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Optical fiber

Index Optical fiber

An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair. [1]

292 relations: Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), Active laser medium, Aircraft, Aluminium, Aluminium oxide, Aluminosilicate, Amplifier, Aramid, Art, Aspheric lens, Atom, Attenuation, Bandwidth (computing), Barium, Basil Hirschowitz, Bayonet mount, Bell Labs, Bessel function, Biosensor, Borescope, Boron trioxide, Borosilicate glass, Buffer (optical fiber), Cable jetting, Cable management, Category 5 cable, Chalcogen, Chalcogenide, Chalcogenide glass, Charles K. Kao, Chemical vapor deposition, Chemically inert, Christmas tree, Cladding (fiber optics), Clarence Hansell, Classified information in the United States, Cleave (fiber), Coherence (physics), Computer network, Concentration, Core (optical fiber), Corning Inc., Coupling, Crosstalk, Crystal structure, Crystallization, CSELT, Data cable, Data-rate units, David N. Payne, ..., Decibel, Deformation (mechanics), Dentistry, Dielectric, Diffraction, Diffuse reflection, Dispersion (optics), Distributed acoustic sensing, Donald Keck, Dopant, Doping (semiconductor), Double-clad fiber, Drawing (manufacturing), Duplex (telecommunications), Electric arc, Electric power, Electricity generation, Electrode, Electromagnetic field, Electromagnetic interference, Electromagnetic pulse, Electromagnetic radiation, Electromagnetic wave equation, Electromagnetism, Electron, Electronegativity, Encyclopedia of Laser Physics and Technology, Endoscope, Endoscopy, Erbium, Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, Evanescent field, Experiment, Fiber Bragg grating, Fiber cable termination, Fiber laser, Fiber optic sensor, Fiber tapping, Fiber to the x, Fiber-optic communication, Fiberscope, Fibre Channel, Fibre optic gyroscope, Fibre to the office, Filling factor, Fluoride, Fluoride glass, Fluorine, Fused quartz, Fusion splicing, Gap loss, General Electric, Geometrical optics, George Hockham, Germanium dioxide, Germanium tetrachloride, Glass, Glass transition, Globalization, Graded-index fiber, Gradient-index optics, Grain boundary, Ground loop (electricity), Group (periodic table), Guided ray, Hair's breadth, Harold Hopkins (physicist), Heavy metals, Heinrich Lamm, High voltage, High-definition television, Hydroxy group, Hygroscopy, IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Imperial College London, Incoherent scatter, Index-matching material, Infrared, Infrared spectroscopy, Ingot, Insulator (electricity), Intensity (physics), Interconnect bottleneck, Interface (matter), Ion, Jacques Babinet, Jean-Daniel Colladon, Jet engine, John Logie Baird, John Tyndall, Kelvin, Kilometre, Lanthanum, Laser, Laser diode, Laser pumping, Laser safety, Lathe, Leaky mode, Lens (optics), Lens flare, Li-Fi, Light tube, Light-emitting diode, Lighting, Lightning, Linear stage, LiTraCon, London, Manfred Börner, Maxwell's equations, Mechanical splice, Medical optical imaging, Melting point, Metal, Metal theft, Metaphosphate, Micrometre, Microscope, Millisecond, Modal bandwidth, Modulation, Multi-mode optical fiber, Multiplexing, Narinder Singh Kapany, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone, Nobel Prize in Physics, Nonimaging optics, Normal (geometry), Normalized frequency (fiber optics), Numerical aperture, Objective (optics), Open fiber control, Ophthalmology, Optical aberration, Optical amplifier, Optical communication, Optical communications repeater, Optical fiber cable, Optical fiber connector, Optical interconnect, Optical mesh network, Optical microscope, Optical path length, Optical power meter, Optical pumping, Optical time-domain reflectometer, Optoelectronics, Orbital angular momentum multiplexing, Oxford University Press, Oxygen, Oxyhydrogen, Parabola, Parallel optical interface, Paris, Periodic table, Perpendicular, Peter C. Schultz, Phase (waves), Phosphate glass, Phosphorus pentoxide, Photonic crystal, Photonic-crystal fiber, Plastic optical fiber, Polarization (waves), Polarization-maintaining optical fiber, Polyimide, Polymorphism (materials science), Pressure, Proceedings of the Royal Society, Pyrometer, Quartz, Radiation, Rare-earth element, Ray (optics), Refractive index, Repeater, Resin, Return loss, Robert D. Maurer, Sagnac effect, Sapphire, Scattering, Scintillator, Selenium, Signage, Silicon dioxide, Silicon photonics, Silicon tetrachloride, Silver, Sine, Single-mode optical fiber, Small form-factor pluggable transceiver, Sodium, Solar cell, Soliton, Spectroscopy, Speed of light, Standard Telephones and Cables, Step-index profile, Stimulated emission, Submarine communications cable, Subwavelength-diameter optical fibre, Sulfur, Surround optical-fiber immunoassay, Swarovski, Telefunken, Telephone tapping, Tellurium, Temperature, Temperature measurement, Terabit, Tetrahedron, The Fiber Optic Association, Thermophoresis, Thomas Mensah, Thunderbolt (interface), Titanium, TOSLINK, Total internal reflection, Transformer, Transparency and translucency, Transparent ceramics, Transverse mode, Ultraviolet, University of Michigan, University of Southampton, Vacuum, Vector soliton, Viscosity, Visible spectrum, Watt, Waveguide, Waveguide (optics), Wavelength, Wavelength shifter, Wavelength-division multiplexing, Whispering-gallery wave, XENPAK, Yttrium aluminium garnet, ZBLAN, Zirconium. Expand index (242 more) »

