366 relations: Aa (plant), Abdominea, Acampe, Acanthophippium, Acianthus, Acineta, Acrorchis, Ada (plant), Adaptation (film), Adnation, Aerangis, Aeranthes, Aerial root, Aerides, Aganisia, Agar, Agrostophyllum, Alkaloid, Allogamy, Amber, American Orchid Society, Americas, Anacamptis, Anacamptis pyramidalis, Ancient Greek, Ancistrochilus, Angraecum, Anguloa, Ansellia, Ant, Antoine Laurent de Jussieu, APG III system, APG system, Aphyllorchis, Aplectrum, Apostasia (plant), Apostasioideae, Ara Pacis, Arabic, Arachnis (plant), Archaeology (magazine), Arctic Circle, Armillaria, Armodorum, Aromatherapy, Ascocenda, Ascoglossum, Asia, Asparagales, Asteraceae, ..., Australia, Australian Geographic, Auxopus, Bactrocera, Baking, Baltic amber, Banana, Bandicoot, Barkeria, Bartholina, Base pair, Basidiomycota, Belize, Beloglottis, Biermannia, Bird, Bletilla, Brassavola, Brassia, Bulbophyllum, Bulbophyllum nocturnum, Calanthe, Calypso bulbosa, Capsule (fruit), Carbohydrate, Carl Linnaeus, Catasetum, Cattleya, Cattleya mossiae, Cattleya trianae, Cell nucleus, Charles Darwin, Chlorophyll, Cirrhopetalum, Clade, Cladogram, Cleisostoma, Clowesia, Coconut water, Coelogyne, Colombia, Column (botany), Common name, Conservation Biology (journal), Corallorhiza, Corm, Coryanthes, Cosmopolitan distribution, Costa Rica, Cranichideae, Cultivar, Cycnoches, Cymbidium, Cypripedioideae, Cypripedium, Cyrtopodium, Dactylorhiza, Dactylorhiza fuchsii, Dehiscence (botany), Dendrobium, Dendrophylax lindenii, Disa (plant), Distribution of orchid species, DNA, Dondurma, Double Third Festival, Dracula (plant), Dragon's mouth, Ectomycorrhiza, Encyclia, Endosperm, Eocene, Epidendroideae, Epidendrum, Epidendrum secundum, Epidermis (botany), Epipactis, Epiphyte, Eria, Ernst Haeckel, Euglossa imperialis, Euglossini, Eulaema meriana, Eulophia, Family (biology), Fertilisation of Orchids, Floral symmetry, Flower, Flowering plant, Fungus, Galearis, Gas chromatography, Gastrodia, Gastrodia elata, Gastrodia sesamoides, Gene, Genus, George Poinar Jr., Glacier, Gongora, Goodyera, Goodyerinae, Grammatophyllum, Grammatophyllum speciosum, Guarianthe skinneri, Guatemala, Gymnadenia, Gymnadenia conopsea, Gynoecium, Habenaria, Habitat, Headspace technology, Herb, Herbalism, Heterotroph, Holcoglossum amesianum, Honduras, Horticulture, Hybrid (biology), Inflorescence, Ionopsis, Italian Group for Research on Hardy Orchid, John Lindley, Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, Keiki, Ketone, Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park, Kunstformen der Natur, Labellum (botany), Laelia, Lantingji Xu, Late Cretaceous, Leaf, Lepanthes, Lignin, Liparis (plant), List of the orchids of the Philippines, List of the orchids of Western Australia, Lithophyte, Ludisia, Lycaste, Lycaste skinneri, Macodes, Macquarie Island, Mammal, Mark Wayne Chase, Masdevallia, Mass spectrometry, Maxillaria, Meliorchis, Methyl eugenol, Mexipedium, Middle English, Miltonia, Mimicry, Miocene, Molecular clock, Molecular phylogenetics, Monandrous, Monocotyledon, Monopodial, Mormodes, Moyobamba, Myco-heterotrophy, Mycorrhiza, Nature (journal), Nectar, Nematoceras, Neottia, Nero Wolfe, Neuwiedia, North America, Odontoglossum, Odor, Oeceoclades, Oncidium, Ophrys, Ophrys apifera, Orchid Conservation Coalition, Orchid mycorrhiza, Orchid Pavilion Gathering, Orchidelirium, Orchidoideae, Orchis, Orchis mascula, Order (biology), Ovary, Ovary (botany), Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, Panama, Paphiopedilum, Papilionanthe, Paraphalaenopsis, Parasitic plant, Parasitism, Patagonia, Peach, Pedicel (botany), Perennial plant, Perfume, Perfumer, Peristeria (plant), Peristeria elata, Petal, Phaius, Phalaenopsis, Pheromone, Pholidota (plant), Photosynthesis, Phragmipedium, Phyllotaxis, Phylogenetic tree, Phylogenetics, Phylogenomics, Pineapple, Placenta, Plant cuticle, Plant morphology, Plant stem, Plastid, Platanthera, Pleione (plant), Pleurothallis, Poke bonnet, Pollen, Pollination, Pollinator, Pollinium, Pomatocalpa, Promenaea, Prosthechea cochleata, Pseudobulb, Pterostylis, Réunion, Renanthera, Resampling (statistics), Research, Restrepia, Restrepiella, Resupination, Rhizanthella slateri, Rhizome, Rhyncholaelia digbyana, Rhynchostylis, Rostellum, Royal Horticultural Society, Saccolabium, Salep, Saprotrophic nutrition, Sarcochilus, Satyrium (plant), Seed, Selenipedium, Self-pollination, Sepal, Serapias, Seta, Shaoxing, Shrub, Silicon dioxide, Singapore, Sirikit, Sobralia, Species, Spermatophyte, Spiranthes, Spur (botany), Stamen, Staminode, Stanhopea, Stelis, Stipe (botany), Stipule, Subfamily, Subtropics, Sympodial, Synapomorphy and apomorphy, Synsepal, Taeniophyllum, Taxon, Taxonomic rank, Taxonomy (biology), Teleost, Temperate climate, Tepal, Test tube, Testicle, The Orchid Thief, Theophrastus, Thrixspermum, Tolumnia, Tomato, Topology, Traditional medicine, Tree, Trias (plant), Trichocentrum, Trichoglottis, Tropics, Tuber, Turkish cuisine, Type (biology), Vanda, Vanda 'Miss Joaquim', Vanilla (genus), Vanilla planifolia, Vanilloideae, Vascular bundle, Velamen, Viscin, Yoania, Zeuxine, Zingerone, Zygopetalum, 54th parallel south. 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Aa is a genus of plants belonging to the family Orchidaceae.
