118 relations: Alibaba Group, American Academy of Optometry, Anglia Ruskin University, Anthropologist, Astigmatism, Aston University, Australian College of Optometry, Bausch & Lomb, Berthold Laufer, Beryl, British Journal of Ophthalmology, Caduceus, Canadian Association of Optometrists, Cardiff University, City, University of London, Clinic, College of Optometrists, Colombia, Cycloplegia, Deakin University, Decorative arts, Decree, Diploma, Dublin Institute of Technology, European Union, Eye, Eye care professional, Eye examination, Eyeglass prescription, Flinders University, General Optical Council, German Americans, Germany, Ghana, Ghana Optometric Association, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasses, Health care, Historian, History of optics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hospital, Human eye, ICFES, Indian Journal of Ophthalmology, Ioannis Pallikaris, Ireland, Italy, Joseph Needham, La Salle University, Colombia, ..., Laboratory, LASIK, Least distance of distinct vision, Lens (optics), London South Bank University, Manuscript, Ming dynasty, Mozambique, Nampula, National Health Service, National Institute of Ophthalmic Sciences, Near-sightedness, Netherlands, Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Nigeria, Ophthalmology, Optical instrument, Optician, Optometer (ophthalmic instrument), Optometry and Vision Science, Optometry in Ghana, Orthoptics, Petaling Jaya, Phoropter, Postgraduate education, Prakrit, Pune, Queensland University of Technology, Refraction, Retina, Russia, Sanskrit, Sarojini Devi Eye Hospital, Scientist, Scotland, Section 92(13) of the Constitution Act, 1867, Singapore Polytechnic, South Africa, South China Morning Post, Specialty (medicine), Sudan, Tanzania, Test (assessment), The Institute of Optometry, Ulster University, Ulster University at Coleraine, United Kingdom, Université de Montréal, University Grants Commission (India), University of Auckland, University of Bradford, University of Canberra, University of Hertfordshire, University of Manchester, University of Melbourne, University of New South Wales, University of Plymouth, University of Portsmouth, University of Salento, University of Waterloo, Vision science, Vision therapy, Visual impairment, Visual neuroscience, Visual perception, Visual system, World Council of Optometry, World Health Organization. Expand index (68 more) » « Shrink index
Alibaba Group Holding Limited is a Chinese multinational e-commerce, retail, Internet, AI and technology conglomerate founded in 1999 that provides consumer-to-consumer, business-to-consumer and business-to-business sales services via web portals, as well as electronic payment services, shopping search engines and cloud computing services.
The American Academy of Optometry (AAO) is an organization of optometrists based in Orlando, Florida.
Anglia Ruskin University is a public university in East Anglia, United Kingdom.
An anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology.
Astigmatism is a type of refractive error in which the eye does not focus light evenly on the retina.
Aston University is a public research university situated at Gosta Green, in the city centre of Birmingham, England.
The Australian College of Optometry is located in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
Bausch + Lomb is an American eye health products company based in Bridgewater, New Jersey.
Berthold Laufer (October 11, 1874 – September 13, 1934) was an anthropologist and historical geographer with an expertise in East Asian languages.
Beryl is a mineral composed of beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate with the chemical formula Be3Al2(SiO3)6.
The British Journal of Ophthalmology is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of ophthalmology.
The caduceus (☤;; Latin cādūceus, from Greek κηρύκειον kērū́keion "herald's wand, or staff") is the staff carried by Hermes in Greek mythology and consequently by Hermes Trismegistus in Greco-Egyptian mythology.
The Canadian Association of Optometrists (CAO) is a national association of doctors of optometry (optometrists).
Cardiff University (Prifysgol Caerdydd) is a public research university in Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom.
City, University of London is a public research university in London, United Kingdom.
A clinic (or outpatient clinic or ambulatory care clinic) is a healthcare facility that is primarily focused on the care of outpatients.
The College of Optometrists is the professional, scientific and examining body for optometry in the United Kingdom, working for the public benefit.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
Cycloplegia is paralysis of the ciliary muscle of the eye, resulting in a loss of accommodation.
Deakin University is a public university in Victoria, Australia.
The decorative arts are arts or crafts concerned with the design and manufacture of beautiful objects that are also functional.
A decree is a rule of law usually issued by a head of state (such as the president of a republic or a monarch), according to certain procedures (usually established in a constitution).
