supraspinal, Synergy, Tachycardia, TAN-67, Tapentadol, Testosterone, Tetrahydrocannabinol, The International Council on Security and Development, The Washington Post, Thebacon, Thebaine, Thiambutenes, Thienorphine, Thiofentanyl, Tianeptine, Tifluadom, Tilidine, Tipepidine, TLR4, Tramadol, Trefentanil, Tremor, Tricyclic antidepressant, Trimebutine, Trimeperidine, TRIMU 5, Tropisetron, U-50488, U-69,593, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Vasopressin, Viminol, W-18, White blood cell, World Health Organization, Xerostomia, Xorphanol, Zinc, (+)-Naloxone, 1-Iodomorphine, 14-Cinnamoyloxycodeinone, 14-Ethoxymetopon, 14-Hydroxydihydrocodeine, 14-Methoxymetopon, 14-Phenylpropoxymetopon, 18-Methoxycoronaridine, 2,4-Dinitrophenylmorphine, 3-Allylfentanyl, 3-Methylfentanyl, 3-Methylthiofentanyl, 4-Fluoropethidine, 4-Phenylfentanyl, 5'-Guanidinonaltrindole, 6,14-Endoethenotetrahydrooripavine, 6-Methylenedihydrodesoxymorphine, 6-Monoacetylcodeine, 6-Monoacetylmorphine, 6β-Naltrexol-d4, 7-Hydroxymitragynine, 7-PET, 7-Spiroindanyloxymorphone, 8-Carboxamidocyclazocine, 8-OH-DPAT. Expand index (492 more) » « Shrink index
Accident-proneness, also known as clumsiness, is the idea that some people have a greater predisposition than others to suffer accidents, such as car crashes and industrial injuries.
Acetorphine is a potent opioid analgesic, up to 8700 times stronger than morphine by weight.
Acetoxyketobemidone (O-Acetylketobemidone) is an opioid analgesic that is an acetylated derivative of ketobemidone.
Acetyldihydrocodeine is an opiate derivative discovered in Germany in 1914 and was used as a cough suppressant and analgesic.
Acetylmorphone (Dihydromorphinone acetate) is an opiate analogue that is an acetylated derivative of hydromorphone which was developed in the early 1900s as a potential cough suppressant and analgesic.
Acetylpropionylmorphine is an opiate analogue that is a derivative of morphine.
AD-1211 is an opioid analgesic drug invented in the 1970s by Dainippon Pharmaceutical Co.
Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences.
Adrenorphin, also sometimes referred to as metorphamide, is an endogenous, C-terminally amidated, opioid octapeptide (Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Met-Arg-Arg-Val-NH2) that is produced from proteolytic cleavage of proenkephalin A and is widely distributed throughout the mammalian brain.
Afghan morphine or "Poppy for Medicine" is an alternative development solution put forward to combat the poverty and public disenchantment caused by international counter-narcotics eradication policies in Afghanistan.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
AH-7921 is an opioid analgesic drug selective for the µ-opioid receptor, having around 90% the potency of morphine when administered orally.
Akuammine (vincamajoridine) is an indole alkaloid.
Alazocine (developmental code name -10047), also known more commonly as N-allylnormetazocine (NANM), is a synthetic opioid analgesic of the benzomorphan family related to metazocine which was never marketed.
Alfentanil (R-39209, trade name Alfenta, Rapifen in Australia) is a potent but short-acting synthetic opioid analgesic drug, used for anaesthesia in surgery.
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
Allodynia (Ancient Greek άλλος állos "other" and οδύνη odúnē "pain") refers to central pain sensitization (increased response of neurons) following normally non-painful, often repetitive, stimulation.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, an allosteric modulator (allo- from the Greek meaning "other") is a substance which indirectly influences (modulates) the effects of a primary ligand that directly activates or deactivates the function of a target protein.
Allylnorpethidine (WIN-7681) is a 4-phenylpiperidine derivative that is related to the opioid analgesic drug pethidine (meperidine).
Allylprodine is an opioid analgesic that is an analog of prodine.
α-methyl-thiofentanyl is an opioid analgesic that is an analogue of fentanyl.
Alvimopan (trade name Entereg) is a drug which behaves as a peripherally acting μ-opioid antagonist.
AM404, also known as N-arachidonoylaminophenol, is an active metabolite of paracetamol (acetaminophen), responsible for all or part of its analgesic action and anticonvulsant effects.
Amidorphin is an endogenous, C-terminally amidated, opioid peptide generated as a cleavage product of proenkephalin A that is widely distributed in the mammalian brain, with particularly high concentrations found in the adrenal medulla, posterior pituitary, and striatum.
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
Anandamide, also known as N-arachidonoylethanolamine or AEA, is a fatty acid neurotransmitter derived from the non-oxidative metabolism of eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid) an essential ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid.
In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry), anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek "without sensation") is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness.
Anileridine (trade name: Leritine) is a synthetic analgesic drug and is a member of the piperidine class of analgesic agents developed by Merck & Co.
Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.
Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies.
AP-237 (1-butyryl-4-cinnamylpiperazine) is an opioid analgesic drug that was widely used in China to treat pain in cancer patients as of 1986.
Appetite is the desire to eat food, sometimes due to hunger.
The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (also known as ARH, ARC, or infundibular nucleus) is an aggregation of neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle and the median eminence.
The area postrema is a medullary structure in the brain that controls vomiting.
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.
Azaprocin is a drug which is an opioid analgesic with approximately ten times the potency of morphine, and a fast onset and short duration of action.
Back pain is pain felt in the back of the body.
BD-1047 is a sigma receptor antagonist, selective for the σ1 subtype.
BDPC (systematic name 4-(4-bromophenyl)-4-(dimethylamino)-1-(2-phenylethyl)cyclohexanol; also known as bromadol) is a potent narcotic analgesic with a distinctive arylcyclohexylamine chemical structure.
Benzethidine is a 4-phenylpiperidine derivative that is related to the clinically used opioid analgesic drug pethidine (meperidine, or Demerol).
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
Benzylmorphine (Peronine) is a semi-synthetic opioid narcotic introduced to the international market in 1896 and that of the United States very shortly thereafter.
β-Methylfentanyl is an opioid analgesic that is an analogue of fentanyl.
β-Hydroxyfentanyl (Fentanol) is an opioid analgesic that is an analogue of fentanyl.
β-Hydroxythiofentanyl is an opioid analgesic that is an analogue of fentanyl.
Bezitramide is an opioid analgesic.
BIMU-8 is a drug which acts as a 5-HT4 receptor selective agonist.
Binaltorphimine (BNI) is a selective antagonist of the κ-opioid receptor (KOR).
The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.
Bisacodyl (INN) is an organic compound that is used as a stimulant laxative drug.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
A bone fracture (sometimes abbreviated FRX or Fx, Fx, or #) is a medical condition in which there is a partial or complete break in the continuity of the bone.
Bradycardia is a condition wherein an individual has a very slow heart rate, typically defined as a resting heart rate of under 60 beats per minute (BPM) in adults.
The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.
Bremazocine is a κ-opioid receptor agonist related to pentazocine.
Brifentanil (A-3331) is an opioid analgesic that is an analogue of fentanyl and was developed in the early 1990s.
BRL-52537 is a drug which acts as a potent and highly selective κ-opioid agonist.
Bromadoline (U-47931E) is an opioid analgesic selective for the μ-opioid receptor developed by the Upjohn company in the 1970s.
BU-48 is a drug that is used in scientific research.
Buprenorphine, sold under the brand name Subutex, among others, is an opioid used to treat opioid addiction, acute pain, and chronic pain.
Butorphanol (BC 2627) is a morphinan-type synthetic agonist–antagonist opioid analgesic developed by Bristol-Myers.
(+)-BW373U86 is an opioid analgesic drug used in scientific research.
C-8813 (thiobromadol) is a potent μ-opioid receptor agonist with a distinctive chemical structure which is not closely related to other established families of opioid drugs.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
Calcium channel blockers (CCB), calcium channel antagonists or calcium antagonists are several medications that disrupt the movement of calcium through calcium channels.
Pain in cancer may arise from a tumor compressing or infiltrating nearby body parts; from treatments and diagnostic procedures; or from skin, nerve and other changes caused by a hormone imbalance or immune response.
Carfentanil or carfentanyl is an analog of the synthetic opioid analgesic fentanyl.