Abdominea minimiflora, or the tiny-flowered abdominea, is a very rare monopodial epiphytic orchid species and the only species of the monospecific genus Abdominea.
Acampe, abbreviated as Acp in horticultural trade, is a genus of monopodial, epiphytic vandaceous species of orchids, distributed from tropical Asia from India, eastwards to China and southwards to Malaysia, and the Philippines as well as from tropical Africa, Madagascar and islands of the Indian Ocean.
Acanthophippium is a genus of orchid with twelve species (family Orchidaceae).
Acianthus, commonly known as mosquito orchids, is a genus of about 25 species of plants in the orchid family, Orchidaceae.
Acineta, abbreviated as Acn in horticultural trade, is a small genus belonging to the orchid family (Orchidaceae).
Acrorchis is a monotypic genus from the orchid family (Orchidaceae), subfamily Epidendroideae, tribe Epidendreae, subtribe Laeliinae.
Ada, abbreviated as Ada in horticultural trade, is a genus of 16 species in the orchid family (Orchidaceae), subfamily Epidendroideae, tribe Cymbidieae, subtribe Oncidiinae, alliance Oncidium.
Adaptation. is a 2002 American comedy-drama metafilm directed by Spike Jonze and written by Charlie Kaufman.
Adnation in Angiosperms is the fusion of two or more whorls of a flower, e.g. stamens to petals".
Aerangis, abbreviated as Aergs in horticultural trade, is a genus of the Orchid family (Orchidaceae).
Aeranthes, abbreviated Aerth in the horticultural trade, is an orchid genus with 47 species, mostly from shady, tropical humid forests in Zimbabwe, Madagascar and islands in the Western Indian Ocean.
Aerial roots are roots above the ground.
Aerides, known commonly as cat's-tail orchids and fox brush orchids, is a genus belonging to the orchid family (Orchidaceae, subfamily Epidendroideae, tribe Vandeae, subtribe Aeridinae).
Aganisia is a small South American genus in the orchid family (Orchidaceae), subfamily Epidendroideae.
Agar (pronounced, sometimes) or agar-agar is a jelly-like substance, obtained from algae.
Agrostophyllum is a genus with about ninety species from the orchid family (Orchidaceae).
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
"Allogamy" (cross-fertilization) is a term used in the field of biological reproduction describing the fertilization of an ovum from one individual with the spermatozoa of another.
Amber is fossilized tree resin, which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times.
The American Orchid Society (AOS) is a horticultural society for education, conservation, and research of orchids.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Anacamptis is a genus from the orchid family (Orchidaceae); it is often abbreviated as Ant in horticulture.
Anacamptis pyramidalis, the pyramidal orchid, is a perennial herbaceous plant belonging to the genus Anacamptis of the family Orchidaceae.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Ancistrochilus is a genus of the orchid family (Orchidaceae), comprising only 2 species.
The genus Angraecum, abbreviated as Angcm in horticultural trade, common name Angrek (Indonesian and Malay) or Comet Orchid, contains about 220 species.
Anguloa, commonly known as tulip orchids, is a small orchid genus closely related to Lycaste.
Ansellia is considered a monotypic genus of orchid, with only one species, Ansellia africana, commonly known as African ansellia or leopard orchid, however, it is in fact a complex group of species which share common floral structure and growth habit.
Ants are eusocial insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera.
Antoine Laurent de Jussieu (12 April 1748 – 17 September 1836) was a French botanist, notable as the first to publish a natural classification of flowering plants; much of his system remains in use today.
The APG III system of flowering plant classification is the third version of a modern, mostly molecular-based, system of plant taxonomy being developed by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG).
The APG system (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group system) of plant classification is the first version of a modern, mostly molecular-based, system of plant taxonomy.
Aphyllorchis, commonly pauper orchids, is a genus of 30 species of terrestrial leafless orchid native to a region extending from India east to China and Japan, south to Indonesia, New Guinea and Queensland.
Aplectrum hyemale is a species of orchids in the family Orchidaceae native to the eastern United States and Canada, from Oklahoma east to the Carolinas and north to Minnesota, Ontario, Quebec and Massachusetts.
Apostasia is a genus of primitive orchids (family Orchidaceae), comprising 8 terrestrial species.
In plant systematics Apostasioideae is one of the five subfamilies recognised within the orchid family, Orchidaceae.