Absorption (electromagnetic radiation)

In physics, absorption of electromagnetic radiation is the way in which the energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typically the electrons of an atom.

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Active laser medium

The active laser medium (also called gain medium or lasing medium) is the source of optical gain within a laser.

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An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air.

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Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.

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Aluminium oxide

Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.

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Aluminosilicate minerals are minerals composed of aluminium, silicon, and oxygen, plus countercations.

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An amplifier, electronic amplifier or (informally) amp is an electronic device that can increase the power of a signal (a time-varying voltage or current).

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Aramid fibers are a class of heat-resistant and strong synthetic fibers.

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Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual idea, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.

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Aspheric lens

An aspheric lens or asphere is a lens whose surface profiles are not portions of a sphere or cylinder.

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An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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In physics, attenuation or, in some contexts, extinction is the gradual loss of flux intensity through a medium.

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Bandwidth (computing)

In computing, bandwidth is the maximum rate of data transfer across a given path.

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Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56.

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Basil Hirschowitz

Basil Isaac Hirschowitz (29 May 1925 – 19 January 2013) was an academic gastroenterologist from the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) best known in the field for having invented an improved optical fiber which allowed the creation of a useful flexible endoscope.

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Bayonet mount

A bayonet mount (mainly as a method of mechanical attachment, as for fitting a lens to a camera) or bayonet connector (for electrical use) is a fastening mechanism consisting of a cylindrical male side with one or more radial pins, and a female receptor with matching L-shaped slot(s) and with spring(s) to keep the two parts locked together.

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Bell Labs

Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.

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Bessel function

Bessel functions, first defined by the mathematician Daniel Bernoulli and then generalized by Friedrich Bessel, are the canonical solutions of Bessel's differential equation for an arbitrary complex number, the order of the Bessel function.

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A biosensor is an analytical device, used for the detection of an analyte, that combines a biological component with a physicochemical detector.

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A borescope (occasionally called a boroscope, though this spelling is nonstandard) is an optical device consisting of a rigid or flexible tube with an eyepiece on one end, an objective lens on the other linked together by a relay optical system in between.

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Boron trioxide

Boron trioxide (or diboron trioxide) is one of the oxides of boron.

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Borosilicate glass

Borosilicate glass is a type of glass with silica and boron trioxide as the main glass-forming constituents.

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Buffer (optical fiber)

In a fiber optic cable, a buffer is one type of component used to encapsulate one or more optical fibers for the purpose of providing such functions as mechanical isolation, protection from physical damage and fiber identification.

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Cable jetting

Cable jetting is a technique to install cables in ducts.

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Cable management

Cable management refers to management of electrical or optical cable in a cabinet or an installation.

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Category 5 cable

Category 5 cable, commonly referred to as Cat 5, is a twisted pair cable for computer networks.

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The chalcogens are the chemical elements in group 16 of the periodic table.

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A chalcogenide is a chemical compound consisting of at least one chalcogen anion and at least one more electropositive element.

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Chalcogenide glass

Chalcogenide glass (pronounced hard ch as in chemistry) is a glass containing one or more chalcogens (sulfur, selenium and tellurium, but excluding oxygen).

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Charles K. Kao

Sir Charles Kuen Kao, as a member of National Academy of Engineering in Electronics, Communication & Information Systems Engineering for pioneering and sustained accomplishments towards the theoretical and practical realization of optical fiber communication systems.

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Chemical vapor deposition

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is deposition method used to produce high quality, high-performance, solid materials, typically under vacuum.

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Chemically inert

In chemistry, the term chemically inert is used to describe a substance that is not chemically reactive.

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Christmas tree

A Christmas tree is a decorated tree, usually an evergreen conifer such as spruce, pine, or fir or an artificial tree of similar appearance, associated with the celebration of Christmas.

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Cladding (fiber optics)

Cladding in optical fibers is one or more layers of materials of lower refractive index, in intimate contact with a core material of higher refractive index.