Casomorphin is an opioid peptide (protein fragment) derived from the digestion of the milk protein casein.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
The chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) is an area of the medulla oblongata that receives inputs from blood-borne drugs or hormones, and communicates with other structures in the vomiting center to initiate vomiting.
Chlornaltrexamine is an irreversible mixed agonist–antagonist for μ-opioid receptors, which forms a covalent bond to the active site.
Chloromorphide (α-chloromorphide) is an opiate analog that is a derivative of morphine, where the 6-hydroxy group has been replaced by chlorine.
A cholecystokinin antagonist is a specific type of receptor antagonist which blocks the receptor sites for the peptide hormone cholecystokinin (CCK).
Choosing Wisely is a United States-based health educational campaign, led by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM).
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow.
Chronic pain is pain that lasts a long time.
Ciramadol (WY-15,705) is an opioid analgesic that was developed in the late 1970s and is related to phencyclidine, tramadol, tapentadol and venlafaxine.
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.
Clonidine (trade names Catapres, Kapvay, Nexiclon, Clophelin, and others) is a medication used to treat high blood pressure, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorders, tic disorders, withdrawal (from either alcohol, opioids, or smoking), migraine, menopausal flushing, diarrhea, and certain pain conditions.
Clonitazene is an opioid analgesic of approximately three times the potency of morphine.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Codeine is an opiate used to treat pain, as a cough medicine, and for diarrhea. It is typically used to treat mild to moderate degrees of pain. Greater benefit may occur when combined with paracetamol (acetaminophen) or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as aspirin or ibuprofen. Evidence does not support its use for acute cough suppression in children or adults. In Europe it is not recommended as a cough medicine in those under twelve years of age. It is generally taken by mouth. It typically starts working after half an hour with maximum effect at two hours. The total duration of its effects last for about four to six hours. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, itchiness, lightheadedness, and drowsiness. Serious side effects may include breathing difficulties and addiction. It is unclear if its use in pregnancy is safe. Care should be used during breastfeeding as it may result in opiate toxicity in the baby. Its use as of 2016 is not recommended in children. Codeine works following being broken down by the liver into morphine. How quickly this occurs depends on a person's genetics. Codeine was discovered in 1832 by Pierre Jean Robiquet. In 2013 about 361,000 kilograms of codeine were produced while 249,000 kilograms were used. This makes it the most commonly taken opiate. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.04 and 0.29 USD per dose as of 2014. In the United States it costs about one dollar a dose. Codeine occurs naturally and makes up about 2% of opium.
Codeine methylbromide (Eucodin) is the bromomethane (methylbromide) salt of codeine.
Codeinone is 1/3 as active as codeine as an analgesic but it is an important intermediate in the production of hydrocodone, a painkiller about 3/4 the potency of morphine; as well as of oxycodone.
Codoxime (Codossima) is an opiate analogue that is a derivative of hydrocodone, where the 6-ketone group has been replaced by carboxymethyloxime.
Conorfone (INN; TR-5109), also known as conorphone and codorphone, as well as conorphone hydrochloride (USAN), is an opioid analgesic that was never marketed.
Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.
A controlled substance is generally a drug or chemical whose manufacture, possession, or use is regulated by a government, such as illicitly used drugs or prescription medications that are designated a Controlled Drug in the United Kingdom.
The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) is the statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated.
Corticotropes (or corticotrophs) are basophilic cells in the anterior pituitary that produce melanocyte-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and lipotropin.
Corydalis (Greek korydalís "crested lark") is a genus of about 470 species of annual and perennial herbaceous plants in the Papaveraceae family, native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere and the high mountains of tropical eastern Africa.
A crane is a type of machine, generally equipped with a hoist rope, wire ropes or chains, and sheaves, that can be used both to lift and lower materials and to move them horizontally.
CX-546 is an ampakine drug developed by Cortex Pharmaceuticals.
CX717 is an ampakine compound created by Christopher Marrs and Gary Rogers in 1996 at Cortex Pharmaceuticals.
Cyclazocine is a mixed opioid agonist/antagonist related to dezocine, pentazocine and phenazocine.
Cyclizine, sold under a number of brand names, is a medication used to treat and prevent nausea, vomiting and dizziness due to motion sickness or vertigo.
Cyclorphan is an opioid analgesic of the morphinan family that was never marketed.
Cyprenorphine (M-285) is an opioid drug.
Cyprodime is an opioid antagonist from the morphinan family of drugs.
DADLE (-Enkephalin) is a synthetic opioid peptide with analgesic properties.
DAMGO (-enkephalin) is a synthetic opioid peptide with high μ-opioid receptor specificity.
Delirium, also known as acute confusional state, is an organically caused decline from a previously baseline level of mental function.
A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain.
Dermorphin is a hepta-peptide first isolated from the skin of South American frogs belonging to the genus Phyllomedusa.
N-Desmethylclozapine (NDMC), or norclozapine, is a major active metabolite of the atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine.
Desmethylprodine or 1-methyl-4-phenyl-4-propionoxypiperidine (MPPP, Ro 2-0718) is an opioid analgesic drug developed in the 1940s by researchers at Hoffmann-La Roche.
Desmetramadol, also known as O-desmethyltramadol (O-DSMT), is an opioid analgesic and the main active metabolite of tramadol.
Desomorphine is a synthetic opioid developed by Roche, with powerful, fast-acting effects, such as sedation and analgesia.
Dextrallorphan (DXA) is an opioid derivative chemical of the morphinan class that is used in scientific research.
Dextromethadone is an antitussive opioid.
Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is a drug of the morphinan class with sedative, dissociative, and stimulant properties (at higher doses).
Dextromoramide (Palfium, Palphium, Jetrium, Dimorlin) is a powerful opioid analgesic approximately three times more potent than morphine but shorter acting.
Dextropropoxyphene is an analgesic in the opioid category, patented in 1955 and manufactured by Eli Lilly and Company.
Dextrorotation and levorotation (also spelled as laevorotation)The first word component dextro- comes from Latin word for dexter "right (as opposed to left)".
Dextrorphan (DXO) is a psychoactive drug of the morphinan class which acts as an antitussive or cough suppressant and dissociative hallucinogen.
Dezocine (INN, USAN) (brand name Dalgan) is a marketed opioid analgesic of the benzomorphan group.
Diacetyldihydromorphine (also known as Paralaudin, dihydroheroin, acetylmorphinol or dihydroxycodeinon) is a potent opiate derivative developed in Germany in 1929 which is rarely used in some countries for the treatment of severe pain such as that caused by terminal cancer, as another form of diamorphine (also commonly known as Heroin).
Diampromide is an opioid analgesic from the ampromide family of drugs, related to other drugs such as propiram.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
Dibenzoylmorphine is an opiate analogue that is a derivative of morphine.
Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants.
Diethylthiambutene (Thiambutene, Themalon, Diethibutin, N,N-Diethyl-1-methyl-3,3-di-2-thienylallylamine) is an opioid analgesic drug developed in the 1950s which was mainly used as an anesthetic in veterinary medicine and continues, along with the other two thiambutenes dimethylthiambutene and ethylmethylthiambutene to be used for this purpose, particularly in Japan.
Difenoxin (Motofen, R-15403) is an opioid drug used, often in combination with atropine, to treat diarrhea.
Dihydrocodeine is a semi-synthetic opioid analgesic prescribed for pain or severe dyspnea, or as an antitussive, either alone or compounded with paracetamol (as in co-dydramol) or aspirin.
Dihydroetorphine was developed by K. W. Bentley at McFarlan-Smith in the 1960s and is a potent opioid analgesic, which is used mainly in China.
Dihydromorphine (Paramorfan, Paramorphan) is a semi-synthetic opioid structurally related to and derived from morphine.
Dimenoxadol (INN) (brand name Estocin (in Russia)), or dimenoxadole (BAN), is an opioid analgesic which is a benzilic acid derivative, closely related to benactyzine (an anticholinergic).
Dimepheptanol (INN; Amidol, Pangerin), also known as methadol or racemethadol, is a synthetic opioid analgesic related to methadone.
Dimethylaminopivalophenone is an opioid analgesic.
Dimethylthiambutene (N,N-Dimethyl-1-methyl-3,3-di-2-thienylallylamine, DMTB, trade names Ohton, Aminobutene, Dimethibutin, Kobaton, Takaton, Dimethibutin) is an opioid analgesic drug, most often used in veterinary medicine in Japan and to a lesser extent in other countries in the region and around the world.