The Ara Pacis Augustae (Latin, "Altar of Augustan Peace"; commonly shortened to Ara Pacis) is an altar in Rome dedicated to Pax, the Roman goddess of Peace.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The genus Arachnis, abbreviated as Arach in horticultural trade, (scorpion orchid) is a member of the Orchid family (Orchidaceae), consisting of more than 20 species native to China, India, Southeast Asia, Indonesia, the Philippines, New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands.
Archaeology is a bimonthly magazine for the general public, published by the Archaeological Institute of America.
The Arctic Circle is the most northerly of the five major circles of latitude as shown on maps of Earth.
Armillaria, is a genus of parasitic fungi that includes the A. mellea species known as honey fungi that live on trees and woody shrubs.
Armodorum is a genus of flowering plants from the orchid family, Orchidaceae, native to Southeast Asia.
Aromatherapy uses plant materials and aromatic plant oils, including essential oils, and other aroma compounds for improving psychological or physical well-being.
× Ascocenda, abbreviated as Ascda in the horticultural trade, is a man-made hybrid orchid genus resulting from a cross between Ascocentrum and Vanda (Asctm × V).
Ascoglossum, abbreviated as Ascgm in horticultural trade, is a monotypic genus of epiphytic orchids in family Orchidaceae.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Asparagales (asparagoid lilies) is an order of plants in modern classification systems such as the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) and the Angiosperm Phylogeny Web.
Asteraceae or Compositae (commonly referred to as the aster, daisy, composite,Great Basin Wildflowers, Laird R. Blackwell, 2006, p. 275 or sunflower family) is a very large and widespread family of flowering plants (Angiospermae).
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Australian Geographic is a media business that produces the Australian Geographic magazine, DMag magazine, specialist book titles, travel guides, diaries and calendars and online media.
Auxopus is a genus of the family Orchidaceae.
Bactrocera is a large genus of tephritid fruit flies, with more than 500 species currently described.
Baking is a method of cooking food that uses prolonged dry heat, normally in an oven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones.
The Baltic region is home to the largest known deposit of amber, called Baltic amber or succinite.
A banana is an edible fruit – botanically a berry – produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus Musa.
Bandicoot are a group of about 20 species of small to medium-sized, terrestrial marsupial omnivore in the order Peramelemorphia.
Barkeria, abbreviated Bark in horticultural trade, is a genus of orchids.
Bartholina is an orchid genus native to South Africa and Namibia.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
Basidiomycota is one of two large divisions that, together with the Ascomycota, constitute the subkingdom Dikarya (often referred to as the "higher fungi") within the kingdom Fungi.
Belize, formerly British Honduras, is an independent Commonwealth realm on the eastern coast of Central America.
Beloglottis is a genus of the family Orchidaceae.
Biermannia is a genus of flowering plants from the orchid family, Orchidaceae.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
Bletilla, common name urn orchid, is a temperate, terrestrial genus of orchids containing five currently recognized species distributed through China, Japan, Taiwan, south to Vietnam, Thailand and Myanmar.
Brassavola is a genus of 21 orchids (family Orchidaceae).
Brassia is a genus of orchids classified in the Oncidiinae subtribe.
Bulbophyllum is the largest genus in the orchid family Orchidaceae.
Bulbophyllum nocturnum is a species of epiphytic orchid that grows in New Britain.
Calanthe – commonly abbreviated Cal. in horticulture – is a widespread genus of terrestrial orchids (family Orchidaceae) with some 200 species.
Calypso is a genus of orchids containing one species, Calypso bulbosa, known as the calypso orchid, fairy slipper or Venus's slipper.
In botany a capsule is a type of simple, dry, though rarely fleshy dehiscent fruit produced by many species of angiosperms (flowering plants).
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
Catasetum, abbreviated as Ctsm in horticultural trade, is a genus of showy epiphytic Orchids, family Orchidaceae, subfamily Epidendroideae, tribe Cymbidieae, subtribe Catasetinae, with 166 species, many of which are highly prized in horticulture.
Cattleya is a genus of orchids from Costa Rica south to Argentina.
Cattleya mossiae (literally "Moss' Cattley's"), commonly known as easter orchid, is a species of labiate Cattleya orchid.
Cattleya trianae (Lind. & Rchb. fil), also known as Flor de Mayo ("May flower") or "Christmas orchid", is a plant belonging to the Orchidaceae family.
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
Chlorophyll (also chlorophyl) is any of several related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants.
Cirrhopetalum, abbreviated as Cirr in hortcultural trade, is a genus of epiphyte orchids (family Orchidaceae, subfamily Epidendroideae).
A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".
A cladogram (from Greek clados "branch" and gramma "character") is a diagram used in cladistics to show relations among organisms.
Cleisostoma is a genus of orchids with approximately 90 accepted species widely distributed through much of the Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, China, New Guinea, and some of the islands of the Western Pacific.
Clowesia is a genus of the Orchidaceae family.
Coconut water is the clear liquid inside coconuts (which are fruits of the coconut palm).
Coelogyne is a genus of over 200 sympodial epiphytes from the family Orchidaceae, distributed across India, China, Indonesia and the Fiji islands, with the main centers in Borneo, Sumatra and the Himalayas.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
The column, or technically the gynostemium, is a reproductive structure that can be found in several plant families: Aristolochiaceae, Orchidaceae, and Stylidiaceae.
In biology, a common name of a taxon or organism (also known as a vernacular name, English name, colloquial name, trivial name, trivial epithet, country name, popular name, or farmer's name) is a name that is based on the normal language of everyday life; this kind of name is often contrasted with the scientific name for the same organism, which is Latinized.
Conservation Biology is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal of the Society for Conservation Biology, published by Wiley-Blackwell and established in May 1987.
