140 relations: Adenosine triphosphate, Adenylyl cyclase, Agonist, Alazocine, Alpha-2A adrenergic receptor, Alternative splicing, Amygdala, Analgesic, Annual Review of Biochemistry, Anticonvulsant, Antidepressant, Anxiety, Apelin receptor, Appetite, Attachment theory, Beta-2 adrenergic receptor, Beta-Endorphin, Biological membrane, Brain, Bremazocine, Buprenorphine, Cancer, Candace Pert, Cannabinoid receptor type 1, CCR5, Cell growth, Cell surface receptor, Cerebral cortex, Chlornaltrexamine, Claustrum, Complementary DNA, Convulsant, Cough medicine, CREB, Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry, CXCR4, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, Depression (mood), Digestion, Dissociative, Drug tolerance, Dynorphin, Dysphoria, Embryogenesis, Endogeny (biology), Endomorphin, Endorphins, Enkephalin, Enzyme, Etorphine, ..., Euphoria, Fetus, Fluid balance, G protein, G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channel, G protein–coupled receptor, Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor, Gastrointestinal tract, Gene duplication, Glutamic acid, Guanosine diphosphate, Guanosine triphosphate, Habenula, Hallucinogen, Heart, Heteromer, Heterotrimeric G protein, Hippocampus, House mouse, Human, Hyperpolarization (biology), Hypothalamus, Hypoventilation, International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, Μ-opioid receptor, Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Ketazocine, Kidney, Knockout mouse, Levorphanol, Ligand, Ligand (biochemistry), List of opioids, Liver, Locus coeruleus, Long-term potentiation, Met-enkephalin, Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5, Miosis, Morphine, MRGPRX1, Naloxone, Naltrexone, Neuroprotection, Nociceptin, Nociceptin receptor, OGFr, Olfactory bulb, Opiate, Opioid, Opioid antagonist, Opioid peptide, Opioidergic, Palmitoylation, Pancreas, Periaqueductal gray, Peristalsis, Pharmacological Reviews, Phylogenetics, Physical dependence, Pons, Post-translational modification, Prairie vole, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Protein kinase A, Psychological stress, Radionuclide, Receptor antagonist, Rostral ventromedial medulla, Science (journal), Sedation, Sensory neuron, Septal nuclei, Sigma receptor, Skeletal muscle, Solomon H. Snyder, Somatostatin receptor, Somatostatin receptor 2, Spinal cord, Striosome, Substance P, Substantia gelatinosa of Rolando, Synaptic plasticity, Tachykinin receptor 1, Thalamus, Tritium, Vas deferens, Vasodilation, Voltage-gated calcium channel, 5-HT1A receptor. Expand index (90 more) » « Shrink index
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Adenylyl cyclase (also commonly known as adenyl cyclase and adenylate cyclase, abbreviated AC) is an enzyme with key regulatory roles in essentially all cells.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Alazocine (developmental code name -10047), also known more commonly as N-allylnormetazocine (NANM), is a synthetic opioid analgesic of the benzomorphan family related to metazocine which was never marketed.
The alpha-2A adrenergic receptor (α2A adrenoceptor), also known as ADRA2A, is an α2 adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.
Alternative splicing, or differential splicing, is a regulated process during gene expression that results in a single gene coding for multiple proteins.
The amygdala (plural: amygdalae; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin from Greek, ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'Almond', 'tonsil') is one of two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
Annual Review of Biochemistry is an annual peer reviewed scientific journal published by Annual Reviews, a nonprofit scientific publisher.
Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
The apelin receptor (also known as the APJ receptor) is a G protein-coupled receptor which binds apelin and Apela/ELABELA/Toddler.
Appetite is the desire to eat food, sometimes due to hunger.
Attachment theory is a psychological model that attempts to describe the dynamics of long-term and short-term interpersonal relationships between humans.
The beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β2 adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRB2, is a cell membrane-spanning beta-adrenergic receptor that interacts with (binds) epinephrine, a hormone and neurotransmitter (ligand synonym, adrenaline) whose signaling, via a downstream L-type calcium channel interaction, mediates physiologic responses such as smooth muscle relaxation and bronchodilation.