Dioxaphetyl butyrate (INN; trade names Amidalgon, Spasmoxal) is an opioid analgesic which is a diphenylacetic acid derivative, related to other open-chain opioid drugs such as dextropropoxyphene, levacetylmethadol (LAAM), lefetamine and dimenoxadol.
Diphenhydramine is an antihistamine mainly used to treat allergies.
Diphenoxylate is a centrally active opioid drug of the phenylpiperidine series that is used in a combination drug with atropine for the treatment of diarrhea.
Dipipanone (Pipadone) is a strong opioid analgesic drug, used for very severe pain in cases where other analgesics are unsuitable, for instance where morphine is indicated but cannot be used due to the patient being allergic to morphine.
Diprenorphine (brand name Revivon; former developmental code name M5050), also known as diprenorfin, is a non-selective, high-affinity, weak partial agonist of the μ- (MOR), κ- (KOR), and δ-opioid receptor (DOR) (with equal affinity) that is employed in veterinary medicine as an opioid antagonist.
Dipropanoylmorphine (Dipropionylmorphine in U.S. English) is an opiate derivative, the 3,6-dipropanoyl ester of morphine.
Dizziness is an impairment in spatial perception and stability.
Docusate, also known as docusate salts or dioctyl sulfosuccinate, is a laxative of the stool softener type used to treat constipation.
Domperidone, sold under the brand name Motilium among others, is a peripherally selective dopamine D2 receptor antagonist that was developed by Janssen Pharmaceutica and is used as an antiemetic, gastroprokinetic agent, and galactagogue.
Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current President of the United States, in office since January 20, 2017.
The dose–response relationship, or exposure–response relationship, describes the change in effect on an organism caused by differing levels of exposure (or doses) to a stressor (usually a chemical) after a certain exposure time, or to a food.
In the biological context of organisms' production of gene products, downregulation is the process by which a cell decreases the quantity of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein, in response to an external stimulus.
Doxapram hydrochloride (marketed as Dopram, Stimulex or Respiram) is a respiratory stimulant.
Doxpicomine (Doxpicodin, Doxpizodine) is a mild opioid analgesic drug.
DPDPE (enkephalin) is a synthetic opioid peptide and a selective agonist of the δ-opioid receptor (DOR) which is used in scientific research.
DPI-221 is a opioid drug that is used in scientific research.
DPI-287 is an opioid drug that is used in scientific research.
DPI-3290 was discovered by scientists at Burroughs Wellcome and licensed to Delta Pharmaceutical and is a drug that is used in scientific research.
Drinking is the act of ingesting water or other liquids into the body through the mouth.
Driving is the controlled operation and movement of a motor vehicle, including cars, motorcycles, trucks, and buses.
Drotebanol (Oxymethebanol) is a morphinan derivative that acts as an opioid agonist.
Droxypropine is a cough suppressant.
The term drug overdose (or simply overdose or OD) describes the ingestion or application of a drug or other substance in quantities greater than are recommended or generally practiced.
Drug tolerance is a pharmacological concept describing subjects' reduced reaction to a drug following its repeated use.
Drug withdrawal is the group of symptoms that occur upon the abrupt discontinuation or decrease in intake of medications or recreational drugs.
Dynorphins (Dyn) are a class of opioid peptides that arise from the precursor protein prodynorphin.
Dynorphin A is a form of dynorphin and an endogenous opioid peptide with the amino acid sequence: Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Leu-Arg-Arg-Ile-Arg-Pro-Lys-Leu-Lys.
Dysphoria (from δύσφορος (dysphoros), δυσ-, difficult, and φέρειν, to bear) is a profound state of unease or dissatisfaction.
Eluxadoline, sold under the brand names Viberzi in the US and Truberzi in Europe, is a medication taken by mouth for the treatment of diarrhea and abdominal pain in individuals with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D).
Enadoline is a drug which acts as a highly selective κ-opioid agonist.
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.
Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
Endomorphins are natural opioid neurotransmitters central to pain relief.
Endorphins (contracted from "endogenous morphine") are endogenous opioid neuropeptides and peptide hormones in humans and other animals.
An enema is the injection of fluid into the lower bowel by way of the rectum.
An enkephalin (occasionally spelled encephalin) is a pentapeptide involved in regulating nociception in the body.
An equianalgesic (or opioid) chart is a conversion chart that lists equivalent doses of analgesics (drugs used to relieve pain).
Eseroline is a drug which acts as an opioid agonist.
Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone.
Ethoheptazine (trade name Zactane) is an opioid analgesic from the phenazepane family.
Ethylketazocine (WIN-35,197-2), is an opioid drug of the benzomorphan family which has been used extensively in scientific research in the last few decades as a tool to aid in the study of the κ-opioid receptor.
Ethylmethylthiambutene (N-ethyl-N-methyl-1-methyl-3,3-di-2-thienylallylamine; Emethibutin) is an opioid analgesic drug from the thiambutene family, around 1.3x the potency of morphine.
Ethylmorphine (also known as codethyline, dionine, and ethyl morphine) is an opioid analgesic and antitussive.
Etonitazene is a potent analgesic drug shown to be approximately 1000–1500x the potency of morphine in animal models but only 60x in man.
Etorphine (M99) is a semi-synthetic opioid possessing an analgesic potency approximately 1,000–3,000 times that of morphine.
Etoxeridine (Carbetidine, Atenos) is a 4-phenylpiperidine derivative that is related to the clinically used opioid analgesic drug pethidine (meperidine).
Euphoria is an affective state in which a person experiences pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.
Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.
Falling is the second leading cause of accidental death worldwide and is a major cause of personal injury, especially for the elderly.
Faxeladol (INN, USAN) (code names GRTA-9906, GRTA-0009906, EM-906, GCR-9905, GRT-TA300) is an opioid analgesic which was developed by Grünenthal GmbH but was never marketed for medical use anywhere in the world.
Fentanyl, also spelled fentanil, is an opioid which is used as a pain medication and together with other medications for anesthesia. Fentanyl is also made illegally and used as a recreational drug, often mixed with heroin or cocaine. It has a rapid onset and effects generally last less than an hour or two. Medically, fentanyl is used by injection, as a patch on the skin, as a nasal spray, or in the mouth. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, sedation, confusion, hallucinations, and injuries related to poor coordination. Serious side effects may include decreased breathing (respiratory depression), serotonin syndrome, low blood pressure, addiction, or coma. In 2016, more than 20,000 deaths occurred in the United States due to overdoses of fentanyl and fentanyl analogues, half of all reported opioid related deaths. Fentanyl works primarily by activating μ-opioid receptors. It is around 100 times stronger than morphine, and some analogues such as carfentanil are around 10,000 times stronger. Fentanyl was first made by Paul Janssen in 1960 and approved for medical use in the United States in 1968.In 2015, were used in healthcare globally., fentanyl was the most widely used synthetic opioid in medicine. Fentanyl patches are on the WHO List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. For a 100 microgram vial, the average wholesale cost in the developing world is 0.66 (2015). and in the USA it costs 0.49 (2017).
Fexofenadine, sold under the trade name Allegra among others is an antihistamine pharmaceutical drug used in the treatment of allergy symptoms, such as hay fever and urticaria.
Fibre supplements (or fiber supplements) are considered to be a form of a subgroup of functional dietary fibre, and in the United States are defined by the Institute of Medicine (IOM).
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a medical condition characterised by chronic widespread pain and a heightened pain response to pressure.
The concept of First World originated during the Cold War and included countries that were generally aligned with NATO and opposed to the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
A forklift (also called lift truck, fork truck, fork hoist, and forklift truck) is a powered industrial truck used to lift and move materials over short distances.
The Froehde reagent is used as a simple spot-test to presumptively identify alkaloids, especially opioids, as well as other compounds.
Functional selectivity (or “agonist trafficking”, “biased agonism”, “biased signalling”, "ligand bias" and “differential engagement”) is the ligand-dependent selectivity for certain signal transduction pathways relative to a reference ligand (often the endogenous hormone or peptide) at the same receptor.
Furethidine is a 4-phenylpiperidine derivative that is related to the clinically used opioid analgesic drug pethidine (meperidine).