Corallorhiza, the coralroot, is a genus of flowering plants in the orchid family.
A corm, bulbo-tuber, or bulbotuber is a short, vertical, swollen underground plant stem that serves as a storage organ used by some plants to survive winter or other adverse conditions such as summer drought and heat (perennation).
Coryanthes, commonly known as bucket orchids, is a genus of tropical epiphytic orchids.
In biogeography, a taxon is said to have a cosmopolitan distribution if its range extends across all or most of the world in appropriate habitats.
Costa Rica ("Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.
Cranichideae is an orchid tribe in the subfamily Orchidoideae.
The term cultivarCultivar has two denominations as explained in Formal definition.
Cycnoches, abbreviated as Cyc. in the horticultural trade, is a genus of 34 currently accepted species of orchids native to South America, Central America and southern Mexico.
Cymbidium, or boat orchid, is a genus of 52 evergreen species in the orchid family Orchidaceae.
Lady's slipper orchids (also known as lady slipper orchids or slipper orchids) are orchids in the subfamily Cypripedioideae, which comprises the genera Cypripedium, Mexipedium, Paphiopedilum, Phragmipedium and Selenipedium.
Cypripedium is a genus of 58 species and nothospecies of hardy orchids; it is one of five genera that together compose the subfamily of lady's slipper orchids (Cypripedioideae).
Cyrtopodium, often abbreviated Cyrt in horticulture, is a genus of more than 40 species of epiphytic and terrestrial orchids found from Florida and Mexico through Argentina.
Dactylorhiza, commonly called marsh orchid or spotted orchid, is a genus of flowering plants in the orchid family (Orchidaceae).
Dactylorhiza fuchsii, the common spotted orchid, is a species of flowering plant in the orchid family Orchidaceae.
Dehiscence is the splitting along a built-in line of weakness in a plant structure in order to release its contents, and is common among fruits, anthers and sporangia.
Dendrobium is a huge genus of orchids.
Dendrophylax lindenii, the ghost orchid (a common name also used for Epipogium aphyllum) is a perennial epiphyte from the orchid family (Orchidaceae).
Disa is a genus of flowering plants in the family Orchidaceae.
This page lists orchid species according to their respective distribution range.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Dondurma (in Turkish: Maraş dondurması, meaning "the ice cream of the city of Maraş", also called Dövme dondurma, meaning "battered ice cream") is a Turkish mastic ice cream.
The Double Third Festival or Shangsi Festival is an East Asian festival.
The orchid genus Dracula, abbreviated as Drac in horticultural trade, consists of 118 species native to Mexico, Central America, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru.
Arethusa bulbosa, commonly called dragon's mouth orchid, is the only species in the orchid genus Arethusa.
An ectomycorrhiza (from Greek ἐκτός ektos, "outside", μύκης mykes, "fungus", and ῥίζα rhiza, "root"; pl. ectomycorrhizas or ectomycorrhizae, abbreviated EcM) is a form of symbiotic relationship that occurs between a fungal symbiont and the roots of various plant species.
Encyclia is a genus of orchids.
The endosperm is the tissue produced inside the seeds of most of the flowering plants following fertilization.
The Eocene Epoch, lasting from, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era.
In plant systematics Epidendroideae is a subfamily of the orchid family, Orchidaceae.
Epidendrum, abbreviated Epi in the horticultural trade, is a large neotropical genus of the orchid family.
Epidendrum secundum, one of the crucifix orchids, is a poorly understood reed stemmed species, which Dressler (1989) describes as "the Epidendrum secundum complex." According to Dressler, there are dozens of varieties, some of which appear to deserve species rank.
The word'epidermis' is a single layer of cells that covers the leaves, flowers, roots and stems of plants.
Epipactis, or Helleborine, is a genus of terrestrial orchids consisting of approximately 70 species.
An epiphyte is an organism that grows on the surface of a plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, water (in marine environments) or from debris accumulating around it.
Eria is a large genus of orchids with more than 500 species distributed in China, the Himalayas, the Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, Polynesia, Melanesia and Micronesia.
Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) was a German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor, marine biologist, and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coined many terms in biology, including anthropogeny, ecology, phylum, phylogeny, and Protista. Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the influential but no longer widely held recapitulation theory ("ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny") claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarises its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny.
Euglossa imperialis is a bee species in the family Apidae.
The tribe Euglossini, in the subfamily Apinae, commonly known as orchid bees or Euglossine bees, are the only group of corbiculate bees whose non-parasitic members do not all possess eusocial behavior.
Eulaema meriana is a large-bodied bee species in the tribe Euglossini, otherwise known as the orchid bees.
Eulophia is a genus of approximately 165 species of orchids.
In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.
Fertilisation of Orchids is a book by English naturalist Charles Darwin published on 15 May 1862 under the full explanatory title On the various contrivances by which British and foreign orchids are fertilised by insects, and on the good effects of intercrossing.
Floral symmetry describes whether, and how, a flower, in particular its perianth, can be divided into two or more identical or mirror-image parts.
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms).
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Galearis is a genus of the orchid family (Orchidaceae) native to North America and eastern Asia.
Gas chromatography (GC) is a common type of chromatography used in analytical chemistry for separating and analyzing compounds that can be vaporized without decomposition.
Gastrodia is a genus of achlorophyllous orchids with 64 currently accepted species.
Gastrodia elata is a saprophytic perennial herb in the Orchidaceae family.