β-Endorphin is an endogenous opioid neuropeptide and peptide hormone that is produced in certain neurons within the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system.
A biological membrane or biomembrane is an enclosing or separating membrane that acts as a selectively permeable barrier within living things.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Bremazocine is a κ-opioid receptor agonist related to pentazocine.
Buprenorphine, sold under the brand name Subutex, among others, is an opioid used to treat opioid addiction, acute pain, and chronic pain.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Candace Beebe Pert (June 26, 1946 – September 12, 2013) was an American neuroscientist and pharmacologist who discovered the opiate receptor, the cellular binding site for endorphins in the brain.
The cannabinoid type 1 receptor, often abbreviated as CB1, is a G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptor located in the central and peripheral nervous system.
C-C chemokine receptor type 5, also known as CCR5 or CD195, is a protein on the surface of white blood cells that is involved in the immune system as it acts as a receptor for chemokines.
The term cell growth is used in the contexts of biological cell development and cell division (reproduction).
Cell surface receptors (membrane receptors, transmembrane receptors) are receptors that are embedded in the membranes of cells.
The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.
Chlornaltrexamine is an irreversible mixed agonist–antagonist for μ-opioid receptors, which forms a covalent bond to the active site.
The claustrum is a thin, irregular sheet of neurons that is attached to the underside of the neocortex in the center of the brain.
In genetics, complementary DNA (cDNA) is DNA synthesized from a single stranded RNA (e.g., messenger RNA (mRNA) or microRNA) template in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme reverse transcriptase.
A convulsant is a drug which induces convulsions and/or epileptic seizures, the opposite of an anticonvulsant.
Cough medicines are medications used in those with coughing and related conditions.
CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) is a cellular transcription factor.
Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry is a biweekly peer-reviewed medical journal published by Bentham Science Publishers.
C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR-4) also known as fusin or CD184 (cluster of differentiation 184) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCR4 gene.
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
Dissociatives are a class of hallucinogen, which distort perceptions of sight and sound and produce feelings of detachment – dissociation – from the environment and self.
Drug tolerance is a pharmacological concept describing subjects' reduced reaction to a drug following its repeated use.
Dynorphins (Dyn) are a class of opioid peptides that arise from the precursor protein prodynorphin.
Dysphoria (from δύσφορος (dysphoros), δυσ-, difficult, and φέρειν, to bear) is a profound state of unease or dissatisfaction.
Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo forms and develops.
Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
Endomorphins are natural opioid neurotransmitters central to pain relief.
Endorphins (contracted from "endogenous morphine") are endogenous opioid neuropeptides and peptide hormones in humans and other animals.
An enkephalin (occasionally spelled encephalin) is a pentapeptide involved in regulating nociception in the body.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Etorphine (M99) is a semi-synthetic opioid possessing an analgesic potency approximately 1,000–3,000 times that of morphine.
Euphoria is an affective state in which a person experiences pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.
A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.
Fluid balance is an aspect of the homeostasis of organisms in which the amount of water in the organism needs to be controlled, via osmoregulation and behavior, such that the concentrations of electrolytes (salts in solution) in the various body fluids are kept within healthy ranges.
G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior.
The G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channels (GIRKs) are a family of inward-rectifier potassium ion channels which are activated (opened) via a signal transduction cascade starting with ligand-stimulated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs).
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
The gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR), now properly known as BB2 is a G protein-coupled receptor whose endogenous ligand is gastrin releasing peptide.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Gene duplication (or chromosomal duplication or gene amplification) is a major mechanism through which new genetic material is generated during molecular evolution.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Guanosine diphosphate, abbreviated GDP, is a nucleoside diphosphate.
Guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP) is a purine nucleoside triphosphate.
In neuroanatomy, habenula (diminutive of Latin habena meaning rein) originally denoted the stalk of the pineal gland (pineal habenula; pedunculus of pineal body), but gradually came to refer to a neighboring group of nerve cells with which the pineal gland was believed to be associated, the habenular nucleus.