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
Gabapentin, sold under the brand name Neurontin among others, is a medication which is used to treat epilepsy (specifically partial seizures), neuropathic pain, hot flashes, and restless legs syndrome.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Gastroparesis (GP also called delayed gastric emptying) is a medical condition consisting of a paresis (partial paralysis) of the stomach, resulting in food remaining in the stomach for an abnormally long time.
GR-89696 is a drug which acts as a highly selective κ-opioid agonist.
A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.
A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perceptual anomalies, and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion, and consciousness.
Haloperidol, marketed under the trade name Haldol among others, is a typical antipsychotic medication.
The Harrison Narcotics Tax Act (Ch. 1) was a United States federal law that regulated and taxed the production, importation, and distribution of opiates and coca products.
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of head and face pain.
Heavy equipment refers to heavy-duty vehicles, specially designed for executing construction tasks, most frequently ones involving earthwork operations.
Herkinorin is an opioid analgesic that is an analogue of the natural product Salvinorin A. It was discovered in 2005 during structure-activity relationship studies into neoclerodane diterpenes, the family of chemical compounds of which Salvinorin A is a member.
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.
Heterocodeine (6-methoxymorphine) is an opiate derivative, the 6-methyl ether of morphine, and a structural isomer of codeine; it is called "hetero-" because it is the reverse isomer of codeine.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
Hives, also known as urticaria, is a kind of skin rash with red, raised, itchy bumps.
Hodgkinsine is an alkaloid found in plants of the genus Psychotria, particularly Psychotria colorata, although it is also found in Psychotria lyciiflora and probably other species in this family, as well as in the related species Calycodendron milnei.
Human sexual activity, human sexual practice or human sexual behaviour is the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality.
Hydrocodone, sold under brand names such as Vicodin and Norco among many others, is a semisynthetic opioid derived from codeine, one of the opioid alkaloids found in the opium poppy.
Hydromorphinol (RAM-320, 14-Hydroxydihydromorphine) is an opiate analogue that is a derivative of morphine, where the 14-position has been hydroxylated and the 7,8- double bond saturated.
Hydromorphone, also known as dihydromorphinone, and sold under the brand name Dilaudid, among others, is a centrally acting pain medication of the opioid class.
Hydroxypethidine (Bemidone) is an opioid analgesic that is an analogue of the more commonly used pethidine (meperidine).
Hyperalgesia (or; 'hyper' from Greek ὑπέρ (huper, “over”), '-algesia' from Greek algos, ἄλγος (pain)) is an increased sensitivity to pain, which may be caused by damage to nociceptors or peripheral nerves and can cause hypersensitivity to stimulus, stimuli which would normally not be cause for a pain reaction (ex/ eyes or brain having a painful reaction to daylight).
Hypodermic needle features A hypodermic needle (from Greek ὑπο- (under-), and δέρμα (skin)), one of a category of medical tools which enter the skin, called sharps, is a very thin, hollow tube with a sharp tip that contains a small opening at the pointed end.
Hypogonadism means diminished functional activity of the gonads—the testes or the ovaries —that may result in diminished sex hormone biosynthesis.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
Hypothermia is reduced body temperature that happens when a body dissipates more heat than it absorbs.
Hypoventilation (also known as respiratory depression) occurs when ventilation is inadequate (hypo meaning "below") to perform needed gas exchange.
IBNtxA, or 3-iodobenzoyl naltrexamine, is an atypical opioid analgesic drug derived from naltrexone.
Ibogaine is a naturally occurring psychoactive substance found in plants in the Apocynaceae family such as Tabernanthe iboga, Voacanga africana and Tabernaemontana undulata.
Ibudilast (development codes: AV-411 or MN-166) is an anti-inflammatory drug used mainly in Japan, which acts as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, inhibiting the PDE4 subtype to the greatest extent, but also showing significant inhibition of other PDE subtypes.
Ibuprofen is a medication in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) class that is used for treating pain, fever, and inflammation.
IC-26 (WIN 1161-3, Methiodone) is an analogue of the opioid analgesic methadone, where the carbonyl group has been replaced by the bioisosteric sulfone group.
ICI-199,441 is a drug which acts as a potent and selective κ-opioid agonist, and has analgesic effects.
ICI-204,448 is a drug which acts as a potent and peripherally selective κ-opioid agonist, with possible uses in the treatment of heart attack as well as anti-itching effects.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease and cancer is compromised or entirely absent.
Insufflation (lit) is the act of blowing something (such as a gas, powder, or vapor) into a body cavity.
The International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) is the independent and quasi-judicial control organ for the implementation of the United Nations drug conventions.
Intrathecal administration is a route of administration for drugs via an injection into the spinal canal, or into the subarachnoid space so that it reaches the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and is useful in spinal anaesthesia, chemotherapy, or pain management applications.
Irregular menstruation is a menstrual disorder whose manifestations include irregular cycle lengths as well as metrorrhagia (vaginal bleeding between expected periods).
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms—including abdominal pain and changes in the pattern of bowel movements without any evidence of underlying damage.
Isoaminile is an antitussive (cough suppressant) used under the trade-name Peracon.
An isomer (from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos.
Itch (also known as pruritus) is a sensation that causes the desire or reflex to scratch.
α-Methylacetylfentanyl (or alphamethylacetylfentanyl) is an opioid analgesic that is an analog of fentanyl.
α-Methylfentanyl (or alpha-Methylfentanyl) is an opioid analgesic that is an analog of fentanyl.
The δ-opioid receptor, also known as delta opioid receptor or simply delta receptor, abbreviated DOR, is an inhibitory 7-transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor coupled to the G protein Gi/G0 and has enkephalins as its endogenous ligands.
The κ-opioid receptor (KOR) is a G protein-coupled receptor that in humans is encoded by the OPRK1 gene.
The μ-opioid receptors (MOR) are a class of opioid receptors with a high affinity for enkephalins and beta-endorphin, but a low affinity for dynorphins.
J-113,397 is an opioid drug which was the first compound found to be a highly selective antagonist for the nociceptin receptor, also known as the ORL-1 receptor.
JDTic is a selective, long-acting ("inactivating") antagonist of the κ-opioid receptor (KOR).
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (a.k.a. JPET) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering pharmacology.
JTC-801 is an opioid analgesic drug used in scientific research.
Ketamine, sold under the brand name Ketalar among others, is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia.
Ketazocine (INN), also known as ketocyclazocine, is a benzomorphan derivative used in opioid receptor research.
Ketobemidone, sold under the brand name Ketogan among others, is a powerful opioid painkiller.
Lactulose is a non-absorbable sugar used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy.
Laxatives, purgatives, or aperients are substances that loosen stools and increase bowel movements.
Lefetamine (Santenol) is a drug which is a stimulant and also an analgesic with effects comparable to codeine.
Leu-enkephalin is an endogenous opioid peptide neurotransmitter with the amino acid sequence Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Leu that is found naturally in the brains of many animals, including humans.
Levacetylmethadol (INN), levomethadyl acetate (USAN), OrLAAM (trade name) or levo-α-acetylmethadol (LAAM) is a synthetic opioid similar in structure to methadone.
Levallorphan (INN, BAN) (brand names Lorfan, Naloxifan, Naloxiphan), also known as levallorphan tartrate (USAN), is an opioid modulator of the morphinan family used as an opioid analgesic and opioid antagonist/antidote.
Levomethadone (INN; L-Polamidon, L-Polamivet, Levadone, Levothyl), or levamethadone, is a synthetic opioid analgesic and antitussive which is marketed in Europe and is used for pain management and in opioid maintenance therapy.
Levomethorphan (INN, BAN) is an opioid analgesic of the morphinan family that has never been marketed.
Levomoramide is the inactive isomer of the opioid analgesic dextromoramide, invented by the chemist Paul Janssen in 1956.
Levophenacylmorphan is a morphinan derivative that acts as an opioid agonist.
Levopropoxyphene is an antitussive.
Levorphanol (INN; brand name Levo-Dromoran) is an opioid medication used to treat moderate to severe pain.
Lofentanil is one of the most potent opioid analgesics known and is an analogue of fentanyl, which was developed in 1960.
Loperamide, sold under the brand name Imodium among others, is a medication used to decrease the frequency of diarrhea.
LPK-26 is a potent and selective κ-opioid agonist, and has analgesic effects.
Luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as lutropin and sometimes lutrophin) is a hormone produced by gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland.
A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Magnesium hydroxide is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula Mg(OH)2.