Gastrodia sesamoides is a saprophyte in the orchid family.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
George O. Poinar Jr. (born April 25, 1936) is an American entomologist and writer.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
Gongora, abbreviated Gga in horticultural trade, is a member of the Orchid family (Orchidaceae).
Goodyera is a wide-ranging genus of orchids, one of approximately 900 described genera in the large and diverse flowering plant family Orchidaceae.
Goodyerinae is an orchid subtribe in the tribe Cranichideae.
Grammatophyllum, abbreviated in horticultural trade as Gram, is a genus of 13 currently known orchid species.
Grammatophyllum speciosum, also called giant orchid, tiger orchid, sugar cane orchid or queen of the orchids, is a species of orchid native to Indonesia.
Guarianthe skinneri is a species of orchid.
Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.
Gymnadenia is a genus in the orchid family (Orchidaceae) containing 22 terrestrial species.
Gymnadenia conopsea, commonly known as the fragrant orchid or marsh fragrant orchid, is a herbaceous plant belonging to the family Orchidaceae native to northern Europe.
Gynoecium (from Ancient Greek γυνή, gyne, meaning woman, and οἶκος, oikos, meaning house) is most commonly used as a collective term for the parts of a flower that produce ovules and ultimately develop into the fruit and seeds.
Habenaria, commonly called bog orchids, are a far ranging genus of orchids in the tribe Orchideae.
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
Headspace technology is a technique developed in the 1980s to elucidate the odor compounds present in the air surrounding various objects.
In general use, herbs are plants with savory or aromatic properties that are used for flavoring and garnishing food, in medicine, or as fragrances.
Herbalism (also herbal medicine or phytotherapy) is the study of botany and use of plants intended for medicinal purposes or for supplementing a diet.
A heterotroph (Ancient Greek ἕτερος héteros.
Holcoglossum amesianum is an orchid species in the genus Holcoglossum.
Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras (República de Honduras), is a republic in Central America.
Horticulture is the science and art of growing plants (fruits, vegetables, flowers, and any other cultivar).
In biology, a hybrid, or crossbreed, is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction.
An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches.
Ionopsis (violet orchid) is a genus of flowering plants from the orchid family, Orchidaceae.
The G.I.R.O.S. Italian Group for Research on Hardy Orchids (Gruppo Italiano per la Ricerca sulle Orchidee Spontanee), is an Italian naturalistic association of social promotion (non-profit) founded in 1994 by Italian naturalist Paolo Liverani, who died in 2005, and other naturalists of Tuscany and Emilia Romagna.
John Lindley FRS (5 February 1799 – 1 November 1865) was an English botanist, gardener and orchidologist.
Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (5 June 1656 – 28 December 1708) was a French botanist, notable as the first to make a clear definition of the concept of genus for plants.
In horticulture, a keiki is a plant produced asexually by an orchid plant, especially Dendrobium, Epidendrum (sensu lato), and Phalaenopsis orchids.
In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.
The Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park is a protected national park that is located in New South Wales, Australia.
Kunstformen der Natur (known in English as Art Forms in Nature) is a book of lithographic and halftone prints by German biologist Ernst Haeckel.
In botany, the labellum (or lip) is the part of the flower of an orchid or Canna, or other less-known genera that serves to attract insects, which pollinate the flower, and acts as a landing platform for them.
Laelia is a small genus of 25 species in the orchid family (Orchidaceae).
The Lantingji Xu or Lanting Xu, is a piece of Chinese calligraphy work generally considered to be written by the well-known calligrapher Wang Xizhi (303? – 361?) from the East Jin Dynasty (317 – 420).
The Late Cretaceous (100.5–66 Ma) is the younger of two epochs into which the Cretaceous period is divided in the geologic timescale.
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.
Lepanthes (from Greek "scaled-flower") is a large genus of orchids with about 800–1000 species, distributed in the Antilles and from Mexico through Bolivia (with very few species in Brazil).
Lignin is a class of complex organic polymers that form important structural materials in the support tissues of vascular plants and some algae. Lignins are particularly important in the formation of cell walls, especially in wood and bark, because they lend rigidity and do not rot easily. Chemically, lignins are cross-linked phenolic polymers.
Liparis is a genus of orchids, commonly known as widelip orchid or false twayblade.
There are about 141 genera of orchids representing about 1,100 species of orchids 900 of which that is described are endemic to the Philippines.
Among the many wildflowers in Western Australia, there are around four hundred species of orchids.
Lithophytes are plants that grow in or on rocks.
Ludisia is a genus of orchids that contains just one species, Ludisia discolor, commonly referred to as jewel orchid.
Lycaste, abbreviated as Lyc in horticultural trade, is a genus of orchids that contains about 30 species with egg-shaped pseudobulbs and thin, plicate (pleated) leaves.
Lycaste skinneri, also known as Lycaste virginalis, is a species of epiphyte orchid that resides in the south of Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras, at an average altitude of 1650 meters above sea level.
Macodes is one of a few genera of the orchid family known as jewel orchids.
Macquarie Island, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, lies in the southwest Pacific Ocean, about halfway between New Zealand and Antarctica, at 54° 30' S, 158° 57' E.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Mark Wayne Chase (born 1951) is a US-born British botanist.
Masdevallia, abbreviated Masd in horticultural trade, is a large genus of flowering plants of the Pleurothallidinae, a subtribe of the orchid family (Orchidaceae).
Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.
Maxillaria, abbreviated as Max in the horticultural trade, is a large genus of orchids (family Orchidaceae).
Meliorchis caribea is an extinct, early to middle Miocene orchid known only from a packet of pollen attached to the wing of a stingless bee, Proplebeia dominicana, trapped in Dominican amber.