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Clarence Hansell

Clarence Weston Hansell (January 20, 1898 –) was an American research engineer who pioneered investigation into the biological effects of ion air.

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Classified information in the United States

The United States government classification system is established under Executive Order 13526, the latest in a long series of executive orders on the topic.

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Cleave (fiber)

A cleave in an optical fiber is a deliberate, controlled break, intended to create a perfectly flat endface, perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the fiber.

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Coherence (physics)

In physics, two wave sources are perfectly coherent if they have a constant phase difference and the same frequency, and the same waveform.

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Computer network

A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.

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In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.

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Core (optical fiber)

The core of a conventional optical fiber is a cylinder of glass or plastic that runs along the fiber's length.

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Corning Inc.

Corning Incorporated is an American multinational technology company that specializes in specialty glass, ceramics, and related materials and technologies including advanced optics, primarily for industrial and scientific applications.

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A coupling is a device used to connect two shafts together at their ends for the purpose of transmitting power.

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In electronics, crosstalk is any phenomenon by which a signal transmitted on one circuit or channel of a transmission system creates an undesired effect in another circuit or channel.

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Crystal structure

In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.

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Crystallization is the (natural or artificial) process by which a solid forms, where the atoms or molecules are highly organized into a structure known as a crystal.

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Centro Studi e Laboratori Telecomunicazioni (CSELT) was an Italian research center for Telecommunication based in Torino, the biggest in Italy and one of the most important in Europe.

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Data cable

A data cable is any media that allows baseband transmissions (binary 1,0s) from a transmitter to a receiver.

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Data-rate units

In telecommunications, data-transfer rate is the average number of bits (bitrate), characters or symbols (baudrate), or data blocks per unit time passing through a communication link in a data-transmission system.

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David N. Payne

Sir David Neil Payne CBE FRS FREng (born 13 August 1944) is a British professor of photonics who is director of the Optoelectronics Research Centre at the University of Southampton.

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The decibel (symbol: dB) is a unit of measurement used to express the ratio of one value of a physical property to another on a logarithmic scale.

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Deformation (mechanics)

Deformation in continuum mechanics is the transformation of a body from a reference configuration to a current configuration.

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Dentistry is a branch of medicine that consists of the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the oral cavity, commonly in the dentition but also the oral mucosa, and of adjacent and related structures and tissues, particularly in the maxillofacial (jaw and facial) area.

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A dielectric (or dielectric material) is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field.

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--> Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit.

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Diffuse reflection

Diffuse reflection is the reflection of light or other waves or particles from a surface such that a ray incident on the surface is scattered at many angles rather than at just one angle as in the case of specular reflection.

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Dispersion (optics)

In optics, dispersion is the phenomenon in which the phase velocity of a wave depends on its frequency.

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Distributed acoustic sensing

Rayleigh scattering based distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) systems use fiber optic cables to provide distributed strain sensing.

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Donald Keck

Donald B. Keck (born January 2, 1941) is an American research physicist and engineer most noted for his involvement in developing low-loss optical fiber.

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A dopant, also called a doping agent, is a trace impurity element that is inserted into a substance (in very low concentrations) to alter the electrical or optical properties of the substance.

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Doping (semiconductor)

In semiconductor production, doping is the intentional introduction of impurities into an intrinsic semiconductor for the purpose of modulating its electrical properties.

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Double-clad fiber

Double-clad fiber (DCF) is a class of optical fiber with a structure consisting of three layers of optical material instead of the usual two.

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Drawing (manufacturing)

Drawing is a metalworking process which uses tensile forces to stretch metal or glass.

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Duplex (telecommunications)

A duplex communication system is a point-to-point system composed of two or more connected parties or devices that can communicate with one another in both directions.

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Electric arc

An electric arc, or arc discharge, is an electrical breakdown of a gas that produces an ongoing electrical discharge.

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Electric power

Electric power is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit.

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Electricity generation

Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy.

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An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air).

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Electromagnetic field

An electromagnetic field (also EMF or EM field) is a physical field produced by electrically charged objects.

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Electromagnetic interference

Electromagnetic interference (EMI), also called radio-frequency interference (RFI) when in the radio frequency spectrum, is a disturbance generated by an external source that affects an electrical circuit by electromagnetic induction, electrostatic coupling, or conduction.

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Electromagnetic pulse

An electromagnetic pulse (EMP), also sometimes called a transient electromagnetic disturbance, is a short burst of electromagnetic energy.

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Electromagnetic radiation

In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.

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Electromagnetic wave equation

The electromagnetic wave equation is a second-order partial differential equation that describes the propagation of electromagnetic waves through a medium or in a vacuum.

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Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.

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The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.