MCOPPB is a drug which acts as a potent and selective agonist for the nociceptin receptor, with a pKi of 10.07 and much weaker activity at other opioid receptors.
A melanotroph (or melanotrope) is a cell in the pituitary gland that generates melanocyte-stimulating hormone from its precursor pro-opiomelanocortin.
Memantine is used to treat moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease. It acts on the glutamatergic system by blocking NMDA receptors. It was first synthesized by Eli Lilly and Company in 1968 as a potential agent to treat diabetes; the NMDA activity was discovered in the 1980s.
Menstruation, also known as a period or monthly, is the regular discharge of blood and mucosal tissue (known as menses) from the inner lining of the uterus through the vagina.
Menthol is an organic compound made synthetically or obtained from corn mint, peppermint, or other mint oils.
Meprodine is an opioid analgesic that is an analogue of pethidine (meperidine).
Meptazinol (trade name Meptid) is an opioid analgesic developed by Wyeth in the 1970s.
Met-enkephalin, also known as metenkefalin (INN), sometimes referred to as opioid growth factor (OGF), is a naturally occurring, endogenous opioid peptide that has opioid effects of a relatively short duration.
Metazocine is an opioid analgesic related to pentazocine.
Metethoheptazine (WY-535) is an opioid analgesic from the phenazepine family.
Methadone, sold under the brand name Dolophine among others, is an opioid used to treat pain and as maintenance therapy or to help with tapering in people with opioid dependence.
Methallorphan may refer to.
Metheptazine is an opioid analgesic from the phenazepine family.
Methorphan comes in two isomeric forms, each with differing pharmacology and effects.
Methyldesorphine is an opioid analgesic.
Methyldihydromorphine (dihydroheterocodeine) is a semi-synthetic opioid originally developed in Germany in 1936, controlled under both domestic law and UN conventions because of its possible potential for abuse.
Methylketobemidone is an opioid analgesic that is an analogue of ketobemidone.
Methylnaltrexone (MNTX, brand name Relistor), used in form of methylnaltrexone bromide (INN, USAN, BAN), is one of the newer agents of peripherally acting μ-opioid antagonists that act to reverse some of the side effects of opioid drugs such as constipation without affecting analgesia or precipitating withdrawals.
Methylphenidate, sold under various trade names, Ritalin being one of the most commonly known, is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine and piperidine classes that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.
Metoclopramide is a medication used mostly for stomach and esophageal problems.
Metofoline (INN), also known as methofoline (USAN), is an opioid analgesic drug discovered in the 1950s by a team of Swiss researchers at Hoffmann-La Roche.
Metopon (5-methyldihydromorphone) is an opioid analogue that is a methylated derivative of hydromorphone which was invented in 1929 as an analgesic.
A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.
Milnacipran (trade names Ixel, Savella, Dalcipran, Toledomin) is a serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) used in the clinical treatment of fibromyalgia. It is not approved for the clinical treatment of major depressive disorder in the USA, but it is in other countries.
Mineral oil is any of various colorless, odorless, light mixtures of higher alkanes from a mineral source, particularly a distillate of petroleum.
Miosis is excessive constriction of the pupil.
Mirfentanil is a fentanyl derivative with strong selectivity for the μ opioid receptor.
Mitragyna speciosa (commonly known as kratom also ketum) is a tropical evergreen tree in the coffee family native to Southeast Asia.
Mitragynine is an indole-based opioid-receptor agonist and the most abundant active alkaloid in the plant Mitragyna speciosa, commonly known as kratom and biak-biak.
Mitragynine pseudoindoxyl is a rearrangement product of 7-hydroxymitragynine.
Modafinil, sold under the brand name Provigil among others, is a medication to treat sleepiness due to narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In OSA continuous positive airway pressure is the preferred treatment. While it has seen off-label use as a purported cognitive enhancer, evidence for any benefit is lacking. It is taken by mouth. Common side effects include headache, anxiety, trouble sleeping, and nausea. Serious side effects may include allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis, Stevens–Johnson syndrome, abuse, or hallucinations. It is unclear if use during pregnancy is safe. The amount of medication used may need to be adjusted in those with kidney or liver problems. It is not recommended in those with an arrhythmia, significant hypertension, or left ventricular hypertrophy. How it works is not entirely clear. One possibility is that it may affect the areas of the brain involved with the sleep cycle. Modafinil was approved for medical use in the United States in 1998. In the United States it is classified as a schedule IV controlled substance due to concerns about addiction. In the United Kingdom it is a prescription only medication. It is avaliable as a generic medication. In the United Kingdom it costs the NHS about £105.21 a month as of 2018. In the United States the wholesale cost per month is about 34.20 USD as of 2018.
Morpheridine (Morpholinoethylnorpethidine) is a 4-phenylpiperidine derivative that is related to the clinically used opioid analgesic drug pethidine (meperidine).
Morphiceptin is a tetrapeptide (Tyr-Pro-Phe-Pro-NH2) that is a selective μ-opioid receptor agonist.
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
Morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) is a major active metabolite of morphine, and as such is the molecule responsible for much of the pain-relieving effects of morphine and heroin.
Morphine-N-oxide (genomorphine) is an active opioid metabolite of morphine.
Morphinone is itself not a very potent opioid but it is the intermediate when morphine is being converted to hydromorphone (trade name Dilaudid) which is 4-6 times as potent as morphine.
MT-45 (IC-6) is an opioid analgesic drug invented in the 1970s by Dainippon Pharmaceutical Co. It is chemically a 1-substituted-4-(1,2-diphenylethyl)piperazine derivative, which is structurally unrelated to most other opioid drugs.
Myalgia, or muscle pain, is a symptom of many diseases and disorders.
Myrophine (Myristylbenzylmorphine) is an opiate analogue that was developed in 1952.
N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid or N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) is an amino acid derivative that acts as a specific agonist at the NMDA receptor mimicking the action of glutamate, the neurotransmitter which normally acts at that receptor.
N-Phenethyl-14-ethoxymetopon is a drug that is a derivative of metopon.
N-Phenethylnormorphine is an opioid analgesic drug derived from morphine by replacing the N-methyl group with β-phenethyl.
Nalbuphine, sold under the brand names Nubain and Nalpain among others, is a opioid analgesic which is used in the treatment of pain.
Nalfurafine (INN, USAN) (brand name Remitch; former developmental code names TRK-820, AC-820, MT-9938) is an antipruritic (anti-itch drug) that is marketed in Japan for the treatment of uremic pruritus in individuals with chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis.
Nalmefene (trade name Selincro), originally known as nalmetrene, is an opioid antagonist used primarily in the management of alcohol dependence.
Nalorphine (brand names Lethidrone, Nalline), also known as N-allylnormorphine, is a mixed opioid agonist–antagonist with opioid antagonist and analgesic properties.
Naloxazone is an irreversible μ-opioid receptor antagonist which is selective for the μ1 receptor subtype.
Naloxegol (INN; PEGylated naloxol; trade names Movantik and Moventig) is a peripherally selective opioid antagonist developed by AstraZeneca, licensed from Nektar Therapeutics, for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation.
Naloxonazine is a potent, irreversible μ-opioid receptor antagonist.
Naloxone, sold under the brandname Narcan among others, is a medication used to block the effects of opioids, especially in overdose.
Naltrexone, sold under the brand names ReVia and Vivitrol among others, is a medication primarily used to manage alcohol or opioid dependence.
Naltriben is a potent and selective antagonist for the delta opioid receptor, which is used in scientific research.
Naltrindole is a highly potent, highly selective delta opioid receptor antagonist used in biomedical research.
Naproxen (brand names: Aleve, Naprosyn, and many others) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) of the propionic acid class (the same class as ibuprofen) that relieves pain, fever, swelling, and stiffness.
The term narcotic (from ancient Greek ναρκῶ narkō, "to make numb") originally referred medically to any psychoactive compound with sleep-inducing properties.
The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is a United States federal-government research institute whose mission is to "lead the Nation in bringing the power of science to bear on drug abuse and addiction." The institute has conducted an in-depth study of addiction according to its biological, behavioral and social components.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
Nefopam, sold under the brand names Acupan among others, is a painkilling medication.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
Neural adaptation or sensory adaptation is a change over time in the responsiveness of the sensory system to a constant stimulus.
Neuralgia (Greek neuron, "nerve" + algos, "pain") is pain in the distribution of a nerve or nerves, as in intercostal neuralgia, trigeminal neuralgia, and glossopharyngeal neuralgia.