Methyl eugenol (allylveratrol) is a phenylpropene, a type of phenylpropanoid compound, the methyl ether of eugenol.
Mexipedium is a monotypic genus of the Orchid family Orchidaceae, subfamily Cypripedioideae, consisting of only one species, Mexipedium xerophyticum.
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
Miltonia, abbreviated Milt. in the horticultural trade, is an orchid genus comprising nine epiphyte species and eight natural hybrids inhabitants of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, one species reaching the northeast of Argentina and east of Paraguay.
In evolutionary biology, mimicry is a similarity of one organism, usually an animal, to another that has evolved because the resemblance is selectively favoured by the behaviour of a shared signal receiver that can respond to both.
The Miocene is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about (Ma).
The molecular clock is a technique that uses the mutation rate of biomolecules to deduce the time in prehistory when two or more life forms diverged.
Molecular phylogenetics is the branch of phylogeny that analyzes genetic, hereditary molecular differences, predominately in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships.
In botanical terms, monandrous simply means to have a single stamen.
Monocotyledons, commonly referred to as monocots, (Lilianae sensu Chase & Reveal) are flowering plants (angiosperms) whose seeds typically contain only one embryonic leaf, or cotyledon.
Vascular plants with monopodial growth habits grow upward from a single point.
Mormodes, abbreviated as Morm. in the horticultural trade, is a genus of approximately 70-80 species of terrestrial and epiphytic orchids native to Mexico, Central America and South America.
Moyobamba or Muyupampa (Quechua muyu circle, pampa large plain, "circle plain") is the capital city of the San Martín Region in northern Peru.
Myco-heterotrophy (from Greek μύκης mykes, "fungus", ἕτερος heteros, "another", "different" and τροφή trophe, "nutrition") is a symbiotic relationship between certain kinds of plants and fungi, in which the plant gets all or part of its food from parasitism upon fungi rather than from photosynthesis.
A mycorrhiza (from Greek μύκης mýkēs, "fungus", and ῥίζα rhiza, "root"; pl. mycorrhizae, mycorrhiza or mycorrhizas) is a symbiotic association between a fungus and the roots of a vascular host plant.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Nectar is a sugar-rich liquid produced by plants in glands called nectaries, either within the flowers with which it attracts pollinating animals, or by extrafloral nectaries, which provide a nutrient source to animal mutualists, which in turn provide antiherbivore protection.
Nematoceras is a genus of orchids (family Orchidaceae), sometimes known as spider orchids, helmet orchids or spidery helmet-orchids, found mainly in New Zealand and its subantarctic islands, with two species on Australia’s Macquarie Island.
Neottia is a genus of orchids.
Nero Wolfe is a fictional character, a brilliant, oversized, eccentric armchair detective created in 1934 by American mystery writer Rex Stout.
Neuwiedia is a genus of primitive terrestrial orchids (family Orchidaceae), comprising 9 species native to China, Southeast Asia and certain Pacific Islands.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
Odontoglossum, first named in 1816 by Karl Sigismund Kunth, is a genus of about 100 orchids.
An odor, odour or fragrance is always caused by one or more volatilized chemical compounds.
Oeceoclades, collectively known as the monk orchids, is a genus of flowering plants from the orchid family, Orchidaceae.
Oncidium, abbreviated as Onc. in the horticultural trade, is a genus that contains about 330 species of orchids from the subtribe Oncidiinae of the orchid family (Orchidaceae).
The genus Ophrys is a large group of orchids from the alliance Orchis in the subtribe Orchidinae.
Ophrys apifera, known in Europe as the bee orchid, is a perennial herbaceous plant belonging to the family Orchidaceae.
The Orchid Conservation Coalition (OCC) is a grassroots organization made up of people, orchid societies, and orchid businesses dedicated to raising awareness and money for orchid conservation.
Orchid mycorrhizae are symbiotic relationships between the roots of plants of the family Orchidaceae and a variety of fungi.
The Orchid Pavilion Gathering of 353 CE, also known as the Lanting Gathering, was a cultural and poetic event during the Six Dynasties era, in China.
Orchidelirium is the name given to the Victorian era of flower madness when collecting and discovering orchids reached extraordinarily high levels.
The Orchidoideae, or the orchidoid orchids, are a subfamily of the orchid family (Orchidaceae).
Orchis is a genus in the orchid family (Orchidaceae), occurring mainly in Europe and Northwest Africa, and ranging as far as Tibet, Mongolia, and Xinjiang.
Orchis mascula, the early-purple orchid, is a species of flowering plant in the orchid family, Orchidaceae.
In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.
The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.
In the flowering plants, an ovary is a part of the female reproductive organ of the flower or gynoecium.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.
Paphiopedilum, often called the Venus slipper, is a genus of the lady slipper orchid subfamily Cypripedioideae of the flowering plant family Orchidaceae.
Papilionanthe is a genus of flowering plants from the orchid family, Orchidaceae.
The genus Paraphalaenopsis, abbreviated as Prphln in horticultural trade, is a member of the orchid family (Orchidaceae), consisting of 4 species endemic to Borneo and one natural (unconfirmed) hybrid, Paraphalaenopsis × thorntonii (P. denevei × P. serpentilingua).
A parasitic plant is a plant that derives some or all of its nutritional requirement from another living plant.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
Patagonia is a sparsely populated region located at the southern end of South America, shared by Argentina and Chile.
The peach (Prunus persica) is a deciduous tree native to the region of Northwest China between the Tarim Basin and the north slopes of the Kunlun Mountains, where it was first domesticated and cultivated.