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Encyclopedia of Laser Physics and Technology

The Encyclopedia of Laser Physics and Technology is an encyclopedia of laser technology and related areas such as optical fibers and ultrashort pulses, overall covering much of the area of photonics.

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An endoscope is an illuminated optical, typically slender and tubular instrument (a type of borescope) used to look deep into the body and used in procedures called an endoscopy.

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An endoscopy (looking inside) is used in medicine to look inside the body.

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Erbium is a chemical element with symbol Er and atomic number 68.

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Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, (EGD) also called by various other names, is a diagnostic endoscopic procedure that visualizes the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract down to the duodenum.

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Evanescent field

In electromagnetics, an evanescent field, or evanescent wave, is an oscillating electric and/or magnetic field that does not propagate as an electromagnetic wave but whose energy is spatially concentrated in the vicinity of the source (oscillating charges and currents).

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An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.

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Fiber Bragg grating

A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is a type of distributed Bragg reflector constructed in a short segment of optical fiber that reflects particular wavelengths of light and transmits all others.

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Fiber cable termination

Fiber cable termination is the addition of connectors to each optical fiber in a cable.

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Fiber laser

A fiber laser or fibre laser is a laser in which the active gain medium is an optical fiber doped with rare-earth elements such as erbium, ytterbium, neodymium, dysprosium, praseodymium, thulium and holmium.

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Fiber optic sensor

A fiber optic sensor is a sensor that uses optical fiber either as the sensing element ("intrinsic sensors"), or as a means of relaying signals from a remote sensor to the electronics that process the signals ("extrinsic sensors").

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Fiber tapping

Fiber tapping uses a network tap method that extracts signal from an optical fiber without breaking the connection.

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Fiber to the x

Fiber to the x (FTTX) or fiber in the loop is a generic term for any broadband network architecture using optical fiber to provide all or part of the local loop used for last mile telecommunications.

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Fiber-optic communication

Fiber-optic communication is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending pulses of light through an optical fiber.

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A fiberscope is a flexible optical fiber bundle with an eyepiece on one end and a lens on the other that is used to examine and inspect small, difficult-to-reach places such as the insides of machines, locks, and the human body.

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Fibre Channel

Fibre Channel, or FC, is a high-speed network technology (commonly running at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 128 gigabit per second rates) providing in-order, lossless delivery of raw block data, primarily used to connect computer data storage to servers.

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Fibre optic gyroscope

A fibre optic gyroscope (FOG) senses changes in orientation using the Sagnac effect, thus performing the function of a mechanical gyroscope.

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Fibre to the office

Fiber to the office (FTTO) is an alternative cabling concept for local area network (LAN) network office environments.

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Filling factor

Filling factor, ~F~, is a quantity measuring the efficiency of absorption of pump in the core of a double-clad fiber.

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Fluoride glass

Fluoride glass is a class of non-oxide optical glasses composed of fluorides of various metals.

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Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.

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Fused quartz

Fused quartz or fused silica is glass consisting of silica in amorphous (non-crystalline) form.

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Fusion splicing

Fusion splicing is the act of joining two optical fibers end-to-end using heat.

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Gap loss

Gap loss is a type of signal strength loss that occurs in fiber optic transmission when the signal is transferred from one section of fiber or cable to another.

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General Electric

General Electric Company (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts.

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Geometrical optics

Geometrical optics, or ray optics, describes light propagation in terms of rays.

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George Hockham

George Alfred Hockham FREng FIET (7 December 1938 – 16 September 2013) was a British engineer.

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Germanium dioxide

Germanium dioxide, also called germanium oxide and germania, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula GeO2.

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Germanium tetrachloride

Germanium tetrachloride is a colourless, fuming liquid with a peculiar, acidic odour.

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Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.

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Glass transition

The glass–liquid transition, or glass transition, is the gradual and reversible transition in amorphous materials (or in amorphous regions within semicrystalline materials), from a hard and relatively brittle "glassy" state into a viscous or rubbery state as the temperature is increased.

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Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.

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Graded-index fiber

In fiber optics, a graded index is an optical fiber whose core has a refractive index that decreases with increasing radial distance from the optical axis of the fiber.

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Gradient-index optics

Gradient-index (GRIN) optics is the branch of optics covering optical effects produced by a gradual variation of the refractive index of a material.

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Grain boundary

A grain boundary is the interface between two grains, or crystallites, in a polycrystalline material.

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Ground loop (electricity)

In an electrical system, a ground loop or earth loop occurs when two points of a circuit both intended to be at ground reference potential have a potential between them.

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Group (periodic table)

In chemistry, a group (also known as a family) is a column of elements in the periodic table of the chemical elements.

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Guided ray

A guided ray (also bound ray or trapped ray) is a ray of light in a multi-mode optical fiber, which is confined by the core.

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Hair's breadth

A hair's breadth, or the width of human hair, is used as an informal unit of a very short length.