A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perceptual anomalies, and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion, and consciousness.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
A heteromer is something that consists of different parts.
"G protein" usually refers to the membrane-associated heterotrimeric G proteins, sometimes referred to as the "large" G proteins (as opposed to the subclass of smaller, monomeric small GTPases).
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
The house mouse (Mus musculus) is a small mammal of the order Rodentia, characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, and a long naked or almost hairless tail.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Hyperpolarization is a change in a cell's membrane potential that makes it more negative.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
Hypoventilation (also known as respiratory depression) occurs when ventilation is inadequate (hypo meaning "below") to perform needed gas exchange.
The International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR) is a voluntary, non-profit association representing the interests of scientists in pharmacology-related fields to facilitate Better Medicines through Global Education and Research around the world.
The μ-opioid receptors (MOR) are a class of opioid receptors with a high affinity for enkephalins and beta-endorphin, but a low affinity for dynorphins.
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (a.k.a. JPET) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering pharmacology.
Ketazocine (INN), also known as ketocyclazocine, is a benzomorphan derivative used in opioid receptor research.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
A knockout mouse or knock-out mouse is a genetically modified mouse (Mus musculus) in which researchers have inactivated, or "knocked out", an existing gene by replacing it or disrupting it with an artificial piece of DNA.
Levorphanol (INN; brand name Levo-Dromoran) is an opioid medication used to treat moderate to severe pain.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
This is a list of opioids, opioid antagonists and inverse agonists.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
The locus coeruleus (\-si-ˈrü-lē-əs\, also spelled locus caeruleus or locus ceruleus) is a nucleus in the pons of the brainstem involved with physiological responses to stress and panic.
In neuroscience, long-term potentiation (LTP) is a persistent strengthening of synapses based on recent patterns of activity.
Met-enkephalin, also known as metenkefalin (INN), sometimes referred to as opioid growth factor (OGF), is a naturally occurring, endogenous opioid peptide that has opioid effects of a relatively short duration.
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 is a G protein-coupled receptor that in humans is encoded by the GRM5 gene.
Miosis is excessive constriction of the pupil.
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member X1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRGPRX1 gene.
Naloxone, sold under the brandname Narcan among others, is a medication used to block the effects of opioids, especially in overdose.
Naltrexone, sold under the brand names ReVia and Vivitrol among others, is a medication primarily used to manage alcohol or opioid dependence.
Neuroprotection refers to the relative preservation of neuronal structure and/or function.
Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), a 17-amino acid neuropeptide, is the endogenous ligand for the nociceptin receptor (NOP, ORL-1), and initiates its function to act on numerous brain activities such as pain sensation and fear learning.
The nociceptin opioid peptide receptor (NOP), also known as the nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) receptor or kappa-type 3 opioid receptor, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OPRL1 (opioid receptor-like 1) gene.
Opioid growth factor receptor, also known as OGFr or the ζ-opioid receptor, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the OGFR gene.
The olfactory bulb (bulbus olfactorius) is a neural structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, the sense of smell.
Opiate is a term classically used in pharmacology to mean a drug derived from opium.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
An opioid antagonist, or opioid receptor antagonist, is a receptor antagonist that acts on one or more of the opioid receptors.
Opioid peptides are peptides that bind to opioid receptors in the brain; opiates and opioids mimic the effect of these peptides.
An opioidergic agent (or drug) is a chemical which functions to directly modulate the opioid neuropeptide systems (i.e., endorphin, enkephalin, dynorphin, nociceptin) in the body or brain.
Palmitoylation is the covalent attachment of fatty acids, such as palmitic acid, to cysteine and less frequently to serine and threonine residues of proteins, which are typically membrane proteins.
The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
The periaqueductal gray (PAG, also known as the central gray) is the primary control center for descending pain modulation.
Peristalsis is a radially symmetrical contraction and relaxation of muscles that propagates in a wave down a tube, in an anterograde direction.
