88 relations: Active transport, Ampicillin, Anhydrous, Bangladesh, Bangladesh Liberation War, Breastfeeding, Broad-spectrum antibiotic, Burn, Cell membrane, Child mortality, Cholera, Citric acid, Cochrane (organisation), Czech Academy of Sciences, David Nalin, Defecation, Dehydration, Developing country, Dhaka, Diarrhea, Digestion, Dilip Mahalanabis, Electrolyte imbalance, Emergency department, Enterocyte, Epithelial polarity, Epithelium, Extracellular, Facilitated diffusion, Fluid replacement, Galactose, Gastrointestinal tract, Gentamicin, Glucose, Gradient, Health system, Hemendra Nath Chatterjee, Homeostasis, Humanitarian aid, Hyperkalemia, Hypernatremia, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Intravenous therapy, Kwashiorkor, Lumen (anatomy), Marasmus, Molar concentration, Mortality rate, Mucous membrane, Na+/K+-ATPase, ..., Nasogastric intubation, NewYork–Presbyterian Hospital, Norbert Hirschhorn, Oral rehydration therapy, Osmotic concentration, Pollin Prize for Pediatric Research, Potassium, Potassium chloride, Prince Mahidol Award, Radial artery, Randomized controlled trial, Ratio, Refugee, Refugee camp, Richard A. Cash, Robert K. Crane, Septic shock, SLC5A1, Sodium, Sodium bicarbonate, Sodium chloride, Sodium citrate, Sodium-glucose transport proteins, Sports drink, Stanley Schultz, Sucrose, Symporter, Task force, Tonicity, Trisodium citrate, UNICEF, Urine, Vomiting, WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, William Brooke O'Shaughnessy, World Health Organization, Zinc, Zinc sulfate. Expand index (38 more) » « Shrink index
Active transport is the movement of molecules across a membrane from a region of their lower concentration to a region of their higher concentration—in the direction against the concentration gradient.
Ampicillin is an antibiotic used to prevent and treat a number of bacterial infections, such as respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, meningitis, salmonellosis, and endocarditis.
A substance is anhydrous if it contains no water.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
The Bangladesh Liberation War (মুক্তিযুদ্ধ), also known as the Bangladesh War of Independence, or simply the Liberation War in Bangladesh, was a revolution and armed conflict sparked by the rise of the Bengali nationalist and self-determination movement in what was then East Pakistan during the 1971 Bangladesh genocide.
Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.
The term broad-spectrum antibiotic can refer to an antibiotic that acts on the two major bacterial groups, gram-positive and gram-negative, or any antibiotic that acts against a wide range of disease-causing bacteria.
A burn is a type of injury to skin, or other tissues, caused by heat, cold, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
Child mortality, also known as child death, refers to the death of children under the age of 14 and encompasses neonatal mortality, under-5 mortality, and mortality of children aged 5-14.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula.
Cochrane is a non-profit, non-governmental organization formed to organize medical research findings so as to facilitate evidence-based choices about health interventions faced by health professionals, patients, and policy makers.
The Czech Academy of Sciences (abbr. CAS, Akademie věd České republiky, abbr. AV ČR) was established in 1992 by the Czech National Council as the Czech successor of the former Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences and its tradition goes back to the Royal Bohemian Society of Sciences (founded in 1784) and the Emperor Franz Joseph Czech Academy for Sciences, Literature and Arts (founded in 1890).The Academy is the leading non-university public research institution in the Czech Republic.
David R. Nalin (born April 21, 1941) is an American physiologist, and Pollin Prize for Pediatric Research and Prince Mahidol Award, a.k.a. Mahidol Medal winner.
Defecation is the final act of digestion, by which organisms eliminate solid, semisolid, or liquid waste material from the digestive tract via the anus.
In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Dhaka (or; ঢাকা); formerly known as Dacca is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
Dilip Mahalanabis (born November 12, 1934) is an Indian pediatrician known for pioneering the use of oral rehydration therapy to treat diarrheal diseases.
Electrolyte imbalance is an abnormality in the concentration of electrolytes in the body.
An emergency department (ED), also known as an accident & emergency department (A&E), emergency room (ER), emergency ward (EW) or casualty department, is a medical treatment facility specializing in emergency medicine, the acute care of patients who present without prior appointment; either by their own means or by that of an ambulance.
Enterocytes, or intestinal absorptive cells, are simple columnar epithelial cells found in the small intestine.
Cell polarity is a fundamental feature of many types of cells.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means "outside the cell".
Facilitated diffusion (also known as facilitated transport or passive-mediated transport) is the process of spontaneous passive transport (as opposed to active transport) of molecules or ions across a biological membrane via specific transmembrane integral proteins.
Fluid replacement or fluid resuscitation is the medical practice of replenishing bodily fluid lost through sweating, bleeding, fluid shifts or other pathologic processes.
Galactose (galacto- + -ose, "milk sugar"), sometimes abbreviated Gal, is a monosaccharide sugar that is about as sweet as glucose, and about 30% as sweet as sucrose.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Gentamicin, sold under brand names Garamycin among others, is an antibiotic used to treat several types of bacterial infections.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
In mathematics, the gradient is a multi-variable generalization of the derivative.