A diploma is a certificate or deed issued by an educational institution, such as college or university, that testifies that the recipient has successfully completed a particular course of study.
Dublin Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as DIT) (Institiúid Teicneolaíochta Bhaile Atha Cliath) is one of the largest higher education institutions in Ireland.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Eyes are organs of the visual system.
An eye care professional (ECP) is an individual who provides a service related to the eyes or vision.
An eye examination is a series of tests performed by an ophthalmologist (medical doctor), optometrist, or orthoptist assessing vision and ability to focus on and discern objects, as well as other tests and examinations pertaining to the eyes.
An eyeglass prescription is an order written by an eyewear prescriber, such as an optometrist or ophthalmologist, that specifies the value of all parameters the prescriber has deemed necessary to construct and/or dispense corrective lenses appropriate for a patient.
Flinders University is a public university in Adelaide, South Australia.
The General Optical Council (GOC) is an organisation in the United Kingdom which maintains a register of opticians and regulates the services provided by dispensing opticians and optometrists (ophthalmic opticians).
German Americans (Deutschamerikaner) are Americans who have full or partial German ancestry.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa.
The Ghana Optometric Association (GOA) is the professional and regulatory body responsible for the development of the Optometry profession in Ghana.
Glasgow Caledonian University (informally GCU or Caledonian) is a public university in Glasgow.
Glasses, also known as eyeglasses or spectacles, are devices consisting of glass or hard plastic lenses mounted in a frame that holds them in front of a person's eyes, typically using a bridge over the nose and arms which rest over the ears.
Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.
A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past, and is regarded as an authority on it.
Optics began with the development of lenses by the ancient Egyptians and Mesopotamians, followed by theories on light and vision developed by ancient Greek philosophers, and the development of geometrical optics in the Greco-Roman world.
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) is a public university located in Hung Hom, Hong Kong.
A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment.
The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure.
ICFES is an acronym for Instituto Colombiano para el Fomento de la Educación Superior ("Colombian Institute for the Promotion of Higher Education").
The Indian Journal of Ophthalmology is a peer-reviewed open-access medical journal published on behalf of the All India Ophthalmological Society.
Ioannis G. Pallikaris (Παλλήκαρης Ιωάννης, born November 18, 1947) is a Greek ophthalmologist who in 1989 performed the first LASIK procedure on a human eye.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Noel Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham (9 December 1900 – 24 March 1995) was a British biochemist, historian and sinologist known for his scientific research and writing on the history of Chinese science and technology.
The Universidad de La Salle is a catholic and lasallian university, founded in 1964.
A laboratory (informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.
LASIK or Lasik (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis), commonly referred to as laser eye surgery or laser vision correction, is a type of refractive surgery for the correction of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism.
In optometry, the least distance of distinct vision (LDDV) or the reference seeing distance (RSD) is the closest someone with "normal" vision (20/20 vision) can comfortably look at something.
A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction.
London South Bank University (LSBU) is a public university in Newington, London.
A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) was, traditionally, any document written by hand -- or, once practical typewriters became available, typewritten -- as opposed to being mechanically printed or reproduced in some indirect or automated way.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique) is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.
Nampula is the capital city of Nampula Province in northeastern Mozambique.
The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.
The National Institute of Ophthalmic Sciences is an educational institution set up under the auspices of the Tun Hussein Onn National Eye Hospital (THONEH) in Selangor, Malaysia.
Near-sightedness, also known as short-sightedness and myopia, is a condition of the eye where light focuses in front of, instead of on, the retina.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Ngee Ann Polytechnic (Abbreviation: NP) is an institution of higher learning (IHL) in Singapore with more than 14,800 full-time and 3,000 part-time students, more than 1,800 staff, and 148,000 alumni.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine and surgery (both methods are used) that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyeball and orbit.
An optical instrument either processes light waves to enhance an image for viewing, or analyzes light waves (or photons) to determine one of a number of characteristic properties.
An optician, or dispensing optician, is a technical practitioner who designs, fits and dispenses corrective lenses for the correction of a person's vision.
A device, used for measuring spherical and/or cylindrical prescription for eyeglasses, from the middle of the 18th century until around 1922, when modern instruments were developed.
Optometry and Vision Science is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins on behalf of the American Academy of Optometry.
Optometry is a relatively new field in eye care in Ghana.