Neuropathic pain is pain caused by damage or disease affecting the somatosensory nervous system.
Neurotransmission (Latin: transmissio "passage, crossing" from transmittere "send, let through"), also called synaptic transmission, is the process by which signaling molecules called neurotransmitters are released by the axon terminal of a neuron (the presynaptic neuron), and bind to and activate the receptors on the dendrites of another neuron (the postsynaptic neuron).
Nicocodeine (Lyopect, Tusscodin) is an opioid analgesic and cough suppressant, an ester of codeine closely related to dihydrocodeine and the codeine analogue of nicomorphine.
Nicodicodeine is an opioid developed as a cough suppressant and analgesic.
Nicomorphine (Vilan, Subellan, Gevilan, MorZet) is the 3,6-dinicotinate ester of morphine.
NMDA receptor antagonists are a class of anesthetics that work to antagonize, or inhibit the action of, the ''N''-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR).
Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), a 17-amino acid neuropeptide, is the endogenous ligand for the nociceptin receptor (NOP, ORL-1), and initiates its function to act on numerous brain activities such as pain sensation and fear learning.
The nociceptin opioid peptide receptor (NOP), also known as the nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) receptor or kappa-type 3 opioid receptor, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OPRL1 (opioid receptor-like 1) gene.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.
Norbinaltorphimine (nor-BNI or nBNI) is an opioid antagonist used in scientific research.
Norbuprenorphine is a major active metabolite of the opioid modulator buprenorphine.
Norcodeine is an opiate analogue that is the N-demethylated derivative of codeine.
Norlevorphanol is an opioid analgesic of the morphinan family that was never marketed.
Normethadone (INN, BAN; brand names Cophylac, Dacartil, Eucopon, Mepidon, Noramidone, Normedon, and others), also known as desmethylmethadone or phenyldimazone, is a synthetic opioid analgesic and antitussive agent.
Normorphine is an opiate analogue, the N-demethylated derivative of morphine, that was first described in the 1950s when a large group of N-substituted morphine analogues were characterized for activity.
Norpropoxyphene is a major metabolite of the opioid analgesic drug dextropropoxyphene, and is responsible for many of the side effects associated with use of this drug, especially the unusual toxicity seen during dextropropoxyphene overdose.
Nortilidine is the major active metabolite of tilidine.
Noscapine (also known as Narcotine, Nectodon, Nospen, Anarcotine and (archaic) Opiane) is a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid from plants of the poppy family, without painkilling properties.
Ocfentanil (INN) (also called A-3217) is a potent synthetic opioid structurally related to fentanyl that was developed in the early 1990s as one of a series of potent naloxone-reversible opioids in an attempt to obtain an opioid that had better therapeutic indices in terms of cardiovascular effects and respiratory depression as compared to fentanyl.
Octreotide (trade name Sandostatin, among others) is an octapeptide that mimics natural somatostatin pharmacologically, though it is a more potent inhibitor of growth hormone, glucagon, and insulin than the natural hormone.
Ohmefentanyl (also known as β-hydroxy-3-methylfentanyl, OMFand RTI-4614-4) is an extremely potent opioid analgesic drug which selectively binds to the µ-opioid receptor.
Oliceridine (developmental code name TRV-130; tentative brand name Olinvo) is an opioid drug that is under evaluation in human clinical trials for the intravenous treatment of severe acute pain.
Ondansetron, marketed under the brand name Zofran, is a medication used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery.
Opiate is a term classically used in pharmacology to mean a drug derived from opium.
An opioid antagonist, or opioid receptor antagonist, is a receptor antagonist that acts on one or more of the opioid receptors.
The opioid epidemic or opioid crisis is the rapid increase in the use of prescription and non-prescription opioid drugs in the United States and Canada beginning in the late 1990s and continuing throughout the next two decades.
An opioid overdose is toxicity due to excessive opioids.
Opioid peptides are peptides that bind to opioid receptors in the brain; opiates and opioids mimic the effect of these peptides.
Opioid receptors are a group of inhibitory G protein-coupled receptors with opioids as ligands.
Opioid rotation or opioid switching is the process of changing one opioid to another to improve pain control or reduce unwanted side effects.
Opioid use disorder is a medical condition characterized by a problematic pattern of opioid use that causes clinically significant impairment or distress.
Opioid-induced hyperalgesia or opioid-induced abnormal pain sensitivity, also called paradoxical hyperalgesia is a phenomenon associated with the long-term use of opioids such as morphine, hydrocodone, oxycodone, and methadone.
An opioidergic agent (or drug) is a chemical which functions to directly modulate the opioid neuropeptide systems (i.e., endorphin, enkephalin, dynorphin, nociceptin) in the body or brain.
Opiorphin is an endogenous chemical compound first isolated from human saliva.
Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).
Oripavine is an opiate and the major metabolite of thebaine.
Orphenadrine (sold under many brand names worldwide Page accessed Feb 5, 2016) is an anticholinergic drug of the ethanolamine antihistamine class; it is closely related to diphenhydramine.
Orthostatic hypotension, also known as postural hypotension, occurs when a person's blood pressure falls when suddenly standing up from a lying or sitting position.
Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.
Oxilorphan (INN, USAN) (developmental code name L-BC-2605) is an opioid antagonist of the morphinan family that was never marketed.
Oxpheneridine (Carbamethidine) is a 4-phenylpiperidine derivative that is related to the opioid analgesic drug pethidine (meperidine).
Oxycodone, sold under brand names such as Percocet and OxyContin among many others, is an opioid medication which is used for the relief of moderate to severe pain.
Oxycodone/naloxone is a combination analgesic drug available as modified-release tablets under the trade names Targin (produced by Mundipharma), Targiniq and Targinact.
The combination oxycodone/paracetamol (North American trade name Percocet, generic Endocet and Ratio-Oxycocet in Canada) is a combined opioid/non-opioid pain reliever used to treat moderate to severe acute (short-term) pain, marketed by Endo International plc, formerly Endo Pharmaceuticals.
Oxymorphazone is an opioid analgesic drug related to oxymorphone.
Oxymorphone, sold under the brand names Numorphan among others, is a powerful semi-synthetic opioid analgesic (painkiller) developed in Germany in 1914.
Oxytocin (Oxt) is a peptide hormone and neuropeptide.
Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.
Pain management, pain medicine, pain control or algiatry, is a branch of medicine employing an interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those living with chronic pain The typical pain management team includes medical practitioners, pharmacists, clinical psychologists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, physician assistants, nurses.
Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach to specialized medical and nursing care for people with life-limiting illnesses.
Papaver somniferum, commonly known as the opium poppy, or breadseed poppy, is a species of flowering plant in the family Papaveraceae.
Papaveretum (BAN) is a preparation containing a mixture of hydrochloride salts of opium alkaloids.
Papaverine (Latin papaver, "poppy") is an opium alkaloid antispasmodic drug, used primarily in the treatment of visceral spasm and vasospasm (especially those involving the intestines, heart, or brain), and occasionally in the treatment of erectile dysfunction.
--> Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by A. Cahn and P. Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects, the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesised paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of ''p''-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate. Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses. Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947 David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolised to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings. Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500 mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988 Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994. Available without a prescription since 1959, it has since become a common household drug. Patents on paracetamol have long expired, and generic versions of the drug are widely available.
A paradox is a statement that, despite apparently sound reasoning from true premises, leads to an apparently self-contradictory or logically unacceptable conclusion.
Parafluorofentanyl (4-Fluorofentanyl) is an opioid analgesic being an analogue of fentanyl developed by Janssen Pharmaceutica in the 1960s.
Pentamorphone (14β-pentylaminomorphinone, RX-77989) is a semi-synthetic opiate derivative related to compounds such as morphine, hydromorphone and oxymorphone.
Pentazocine, sold under the brand name Talwin among others, is a painkiller used to treat moderate to severe pain.
PEPAP (phenethylphenylacetoxypiperidine) is an opioid analgesic that is an analog of pethidine (meperidine).
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
Pericine is one of a number of indole alkaloids found in the tree Picralima nitida, commonly known as akuamma.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).
Peripherally selective drugs have their primary mechanism of action outside of the central nervous system (CNS), usually because they are excluded from the CNS by the blood-brain barrier.
Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.