A pedicel is a stem that attaches a single flower to the inflorescence.
A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant that lives more than two years.
Perfume (parfum) is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds, fixatives and solvents, used to give the human body, animals, food, objects, and living-spaces an agreeable scent.
A perfumer is a term used for an expert on creating perfume compositions, sometimes referred to affectionately as a Nose (French: le nez) due to their fine sense of smell and skill in producing olfactory compositions.
Peristeria is a genus of plants belonging to the family Orchidaceae commonly called dove orchid or Holy Ghost orchid.
Peristeria elata is a species of orchid occurring from Central America to Ecuador and Venezuela.
Petals are modified leaves that surround the reproductive parts of flowers.
Phaius is a genus of large, mostly terrestrial orchids (family Orchidaceae).
Phalaenopsis Blume (1825), known as moth orchids, abbreviated Phal in the horticultural trade, is an orchid genus of approximately 60 species.
A pheromone (from Ancient Greek φέρω phero "to bear" and hormone, from Ancient Greek ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species.
The genus Pholidota belongs to the family Orchidaceae and the subtribe Coelogyninae.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Phragmipedium is a genus of the Orchid family (Orchidaceae) (Subfamily Cypripedioideae) and the only genus comprised in the tribe Phragmipedieae and subtribe Phragmipediinae.
In botany, phyllotaxis or phyllotaxy is the arrangement of leaves on a plant stem (from Ancient Greek phýllon "leaf" and táxis "arrangement").
A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.
In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.
Phylogenomics is the intersection of the fields of evolution and genomics.
The pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical plant with an edible multiple fruit consisting of coalesced berries, also called pineapples, and the most economically significant plant in the family Bromeliaceae.
The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.
A plant cuticle is a protecting film covering the epidermis of leaves, young shoots and other aerial plant organs without periderm.
Plant morphology or phytomorphology is the study of the physical form and external structure of plants.
A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant, the other being the root.
The plastid (Greek: πλαστός; plastós: formed, molded – plural plastids) is a double-membrane organelle found in the cells of plants, algae, and some other eukaryotic organisms.
The genus Platanthera belongs to the subfamily Orchidoideae of the family Orchidaceae, and comprises about 100 species of orchids.
Pleione (peacock orchid) is a small genus of predominantly terrestrial but sometimes epiphytic or lithophytic, miniature orchids.
Pleurothallis, abbreviated Pths in horticultural trade, is a genus of orchids commonly named bonnet orchids.
A poke bonnet (sometimes also referred to as a Neapolitan bonnet) is a women's bonnet, featuring a small crown and wide and rounded front brim.
Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells).
Pollination is the transfer of pollen from a male part of a plant to a female part of a plant, enabling later fertilisation and the production of seeds, most often by an animal or by wind.
A pollinator is an animal that moves pollen from the male anther of a flower to the female stigma of a flower.
A pollinium (plural pollinia) is a coherent mass of pollen grains in a plant that are the product of only one anther, but are transferred, during pollination, as a single unit.
Pomatocalpa is a genus of flowering plants from the orchid family, Orchidaceae.
Promenaea is a genus of flowering plants from the orchid family, Orchidaceae.
Prosthechea cochleata, formerly known as Encyclia cochleata, Anacheilium cochleatum, and Epidendrum cochleatum and commonly referred to as the clamshell orchid or cockleshell orchid, is an epiphytic, sympodial New World orchid native to Central America, the West Indies, Colombia, Venezuela, and southern Florida.
The pseudobulb is a storage organ found in many epiphytic and terrestrial sympodial orchids.
Pterostylis is a genus of about 300 species of plants in the orchid family, Orchidaceae.
Réunion (La Réunion,; previously Île Bourbon) is an island and region of France in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar and southwest of Mauritius.
Renanthera, abbreviated as Ren in horticultural trade, is a genus of large scrambling monopodial epiphytic and terrestrial species of orchid found in China, the Himalayas, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, and Melanesia.
In statistics, resampling is any of a variety of methods for doing one of the following.
Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.
Restrepia, abbreviated Rstp in horticultural trade, is a small genus of 49 orchids in the orchid family (Orchidaceae), closely related to Pleurothallis.
Restrepiella is a genus of orchid native to Mexico, Colombia, Florida and Central America. Restrepiella is morphologically similar to Restrepia, but differs in lacking hairlike attachments on a mobile lip and having four pollinia instead of two.
Resupination is derived from the Latin word resupinus, meaning "bent back with the face upward" or "on the back".
Rhizanthella slateri, or the eastern underground orchid, is a terrestrial saprophytic orchid with a fleshy underground stem 15 cm long and 15 mm diameter.
In botany and dendrology, a rhizome (from script "mass of roots", from rhizóō "cause to strike root") is a modified subterranean stem of a plant that sends out roots and shoots from its nodes.
Rhyncholaelia digbyana is a species of orchid occurring from Mexico to Belize, Guatemala, Honduras and Costa Rica.
Rhynchostylis (abbreviated Rhy in the horticultural trade) is a genus in the orchid family (Orchidaceae), closely allied to the genus Vanda (from which it differs in the one-lobed lip of the flower) and comprising four currently accepted species native to the Indian Subcontinent, China, Indochina, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines.
The rostellum is a projecting part of the column in Orchidaceae flowers, and separates the male androecium from the female gynoecium, commonly preventing self-fertilisation.
The Royal Horticultural Society (RHS), founded in 1804 as the Horticultural Society of London, is the UK's leading gardening charity.