A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.
Hemendra Nath Chatterjee (Bengali হেমেন্দ্র নাথ চ্যাটার্জী) was a Bengali scientist from West Bengal, India who first formulated and demonstrated the effectiveness of Orally Rehydrated Saline (ORS) for diarrhea management.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
Humanitarian aid is material and logistic assistance to people who need help.
Hyperkalemia, also spelled hyperkalaemia, is an elevated level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.
Hypernatremia, also spelled hypernatraemia, is a high concentration of sodium in the blood.
The International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b) is an international health research organisation located in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Kwashiorkor is a form of severe protein malnutrition characterized by edema, and an enlarged liver with fatty infiltrates.
In biology, a lumen (plural lumina) is the inside space of a tubular structure, such as an artery or intestine.
Marasmus is a form of severe malnutrition characterized by energy deficiency.
Molar concentration (also called molarity, amount concentration or substance concentration) is a measure of the concentration of a chemical species, in particular of a solute in a solution, in terms of amount of substance per unit volume of solution.
Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
-ATPase (sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase, also known as the pump or sodium–potassium pump) is an enzyme (an electrogenic transmembrane ATPase) found in the plasma membrane of all animal cells.
Nasogastric intubation is a medical process involving the insertion of a plastic tube (nasogastric tube or NG tube) through the nose, past the throat, and down into the stomach.
The NewYork–Presbyterian Hospital is a nonprofit university hospital in New York City affiliated with two Ivy League medical schools: Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons and Weill Cornell Medical College.
Norbert Hirschhorn (born 1938) is an Austrian-born American public health physician.
Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) is a type of fluid replacement used to prevent and treat dehydration, especially that due to diarrhea.
Osmotic concentration, formerly known as osmolarity, is the measure of solute concentration, defined as the number of osmoles (Osm) of solute per litre (L) of solution (osmol/L or Osm/L).
The Pollin Prize for Pediatric Research was an annual award given to physicians who contributed important advances to the field of pediatrics, and was the only existing international pediatric award.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine.
The Prince Mahidol Award (รางวัลสมเด็จเจ้าฟ้ามหิดล) is a Thai Royal Family annual award for outstanding achievements in medicine and public health worldwide.
In human anatomy, the radial artery is the main artery of the lateral aspect of the forearm.
A randomized controlled trial (or randomized control trial; RCT) is a type of scientific (often medical) experiment which aims to reduce bias when testing a new treatment.
In mathematics, a ratio is a relationship between two numbers indicating how many times the first number contains the second.
A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition).
A refugee camp is a temporary settlement built to receive refugees and people in refugee-like situations.
Richard Alan Cash, M.D., M.P.H. (born June 9, 1941) is an American global health researcher, public health physician, internist, and.
Robert Kellogg Crane (December 20, 1919 – October 31, 2010) was an American biochemist best known for his discovery of sodium-glucose cotransport.
Septic shock is a serious medical condition that occurs when sepsis, which is organ injury or damage in response to infection, leads to dangerously low blood pressure and abnormalities in cellular metabolism.
Sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 also known as solute carrier family 5 member 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC5A1 gene.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate), commonly known as baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
Sodium citrate may refer to any of the sodium salts of citrate (though most commonly the third).
Sodium-dependent glucose cotransporters (or sodium-glucose linked transporter, SGLT) are a family of glucose transporter found in the intestinal mucosa (enterocytes) of the small intestine (SGLT1) and the proximal tubule of the nephron (SGLT2 in PCT and SGLT1 in PST).
Sports drinks are beverages whose stated purpose is to help athletes replace water, electrolytes, and energy before and after training or competition, though their efficiency for that purpose has been questioned, particularly after exercise.
Stanley G. Schultz (October 26, 1931 - October 23, 2014) was an American physician and scientist whose work led to the development of oral rehydration therapy.
Sucrose is common table sugar.
A symporter is an integral membrane protein that is involved in the transport of many differing types of molecules across the cell membrane.
A task force (TF) is a unit or formation established to work on a single defined task or activity.
Tonicity is a measure of the effective osmotic pressure gradient, as defined by the water potential of two solutions separated by a semipermeable membrane.
Trisodium citrate has the chemical formula of Na3C6H5O7.
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health system.
William Brooke O'Shaughnessy (from 1861 as William O'Shaughnessy Brooke) MD FRS (October 1809, Limerick, Ireland – 8 January 1889, Southsea, England) was an Irish physician famous for his wide-ranging scientific work in pharmacology, chemistry, and inventions related to telegraphy and its use in India.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Zinc sulfate is an inorganic compound and dietary supplement. As a supplement it is used to treat zinc deficiency and to prevent the condition in those at high risk. Side effects of excess supplementation may include abdominal pain, vomiting, headache, and tiredness. It has the formula ZnSO4 as well as any of three hydrates. It was historically known as "white vitriol". All of the various forms are colourless solids. The heptahydrate form is commonly encountered.
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