Pharmacological Reviews is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing review articles on all aspects of pharmacology and related topics.
In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.
Physical dependence is a physical condition caused by chronic use of a tolerance forming drug, in which abrupt or gradual drug withdrawal causes unpleasant physical symptoms.
The pons (Latin for "bridge") is part of the brainstem, and in humans and other bipeds lies inferior to the midbrain, superior to the medulla oblongata and anterior to the cerebellum.
Post-translational modification (PTM) refers to the covalent and generally enzymatic modification of proteins following protein biosynthesis.
The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) is a small vole found in central North America.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
In cell biology, protein kinase A (PKANot to be confused with pKa, the symbol for the acid dissociation constant.) is a family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on cellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP).
In psychology, stress is a feeling of strain and pressure.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
The rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), or ventromedial nucleus of the spinal cord, is a group of neurons located close to the midline on the floor of the medulla oblongata (myelencephalon).
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Sedation is the reduction of irritability or agitation by administration of sedative drugs, generally to facilitate a medical procedure or diagnostic procedure.
Sensory neurons also known as afferent neurons are neurons that convert a specific type of stimulus, via their receptors, into action potentials or graded potentials.
The septal nuclei (medial olfactory area) are a set of structures that lie below the rostrum of the corpus callosum, anterior to the lamina terminalis (the layer of gray matter in the brain connecting the optic chiasma and the anterior commissure where the latter becomes continuous with the rostral lamina).
Schematic σ receptor The sigma receptors σ1 and σ2 bind to ligands such as 4-PPBP (4-phenyl-1-(4-phenylbutyl) piperidine), SA 4503 (cutamesine), ditolylguanidine, dimethyltryptamine, and siramesine.
Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.
Solomon Halbert Snyder (born December 26, 1938) is an American neuroscientist who is known for wide-ranging contributions to neuropharmacology and neurochemistry.
There are five known somatostatin receptors.
Somatostatin receptor type 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SSTR2 gene.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
The striosomes (also referred to as the striatal patches) are one of two complementary chemical compartments within the striatum (the other compartment is known as the matrix) that can be visualized by staining for immunocytochemical markers such as acetylcholinesterase, enkephalin, substance P, limbic system-associated membrane protein (LAMP), AMPA receptor subunit 1 (GluR1), dopamine receptor subunits, and calcium binding proteins.
Substance P (SP) is an undecapeptide (a peptide composed of a chain of 11 amino acid residues) member of the tachykinin neuropeptide family. It is a neuropeptide, acting as a neurotransmitter and as a neuromodulator. Substance P and its closely related neurokinin A (NKA) are produced from a polyprotein precursor after differential splicing of the preprotachykinin A gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of substance P is as follows.
The apex of the posterior grey column, one of the three grey columns of the spinal cord, is capped by a V-shaped or crescentic mass of translucent, gelatinous neuroglia, termed the substantia gelatinosa of Rolando (or SGR) (or gelatinous substance of posterior horn of spinal cord), which contains both neuroglia cells, and small nerve cells.
In neuroscience, synaptic plasticity is the ability of synapses to strengthen or weaken over time, in response to increases or decreases in their activity.
The tachykinin receptor 1 (TACR1) also known as neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) or substance P receptor (SPR) is a G protein coupled receptor found in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system.
The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber") is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.
Tritium (or; symbol or, also known as hydrogen-3) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen.
The vas deferens (Latin: "carrying-away vessel"; plural: vasa deferentia), also called ductus deferens (Latin: "carrying-away duct"; plural: ductus deferentes), is part of the male reproductive system of many vertebrates; these vasa transport sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory ducts in anticipation of ejaculation.
Vasodilation is the widening of blood vessels.
Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), also known as voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), are a group of voltage-gated ion channels found in the membrane of excitable cells (e.g., muscle, glial cells, neurons, etc.) with a permeability to the calcium ion Ca2+.
The serotonin 1A receptor (or 5-HT1A receptor) is a subtype of serotonin receptor (5-HT receptor) that binds the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).