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Harold Hopkins (physicist)

Harold Horace Hopkins FRS (6 December 1918 – 22 October 1994) was a British physicist.

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Heavy metals

Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.

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Heinrich Lamm

Heinrich Lamm (January 19, 1908 – July 12, 1974), a Jewish German-American physician, was a pioneer in using optical fibers for image transmission, and was the first to make a fiber-optic endoscope.

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High voltage

The term high voltage usually means electrical energy at voltages high enough to inflict harm on living organisms.

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High-definition television

High-definition television (HDTV) is a television system providing an image resolution that is of substantially higher resolution than that of standard-definition television, either analog or digital.

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Hydroxy group

A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.

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Hygroscopy is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules from the surrounding environment, which is usually at normal or room temperature.

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IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics

The IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering optical, electrical, and electronics engineering, and some applied aspects of lasers, physical optics, and quantum electronics.

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Imperial College London

Imperial College London (officially Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine) is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom.

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Incoherent scatter

Incoherent scattering is a type of scattering phenomenon in physics.

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Index-matching material

In optics, an index-matching material is a substance, usually a liquid, cement (adhesive), or gel, which has an index of refraction that closely approximates that of another object (such as a lens, material, fiber-optic, etc.). When two substances with the same index are in contact, light passes from one to the other with neither reflection nor refraction.

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Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.

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Infrared spectroscopy

Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy) involves the interaction of infrared radiation with matter.

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An ingot is a piece of relatively pure material, usually metal, that is cast into a shape suitable for further processing.

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Insulator (electricity)

An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely; very little electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field.

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Intensity (physics)

In physics, intensity is the power transferred per unit area, where the area is measured on the plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the energy.

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Interconnect bottleneck

The interconnect bottleneck refers to limits on integrated circuit (IC) performance due to connections between components instead of their internal speed.

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Interface (matter)

In the physical sciences, an interface is the boundary between two spatial regions occupied by different matter, or by matter in different physical states.

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An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Jacques Babinet

Jacques Babinet (5 March 1794 – 21 October 1872) was a French physicist, mathematician, and astronomer who is best known for his contributions to optics.

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Jean-Daniel Colladon

Jean-Daniel Colladon (15 December 1802, Geneva – 30 June 1893) was a Swiss physicist.

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Jet engine

A jet engine is a type of reaction engine discharging a fast-moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion.

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John Logie Baird

John Logie Baird FRSE (13 August 188814 June 1946) was a Scottish engineer, innovator, one of the inventors of the mechanical television, demonstrating the first working television system on 26 January 1926, and inventor of both the first publicly demonstrated colour television system, and the first purely electronic colour television picture tube.

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John Tyndall

John Tyndall FRS (2 August 1820 – 4 December 1893) was a prominent 19th-century physicist.

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The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.

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The kilometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: km; or) or kilometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousand metres (kilo- being the SI prefix for). It is now the measurement unit used officially for expressing distances between geographical places on land in most of the world; notable exceptions are the United States and the road network of the United Kingdom where the statute mile is the official unit used.

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Lanthanum is a chemical element with symbol La and atomic number 57.

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A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.

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Laser diode

A laser diode, (LD), injection laser diode (ILD), or diode laser is a semiconductor device similar to a light-emitting diode in which the laser beam is created at the diode's junction.

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Laser pumping

Laser pumping is the act of energy transfer from an external source into the gain medium of a laser.

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Laser safety

Laser safety is the safe design, use and implementation of lasers to minimize the risk of laser accidents, especially those involving eye injuries.

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A lathe is a tool that rotates the workpiece about an axis of rotation to perform various operations such as cutting, sanding, knurling, drilling, deformation, facing, and turning, with tools that are applied to the workpiece to create an object with symmetry about that axis.

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Leaky mode

A leaky mode or tunneling mode in an optical fiber or other waveguide is a mode having an electric field that decays monotonically for a finite distance in the transverse direction but becomes oscillatory everywhere beyond that finite distance.

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Lens (optics)

A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction.

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Lens flare

Lens flare refers to a phenomenon wherein light is scattered or flared in a lens system, often in response to a bright light, producing a sometimes undesirable artifact within the image.

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Li-Fi (short for light fidelity) is a technology for wireless communication between devices using light to transmit data and position.

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Light tube

Light tubes (also known as light pipes or tubular skylights) are physical structures used for transmitting or distributing natural or artificial light for the purpose of illumination, and are examples of optical waveguides.

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Light-emitting diode

A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source.

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Lighting or illumination is the deliberate use of light to achieve a practical or aesthetic effect.

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Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.

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Linear stage

A linear stage or translation stage is a component of a precise motion system used to restrict an object to a single axis of motion.

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LiTraCon is a trademark for a translucent concrete building material.