Pethidine, also known as meperidine and sold under the brand name Demerol among others, is a synthetic opioid pain medication of the phenylpiperidine class.
Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs).
Phenadoxone (Heptalgin, Morphidone, Heptazone) is an opioid analgesic of the open chain class (methadone and relatives) invented in Germany by Hoechst in 1947.
Phenampromide is an opioid analgesic from the ampromide family of drugs, related to other drugs such as propiram and diampromide.
Phenanthrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composed of three fused benzene rings.
Phenaridine (2,5-Dimethylfentanyl) is an opioid analgesic that is an analogue of fentanyl.
Phenazocine (brand names Prinadol, Narphen) is an opioid analgesic drug, which is related to pentazocine and has a similar profile of effects.
Pheneridine is a 4-Phenylpiperidine derivative that is related to the opioid analgesic drug pethidine (meperidine).
Phenomorphan is an opioid analgesic.
Phenoperidine (Operidine or Lealgin), is an opioid analgesic which is structurally related to pethidine and is used clinically as a general anesthetic.
Phenyltoloxamine is an antihistamine with sedative and analgesic effects.
Pholcodine is a drug which is an opioid cough suppressant (antitussive).
A phosphodiesterase inhibitor is a drug that blocks one or more of the five subtypes of the enzyme phosphodiesterase (PDE), thereby preventing the inactivation of the intracellular second messengers cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) by the respective PDE subtype(s).
Picenadol (LY-97435) is a 4-phenylpiperidine derivative that is an opioid analgesic drug developed by Eli Lilly in the 1970s.
Piminodine (Alvodine) is an opioid analgesic that is an analogue of pethidine (meperidine).
Piperidylthiambutene (Piperidinohton) is an opioid analgesic drug from the thiambutene family, which has around the same potency as morphine.
Piritramide (R-3365, trade names Dipidolor, Piridolan, Pirium and others) is a synthetic opioid analgesic (narcotic painkiller) that is marketed in certain European countries including: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany and the Netherlands.
An explanation of the development of the pituitary gland (Hypophysis cerebri) & the congenital anomalies. In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing in humans.
A placebo is a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value.
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a polyether compound with many applications from industrial manufacturing to medicine.
In the field of pharmacology, potency is a measure of drug activity expressed in terms of the amount required to produce an effect of given intensity.
Pregabalin, marketed under the brand name Lyrica among others, is a medication used to treat epilepsy, neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, and generalized anxiety disorder.
Prochlorperazine is a dopamine (D2) receptor antagonist that belongs to the phenothiazine class of antipsychotic agents that are used for the antiemetic treatment of nausea and vertigo.
Prodilidine is an opioid analgesic which is a ring-contracted analogue of prodine.
Prodine (trade names Prisilidine and Nisentil) is an opioid analgesic that is an analog of pethidine (meperidine).
Proenkephalin (PENK), formerly known as proenkephalin A (since proenkephalin B was renamed prodynorphin), is an endogenous opioid polypeptide hormone which, via proteolyic cleavage, produces the enkephalin peptides Metenkephalin, and to a lesser extent, Leuenkephalin.
Profadol (CI-572) is an opioid analgesic which was developed in the 1960s by Parke-Davis.
Proglumide (Milid) is a drug that inhibits gastrointestinal motility and reduces gastric secretions.
Proheptazine is an opioid analgesic from the phenazepine family.
Promethazine is a neuroleptic medication and first-generation antihistamine of the phenothiazine family.
Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a precursor polypeptide with 241 amino acid residues.
Properidine is an opioid analgesic and the isopropyl analog of pethidine.
Propiram (Algeril, Dirame, Bay 4503) is a partial mu opioid receptor agonist and weak mu antagonist analgesic from the ampromide family of drugs.
Propylketobemidone is an opioid analgesic that is an analogue of ketobemidone.
Prosidol is an opioid analgesic that is an analogue of prodine.
Pseudomorphine (also known as oxydimorphine or dehydromorphine) is an inactive, natural dimerisation product of the morphine molecule in tandem and thus a common impurity in morphine concentrations.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
Pyrrolidinylthiambutene is an opioid analgesic drug from the thiambutene family with around 3/4 of the potency of morphine.
Quadazocine (WIN-44,441) is an opioid antagonist of the benzomorphan family which is used in scientific research.
R-4066 (Spirodone) is a drug which is an analogue of the opioid analgesic methadone, or more accurately norpipanone, where the metabolically labile dimethylamino group has been replaced by a piperidinospiro group.
Racemoramide (INN, BAN), or simply moramide, is an opioid analgesic and a racemic mixture of the substances dextromoramide (the active component) and levomoramide (which is inactive), two enantiomers of a chiral molecule.
Racemorphan, or morphanol, is the racemic mixture of the two stereoisomers of 17-methylmorphinan-3-ol, each with differing pharmacology and effects.
RAM-378 (7,8-Dihydro-14-hydroxy-N-phenethylnormorphine) is an opioid analgesic.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
Remifentanil is a potent, short-acting synthetic opioid analgesic drug.
Repinotan (BAYx3702), an aminomethylchroman derivative, is a selective 5-HT1A receptor full agonist with high potency and efficacy.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints.
Rhinorrhea or rhinorrhoea is a condition where the nasal cavity is filled with a significant amount of mucus fluid.
Ro4-1539 (furethylnorlevorphanol) is an opioid analgesic drug from the morphinan series that was discovered by the pharmaceutical company Hoffmann–La Roche in the 1950s.
Ro64-6198 is an nociceptoid drug used in scientific research.
RWJ-394674 is a drug that is used in scientific research.
Salvia divinorum (also known as sage of the diviners, ska maría pastora, seer's sage, yerba de la pastora or simply salvia) is a plant species with transient psychoactive properties when its leaves are consumed by chewing, smoking or as a tea.
Salvinorin A is the main active psychotropic molecule in Salvia divinorum, a Mexican plant which has a long history of use as an entheogen by indigenous Mazatec shamans.
Sameridine is a 4-phenylpiperidine derivative that is related to the opioid analgesic drug pethidine (meperidine).
Samidorphan (INN, USAN) (developmental code names ALKS-33, RDC-0313), also known as 3-carboxamido-4-hydroxynaltrexone, is an opioid antagonist that preferentially acts as an antagonist of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR).
SB-612,111 is an opioid receptor ligand which is a potent and selective antagonist for the nociceptin receptor (ORL-1), several times more potent than the older drug J-113,397.
SC-17599 is a steroid derivative drug discovered in 1968 which acts as a selective μ-opioid receptor agonist, with little or no affinity for the δ-opioid or κ-opioid receptors.
Sedation is the reduction of irritability or agitation by administration of sedative drugs, generally to facilitate a medical procedure or diagnostic procedure.
Semorphone (Mr 2264) is an opiate analogue that is an N-substituted derivative of oxymorphone.
Senna glycoside, also known as sennoside or senna, is a medication used to treat constipation and empty the large intestine before surgery.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs that treat major depressive disorder (MDD) and can also treat anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), chronic neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), and menopausal symptoms.
Sex steroids, also known as gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors.
Sexual dysfunction (or sexual malfunction or sexual disorder) is difficulty experienced by an individual or a couple during any stage of a normal sexual activity, including physical pleasure, desire, preference, arousal or orgasm.
Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough.
Schematic σ receptor The sigma receptors σ1 and σ2 bind to ligands such as 4-PPBP (4-phenyl-1-(4-phenylbutyl) piperidine), SA 4503 (cutamesine), ditolylguanidine, dimethyltryptamine, and siramesine.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 is an international treaty to prohibit production and supply of specific (nominally narcotic) drugs and of drugs with similar effects except under licence for specific purposes, such as medical treatment and research.
SNC-80 is an opioid analgesic drug that selectively activates μ–δ opioid receptor heteromers and is used in scientific research.
Somnolence (alternatively "sleepiness" or "drowsiness") is a state of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods (compare hypersomnia).
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
Spiradoline (U-62066) is a drug which acts as a highly selective κ-opioid agonist.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.
Substance dependence also known as drug dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use.
A substance use disorder (SUD), also known as a drug use disorder, is a condition in which the use of one or more substances leads to a clinically significant impairment or distress.
Sufentanil (R30730, brand name Sufenta) is a synthetic opioid analgesic drug approximately 5 to 10 times more potent than its parent drug, fentanyl, and 500 times as potent as morphine.