Orthoptics is a profession allied to eye care profession whose primary emphasis is the diagnosis and non-surgical management of strabismus (wandering eye), amblyopia (lazy eye) and eye movement disorders.
Petaling Jaya (commonly called "PJ" by locals) is a major Malaysian city originally developed as a satellite township for Kuala Lumpur.
Phoropter is a common name for an ophthalmic testing device, also called a refractor.
Postgraduate education, or graduate education in North America, involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree generally is required, and it is normally considered to be part of higher education.
The Prakrits (प्राकृत; pāuda; pāua) are any of several Middle Indo-Aryan languages formerly spoken in India.
Pune, formerly spelled Poona (1857–1978), is the second largest city in the Indian state of Maharashtra, after Mumbai.
The Queensland University of Technology (QUT) is a public research university located in the urban coastal city of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
Refraction is the change in direction of wave propagation due to a change in its transmission medium.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sarojini Devi Eye Hospital is a medical institution in Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
A scientist is a person engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge that describes and predicts the natural world.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Section 92(13) of the Constitution Act, 1867, also known as the property and civil rights power, grants the provincial legislatures of Canada the authority to legislate on: It is one of three key residuary powers in the Constitution Act, 1867, together with the federal power of peace, order and good government and the provincial power over matters of a local or private nature in the province.
Singapore Polytechnic (Abbreviation: SP) is an institution of higher learning in Singapore.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
The South China Morning Post (also known as SCMP or The Post), with its Sunday edition, the Sunday Morning Post, is a Hong Kong English-language newspaper and Hong Kong's newspaper of record.
A specialty, or speciality, in medicine is a branch of medical practice.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
A test or examination (informally, exam or evaluation) is an assessment intended to measure a test-taker's knowledge, skill, aptitude, physical fitness, or classification in many other topics (e.g., beliefs).
The Institute of Optometry is a centre for optometry, based in south London, England.
Ulster University (Ollscoil Uladh, Ulster Scots: Ulstèr Universitie or Ulstèr Varsitie), officially the University of Ulster, is a multi-campus public university located in Northern Ireland.
The Ulster University at Coleraine (Ollscoil Uladh i gCúil Raithin) is a campus of Ulster University in Coleraine, County Londonderry, Northern Ireland.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The Université de Montréal (UdeM) is a public research university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
The University Grants Commission of India (UGC India) is a statutory body set up by the Indian Union government in accordance to the UGC Act 1956 under Ministry of Human Resource Development, and is charged with coordination, determination and maintenance of standards of higher education.
The University of Auckland (Te Whare Wānanga o Tāmaki Makaurau) is the largest university in New Zealand, located in the country's largest city, Auckland.
The University of Bradford is a public, plate glass university located in the city of Bradford, West Yorkshire, England.
The University of Canberra (UC) is a public university that is located in Bruce, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory.
The University of Hertfordshire is a university in Hertfordshire, United Kingdom.
The University of Manchester is a public research university in Manchester, England, formed in 2004 by the merger of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology and the Victoria University of Manchester.
The University of Melbourne is a public research university located in Melbourne, Australia.
The University of New South Wales (UNSW; branded as UNSW Sydney) is an Australian public research university located in the Sydney suburb of Kensington.
The University of Plymouth is a public university based predominantly in Plymouth, England where the main campus is located, but the university has campuses and affiliated colleges across South West England.
The University of Portsmouth is a public university in the city of Portsmouth, Hampshire, England.
The University of Salento (Università del Salento, called until 2007 Università degli Studi di Lecce) is a university located in Lecce, Italy.
The University of Waterloo (commonly referred to as Waterloo, UW, or UWaterloo) is a public research university with a main campus in Waterloo, Ontario.
Vision science is the scientific study of vision.
Vision therapy (also known as vision training, or VT) is used to improve vision skills such as eye movement control, eye coordination, contrast sensitivity, and perception.
Visual impairment, also known as vision impairment or vision loss, is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses.
Visual Neuroscience is a branch of neuroscience that focuses on the visual system of the human body, mainly located in the brain's visual cortex.
Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.
The visual system is the part of the central nervous system which gives organisms the ability to process visual detail, as well as enabling the formation of several non-image photo response functions.
The World Council of Optometry (WCO) is a membership organization for the development of optometry (eye care) internationally.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
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