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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Manfred Börner

Manfred Börner (16 March 1929 in Rochlitz – 15 January 1996 in Ulm) was a German physicist.

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Maxwell's equations

Maxwell's equations are a set of partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electromagnetism, classical optics, and electric circuits.

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Mechanical splice

A mechanical splice is a junction of two or more optical fibers that are aligned and held in place by a self-contained assembly (usually the size of a large carpenter's nail).

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Medical optical imaging

Medical optical imaging is the use of light as an investigational imaging technique for medical applications.

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Melting point

The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.

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A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.

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Metal theft

Metal theft is "the theft of items for the value of their constituent metals".

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A metaphosphate ion is an oxyanion that has the empirical formula.

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The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".

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A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.

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A millisecond (from milli- and second; symbol: ms) is a thousandth (0.001 or 10−3 or 1/1000) of a second.

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Modal bandwidth

Modal Bandwidth, in the discipline of telecommunications, refers to the maximum signaling rate for a given distance or – the other way around – the maximum distance for a given signaling rate.

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In electronics and telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal that typically contains information to be transmitted.

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Multi-mode optical fiber

Multi-mode optical fiber is a type of optical fiber mostly used for communication over short distances, such as within a building or on a campus.

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In telecommunications and computer networks, multiplexing (sometimes contracted to muxing) is a method by which multiple analog or digital signals are combined into one signal over a shared medium.

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Narinder Singh Kapany

Narinder Singh Kapany (ਨਰਿੰਦਰ ਸਿੰਘ) (born 31 October 1926) is an Indian-born American physicist known for his work in fibre optics.

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Nippon Telegraph and Telephone

, commonly known as NTT, is a Japanese telecommunications company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.

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Nobel Prize in Physics

The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.

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Nonimaging optics

Nonimaging optics (also called anidolic optics)Roland Winston et al., Nonimaging Optics, Academic Press, 2004 R. John Koshel (Editor), Illumination Engineering: Design with Nonimaging Optics, Wiley, 2013 is the branch of optics concerned with the optimal transfer of light radiation between a source and a target.

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Normal (geometry)

In geometry, a normal is an object such as a line or vector that is perpendicular to a given object.

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Normalized frequency (fiber optics)

In an optical fiber, the normalized frequency, V (also called the V number), is given by where a is the core radius, λ is the wavelength in vacuum, n1 is the maximum refractive index of the core, n2 is the refractive index of the homogeneous cladding, and applying the usual definition of the numerical aperture NA.

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Numerical aperture

In optics, the numerical aperture (NA) of an optical system is a dimensionless number that characterizes the range of angles over which the system can accept or emit light.

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Objective (optics)

In optical engineering, the objective is the optical element that gathers light from the object being observed and focuses the light rays to produce a real image.

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Open fiber control

In telecommunication, Open fiber control is a protocol to ensure that both ends of a fiber optic cable are connected before laser signals are transmitted in order to protect people from eye damage.

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Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine and surgery (both methods are used) that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyeball and orbit.

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Optical aberration

Aberration in optics refers to a defect in a lens such that light is not focused to a point, but is spread out over some region of space, and hence an image formed by a lens with aberration is blurred or distorted, with the nature of the distortion depending on the type of aberration.

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Optical amplifier

An optical amplifier is a device that amplifies an optical signal directly, without the need to first convert it to an electrical signal.

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Optical communication

Optical communication, also known as optical telecommunication, is communication at a distance using light to carry information.

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Optical communications repeater

An optical communications repeater is used in a fiber-optic communications system to regenerate an optical signal.

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Optical fiber cable

An optical fiber cable, also known as a fiber optic cable, is an assembly similar to an electrical cable, but containing one or more optical fibers that are used to carry light.

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Optical fiber connector

An optical fiber connector terminates the end of an optical fiber, and enables quicker connection and disconnection than splicing.

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Optical interconnect

Optical interconnect is a means of communication by optical fiber cables.

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Optical mesh network

An Optical mesh network is a type of optical telecommunications network employing wired fiber-optic communication or wireless free-space optical communication in a mesh network architecture.

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Optical microscope

The optical microscope, often referred to as the light microscope, is a type of microscope that uses visible light and a system of lenses to magnify images of small subjects.

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Optical path length

In optics, optical path length (OPL) or optical distance is the product of the geometric length of the path light follows through the system, and the index of refraction of the medium through which it propagates(OP.

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Optical power meter

An optical power meter (OPM) is a device used measure the power in an optical signal.

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Optical pumping

Optical pumping is a process in which light is used to raise (or "pump") electrons from a lower energy level in an atom or molecule to a higher one.

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Optical time-domain reflectometer

An optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR) is an optoelectronic instrument used to characterize an optical fiber.

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Optoelectronics is the study and application of electronic devices and systems that source, detect and control light, usually considered a sub-field of photonics.