The supraoptic nucleus (SON) is a nucleus of magnocellular neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus of the mammalian brain.
Supraspinal means above the spine, and may refer to, above the spinal cord and vertebral column.
Synergy is the creation of a whole that is greater than the simple sum of its parts.
Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.
TAN-67 (SB-205,607) is a opioid drug used in scientific research that acts as a potent and selective δ-opioid agonist, selective for the δ1 subtype.
Tapentadol (brand names: Nucynta, Palexia and Tapal) is a centrally acting opioid analgesic of the benzenoid class with a dual mode of action as an agonist of the μ-opioid receptor and as a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI).
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is one of at least 113 cannabinoids identified in cannabis.
The International Council on Security and Development (ICOS) is an international think tank that focuses on Afghanistan and other conflict zones such as Iraq and Somalia.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Thebacon (INN; pronounced), or dihydrocodeinone enol acetate, is a semisynthetic opioid that is similar to hydrocodone and is most commonly synthesised from thebaine.
Thebaine (paramorphine), also known as codeine methyl enol ether, is an opiate alkaloid, its name coming from the Greek Θῆβαι, Thēbai (Thebes), an ancient city in Upper Egypt.
The Thiambutenes are a family of opioid analgesic drugs developed at the British research laboratory of Burroughs-Wellcome in the late 1940s.
Thienorphine is a very potent, extremely long-acting, orally-active opioid analgesic with mixed agonist–antagonist properties which was developed by the Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology as a potential treatment for opioid dependence.
Thiofentanyl is an opioid analgesic that is an analogue of fentanyl.
Tianeptine, sold under the brand names Stablon and Coaxil among others, is an atypical antidepressant which is used mainly in the treatment of major depressive disorder, although it may also be used to treat anxiety, asthma, and irritable bowel syndrome.
Tifluadom is a benzodiazepine derivative with an unusual activity profile.
Tilidine, or tilidate (brand names: Tilidin, Valoron and Valtran) is a synthetic opioid painkiller, used mainly in Germany, Switzerland, South Africa and Belgium for treatment of moderate to severe pain, both acute and chronic.
Tipepidine (INN) (brand names Asverin, Antupex, Asvelik, Asvex, Bitiodin, Cofdenin A, Hustel, Nodal, Sotal), also known as tipepidine hibenzate (JAN), is a synthetic, non-opioid antitussive and expectorant of the thiambutene class.
Toll-like receptor 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR4 gene.
Tramadol, sold under the brand name Ultram among others, is an opioid pain medication used to treat moderate to moderately severe pain.
Trefentanil (A-3665) is an opioid analgesic that is an analogue of fentanyl and was developed in 1992.
A tremor is an involuntary, somewhat rhythmic, muscle contraction and relaxation involving oscillations or twitching movements of one or more body parts.
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications that are used primarily as antidepressants.
Trimebutine is a drug with antimuscarinic and weak mu opioid agonist effects.
Trimeperidine (Promedol) is an opioid analgesic that is an analogue of prodine.
TRIMU 5 is a selective agonist of the mu opioid receptor type 2.
Tropisetron (INN) is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist used mainly as an antiemetic to treat nausea and vomiting following chemotherapy, although it has been used experimentally as an analgesic in cases of fibromyalgia.
U-50488 is a drug which acts as a highly selective κ-opioid agonist, but without any μ-opioid antagonist effects.
U-69,593 is a drug which acts as a potent and selective κ1-opioid receptor agonist.
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC; French: Office des Nations unies contre la drogue et le crime) is a United Nations office that was established in 1997 as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention by combining the United Nations International Drug Control Program (UNDCP) and the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division in the United Nations Office at Vienna.
Vasopressin, also named antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin, is a hormone synthesized as a peptide prohormone in neurons in the hypothalamus, and is converted to AVP.
Viminol (marketed under the brandname Dividol) is an opioid analgesic developed by a team at the drug company Zambon in the 1960s.
W-18 is a compound in a series of 32 substances (named W-1 to W-32) that were first synthesized in academic research on analgesic drug discovery in the 1980s and appeared as a designer drug in the 2010s.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Xerostomia, also known as dry mouth and dry mouth syndrome, is dryness in the mouth, which may be associated with a change in the composition of saliva, or reduced salivary flow, or have no identifiable cause.
Xorphanol (INN) (developmental code name TR-5379 or TR-5379M), also known as xorphanol mesylate (USAN), is an opioid analgesic of the morphinan family that was never marketed.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
(+)-Naloxone (dextro-naloxone) is a drug which is the "unnatural" enantiomer of the opioid antagonist drug (−)-naloxone.
1-Iodomorphine is a semi-synthetic narcotic analgesic formed by halogenation of the 1 position on the morphine carbon skeleton.
14-Cinnamoyloxycodeinone is the most potent example in a series of opiate analgesic drugs discovered in the 1960s, with > ×100 times the potency of morphine.
14-Ethoxymetopon is an opioid analog that is a derivative of metopon which has been substituted with an ethoxy group at the 14-position.
14-Hydroxydihydrocodeine (RAM-318) is an opiate analgesic drug, which is also an active metabolite of oxycodone and hydromorphinol.
14-Methoxymetopon is an opiate analogue developed by a team led by Professor Helmut Schmidhammer at the University of Insbruck in the mid 1990s.
14-Phenylpropoxymetopon (PPOM) is an opiate analogue that is a derivative of metopon which has been substituted with a γ-phenylpropoxy group at the 14-position.
(–)-18-Methoxycoronaridine (18-MC) is a derivative of ibogaine invented in 1996 by the research team around the pharmacologist Stanley D. Glick from the Albany Medical College and the chemist Martin E. Kuehne from the University of Vermont.
2,4-Dinitrophenylmorphine is an analog of morphine in which a hydroxyl group is substituted with a dinitro phenoxy group.
3-Allylfentanyl is an opioid analgesic that is an analogue of fentanyl.
3-Methylfentanyl (3-MF, mefentanyl) is an opioid analgesic that is an analog of fentanyl.
3-Methyl-thiofentanyl is an opioid analgesic and analogue of fentanyl.
4-Fluoropethidine is a drug that is a derivative of pethidine (meperidine), which combines pethidine's opioid analgesic effects with increased monoamine reuptake inhibition.
4-Phenylfentanyl is an opioid analgesic that is a derivative of fentanyl.
5'-Guanidinonaltrindole (5'-GNTI) is an opioid antagonist used in scientific research which is highly selective for the κ opioid receptor.
6,14-Endoethenotetrahydrooripavine is the central nucleus, or backbone, of a class of morphinan opioids known as the Bentley compounds and may be considered their "privileged scaffold".
6-Methylenedihydrodesoxymorphine (6-MDDM) is an opiate analogue structurally related to desomorphine that is a derivative of hydromorphone, where the 6-ketone group has been replaced by a methylene group.
6-Monoacetylcodeine (6-MAC) is an acetate ester of codeine in which the hydroxyl group on the 6 position has been acetylated.
6-Monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM, 6-acetylmorphine, or 6-AM) is one of three active metabolites of heroin (diacetylmorphine), the others being morphine and the much less active 3-monoacetylmorphine (3-MAM).
6β-Naltrexol-d4, also known as 6β-hydroxynaltrexone-d4, is a deuterium-labeled form of 6β-Naltrexol used for NMR imaging.
7-Hydroxymitragynine is a terpenoid indole alkaloid from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, commonly known as Kratom.
7-PET was discovered by K.W. Bentley and is a potent opioid analgesic drug, 300 times the potency of morphine by weight.
7-Spiroindanyloxymorphone (SIOM) is a drug that is used in scientific research. It is a selective δ-opioid agonist. It is a derivative of oxymorphone.
8-Carboxamidocyclazocine (8-CAC) is an opioid analgesic drug related to cyclazocine, invented by medicinal chemist Mark P. Wentland and co-workers in Cogswell Laboratory at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
8-OH-DPAT is a research chemical of the aminotetralin chemical class which was developed in the 1980s and has been widely used to study the function of the 5-HT1A receptor.
Analgesics, opioid, Endogenous opiate, Endogenous opioids, Narcotic analgesic, Narcotic analgesics, Opiod, Opiods, Opioid Agonist, Opioid agonist, Opioid analgesic, Opioid antagonists, Opioid receptor agonist, Opioid therapy, Opioid-induced constipation, Opioids, Synthetic opioid, Synthetic opioids.