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Orbital angular momentum multiplexing

Orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing is a physical layer method for multiplexing signals carried on electromagnetic waves using the orbital angular momentum of the electromagnetic waves to distinguish between the different orthogonal signals.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Oxyhydrogen is a mixture of hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2) gases.

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In mathematics, a parabola is a plane curve which is mirror-symmetrical and is approximately U-shaped.

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Parallel optical interface

A parallel optical interface is a form of fiber optic technology aimed primarily at communications and networking over relatively short distances (less than 300 meters), and at high bandwidths.

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Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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Periodic table

The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.

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In elementary geometry, the property of being perpendicular (perpendicularity) is the relationship between two lines which meet at a right angle (90 degrees).

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Peter C. Schultz

Peter C. Schultz, Ph.D. (born 1942), is co-inventor of the fiber optics now used worldwide for telecommunications.

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Phase (waves)

Phase is the position of a point in time (an instant) on a waveform cycle.

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Phosphate glass

Phosphate glass is a class of optical glasses composed of metaphosphates of various metals.

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Phosphorus pentoxide

Phosphorus pentoxide is a chemical compound with molecular formula P4O10 (with its common name derived from its empirical formula, P2O5).

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Photonic crystal

A photonic crystal is a periodic optical nanostructure that affects the motion of photons in much the same way that ionic lattices affect electrons in solids.

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Photonic-crystal fiber

Photonic-crystal fiber (PCF) is a new class of optical fiber based on the properties of photonic crystals.

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Plastic optical fiber

Plastic optical fiber (POF) (or Polymer optical fibre) is an optical fiber that is made out of polymer.

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Polarization (waves)

Polarization (also polarisation) is a property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations.

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Polarization-maintaining optical fiber

In fiber optics, polarization-maintaining optical fiber (PMF or PM fiber) is a single-mode optical fiber in which linearly polarized light, if properly launched into the fiber, maintains a linear polarization during propagation, exiting the fiber in a specific linear polarization state; there is little or no cross-coupling of optical power between the two polarization modes.

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Polyimide (sometimes abbreviated PI) is a polymer of imide monomers.

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Polymorphism (materials science)

In materials science, polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one form or crystal structure.

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Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.

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Proceedings of the Royal Society

Proceedings of the Royal Society is the parent title of two scientific journals published by the Royal Society.

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A pyrometer is a type of remote-sensing thermometer used to measure the temperature of a surface.

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Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.

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In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.

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Rare-earth element

A rare-earth element (REE) or rare-earth metal (REM), as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium.

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Ray (optics)

In optics a ray is an idealized model of light, obtained by choosing a line that is perpendicular to the wavefronts of the actual light, and that points in the direction of energy flow.

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Refractive index

In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.

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In telecommunications, a repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal and retransmits it.

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In polymer chemistry and materials science, resin is a "solid or highly viscous substance" of plant or synthetic origin that is typically convertible into polymers.

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Return loss

In telecommunications, return loss is the loss of power in the signal returned/reflected by a discontinuity in a transmission line or optical fiber.

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Robert D. Maurer


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Sagnac effect

The Sagnac effect, also called Sagnac interference, named after French physicist Georges Sagnac, is a phenomenon encountered in interferometry that is elicited by rotation.

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Sapphire is a precious gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum, an aluminium oxide.

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Scattering is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more paths due to localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass.

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A scintillator is a material that exhibits scintillation—the property of luminescence, when excited by ionizing radiation.

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Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.

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Signage is the design or use of signs and symbols to communicate a message to a specific group, usually for the purpose of marketing or a kind of advocacy.

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Silicon dioxide

Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.

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Silicon photonics

Silicon photonics is the study and application of photonic systems which use silicon as an optical medium.

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Silicon tetrachloride

Silicon tetrachloride or tetrachlorosilane is the inorganic compound with the formula SiCl4.

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Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.

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In mathematics, the sine is a trigonometric function of an angle.

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Single-mode optical fiber

In fiber-optic communication, a single-mode optical fiber (SMF) is an optical fiber designed to carry light only directly down the fiber - the transverse mode.

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Small form-factor pluggable transceiver

The small form-factor pluggable (SFP) is a compact, hot-pluggable optical module transceiver used for both telecommunication and data communications applications.

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Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.

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Solar cell

A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon.

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In mathematics and physics, a soliton is a self-reinforcing solitary wave packet that maintains its shape while it propagates at a constant velocity.

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Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.

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Speed of light

The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.

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Standard Telephones and Cables

Standard Telephones and Cables Ltd (later STC plc) was a British telephone, telegraph, radio, telecommunications, and related equipment R&D manufacturer.

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Step-index profile

For an optical fiber, a step-index profile is a refractive index profile characterized by a uniform refractive index within the core and a sharp decrease in refractive index at the core-cladding interface so that the cladding is of a lower refractive index.

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Stimulated emission

Stimulated emission is the process by which an incoming photon of a specific frequency can interact with an excited atomic electron (or other excited molecular state), causing it to drop to a lower energy level.

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Submarine communications cable

A submarine communications cable is a cable laid on the sea bed between land-based stations to carry telecommunication signals across stretches of ocean and sea.

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Subwavelength-diameter optical fibre

A subwavelength-diameter optical fibre (SDF or SDOF) is an optical fibre whose diameter is less than the wavelength of the light being propagated through it.

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Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.

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Surround optical-fiber immunoassay

Surround optical-fiber immunoassay (SOFIA) is an ultrasensitive, ''in vitro'' diagnostic platform incorporating a surround optical-fiber assembly that captures fluorescence emissions from an entire sample.

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Swarovski is an Austrian producer of lead glass (commonly called crystal) headquartered in Wattens, Austria.

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Telefunken was a German radio and television apparatus company, founded in Berlin in 1903, as a joint venture of Siemens & Halske and the Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft (AEG) (General electricity company).

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Telephone tapping

Telephone tapping (also wire tapping or wiretapping in American English) is the monitoring of telephone and Internet conversations by a third party, often by covert means.

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Tellurium is a chemical element with symbol Te and atomic number 52.

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Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

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Temperature measurement

Temperature measurement, also known as thermometry, describes the process of measuring a current local temperature for immediate or later evaluation.

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A terabit is a multiple of the unit bit for digital information or computer storage.

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In geometry, a tetrahedron (plural: tetrahedra or tetrahedrons), also known as a triangular pyramid, is a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces, six straight edges, and four vertex corners.

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The Fiber Optic Association

The Fiber Optic Association (FOA) is an international professional society of fiber optics.

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Thermophoresis (also thermomigration, thermodiffusion, the Soret effect, or the Ludwig–Soret effect) is a phenomenon observed in mixtures of mobile particles where the different particle types exhibit different responses to the force of a temperature gradient.

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Thomas Mensah

Thomas O. Mensah (born around 1950) is a Ghanaian-American chemical engineer and inventor.

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Thunderbolt (interface)

Thunderbolt is the brand name of a hardware interface standard developed by Intel (in collaboration with Apple) that allows the connection of external peripherals to a computer.

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Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.

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TOSLINK (from Toshiba Link TOSLINK Transmitter Module specifications.) is a standardized optical fiber connector system.

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Total internal reflection

Total internal reflection is the phenomenon which occurs when a propagated wave strikes a medium boundary at an angle larger than a particular critical angle with respect to the normal to the surface.

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A transformer is a static electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction.

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Transparency and translucency

In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered.

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Transparent ceramics

Many ceramic materials, both glassy and crystalline, have found use as optically transparent materials in various forms from bulk solid-state components to high surface area forms such as thin films, coatings, and fibers.

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Transverse mode

A transverse mode of electromagnetic radiation is a particular electromagnetic field pattern of radiation measured in a plane perpendicular (i.e., transverse) to the propagation direction of the beam.

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Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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University of Michigan

The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.

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University of Southampton

The University of Southampton (abbreviated as Soton in post-nominal letters) is a research university located in Southampton, England.

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Vacuum is space devoid of matter.

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Vector soliton

In physical optics or wave optics, a vector soliton is a solitary wave with multiple components coupled together that maintains its shape during propagation.

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The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.

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Visible spectrum

The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.

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The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.

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A waveguide is a structure that guides waves, such as electromagnetic waves or sound, with minimal loss of energy by restricting expansion to one dimension or two.

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Waveguide (optics)

An optical waveguide is a physical structure that guides electromagnetic waves in the optical spectrum.

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In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.

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Wavelength shifter

A wavelength shifter is a photofluorescent material that absorbs higher frequency photons and emits lower frequency photons.

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Wavelength-division multiplexing

In fiber-optic communications, wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) is a technology which multiplexes a number of optical carrier signals onto a single optical fiber by using different wavelengths (i.e., colors) of laser light.

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Whispering-gallery wave

Whispering-gallery waves, or whispering-gallery modes, are a type of wave that can travel around a concave surface.

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XENPAK is a multisource agreement (MSA), instigated by Agilent Technologies and Agere Systems, that defines a fiber-optic or wired transceiver module which conforms to the 10 Gigabit Ethernet (10GbE) standard of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.3 working group.

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Yttrium aluminium garnet

Yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG, Y3Al5O12) is a synthetic crystalline material of the garnet group.

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Heavy metal fluoride glasses were accidentally discovered in 1975 by Poulain and Lucas at the University of Rennes in France, including a family of glasses ZBLAN with a composition ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF.

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Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_fiber

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