Saccolabium is a genus of flowering plants from the orchid family, Orchidaceae.
Salep(salep, sahlep; ثعلب, sa'alab; سحلب, saḥlab; salep; səhləb; סַחְלֶבּּ, saḥlab; σαλέπι, salepi; Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian and Bosnian: салеп, salep) is a flour made from the tubers of the orchid genus Orchis (including species Orchis mascula and Orchis militaris).
Saprotrophic nutrition or lysotrophic nutrition is a process of chemoheterotrophic extracellular digestion involved in the processing of decayed (dead or waste) organic matter.
Sarcochilus, commonly known as butterfly orchids or fairy bells is a genus of about twenty five species of flowering plants in the orchid family, Orchidaceae and which are found in Australia and New Caledonia.
Satyrium is a genus of orchids.
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.
Selenipedium is a genus of the Orchid family (Orchidaceae) (Subfamily Cypripedioideae).
Self-pollination is when pollen from the same plant arrives at the stigma of a flower (in flowering plants) or at the ovule (in gymnosperms).
A sepal is a part of the flower of angiosperms (flowering plants).
Serapias is a genus of terrestrial orchids that can be found all over southern Europe to Asia Minor.
In biology, setae (singular seta; from the Latin word for "bristle") are any of a number of different bristle- or hair-like structures on living organisms.
Shaoxing is a prefecture-level city on the southern shore of Hangzhou Bay in eastern Zhejiang province, China.
A shrub or bush is a small to medium-sized woody plant.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
Sirikit (สิริกิติ์;;; born Mom Rajawongse Sirikit Kitiyakara (สิริกิติ์ กิติยากร) on 12 August 1932) is the queen mother of Thailand.
Sobralia is a genus of orchids native to Mexico, Central and South America.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
The spermatophytes, also known as phanerogams or phenogamae, comprise those plants that produce seeds, hence the alternative name seed plants.
Spiranthes is a genus of orchids in the subfamily Orchidoideae.
The botanical term “spur” is given to outgrowths of tissue on different plant organs.
The stamen (plural stamina or stamens) is the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower.
In botany, a staminode is an often rudimentary, sterile or abortive stamen, which means that it does not produce pollen.
Stanhopea is a genus of the orchid family (Orchidaceae) from Central and South America.
Leach orchids (genus Stelis) is a large group of orchids, with perhaps 500 species.
In botany, a stipe is a stalk that supports some other structure.
In botany, stipule (Latin stipula: straw, stalk) is a term coined by LinnaeusConcise English Dictionary Wordsworth Editions Ltd.
In biological classification, a subfamily (Latin: subfamilia, plural subfamiliae) is an auxiliary (intermediate) taxonomic rank, next below family but more inclusive than genus.
The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.
In botany, sympodial growth is a specialized lateral growth pattern in which the apical meristem is terminated and growth is continued by one or more lateral meristems, which repeat the process.
In phylogenetics, apomorphy and synapomorphy refer to derived characters of a clade – characters or traits that are derived from ancestral characters over evolutionary history.
A synsepal is a floral structure formed by the partial or complete fusion of two or more sepals.
Taeniophyllum is a genus of flowering plants from the orchid family, Orchidaceae.
In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.
In biological classification, taxonomic rank is the relative level of a group of organisms (a taxon) in a taxonomic hierarchy.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
The teleosts or Teleostei (Greek: teleios, "complete" + osteon, "bone") are by far the largest infraclass in the class Actinopterygii, the ray-finned fishes, and make up 96% of all extant species of fish.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
A tepal is one of the outer parts of a flower (collectively the perianth) when these parts cannot easily be divided into two kinds, sepals and petals.
A test tube, also known as a culture tube or sample tube, is a common piece of laboratory glassware consisting of a finger-like length of glass or clear plastic tubing, open at the top and closed at the bottom.
The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.
The Orchid Thief is a 1998 non-fiction book by American journalist Susan Orlean.
Theophrastus (Θεόφραστος Theόphrastos; c. 371 – c. 287 BC), a Greek native of Eresos in Lesbos,Gavin Hardy and Laurence Totelin, Ancient Botany, 2015, p. 8.
Thrixspermum is a genus of orchids, comprising around 150 species distributed from India to Southeast Asia and New Guinea.
Tolumnia Rafinesque, is a genus in the family Orchidaceae.
The tomato (see pronunciation) is the edible, often red, fruit/berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant.
In mathematics, topology (from the Greek τόπος, place, and λόγος, study) is concerned with the properties of space that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, crumpling and bending, but not tearing or gluing.
Traditional medicine (also known as indigenous or folk medicine) comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine.
In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species.
Trias is a genus of orchids native to the Indian Subcontinent, Indochina, Borneo and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
Trichocentrum, often abbreviated Trctm in horticulture, is a genus in the orchid family, Orchidaceae.
Trichoglottis, abbreviated Trgl in horticultural trade, is a genus of plant in family Orchidaceae.
The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.
Tubers are enlarged structures in some plant species used as storage organs for nutrients.
Turkish cuisine (Turkish: Türk mutfağı) is largely the heritage of Ottoman cuisine, which can be described as a fusion and refinement of Central Asian, Middle Eastern, Eastern European and Balkan cuisines.
In biology, a type is a particular specimen (or in some cases a group of specimens) of an organism to which the scientific name of that organism is formally attached.
Vanda is a genus in the orchid family, Orchidaceae.
Vanda 'Miss Joaquim' also known as the Singapore orchid and the Princess Aloha orchid and incorrectly as Vanda 'Miss Agnes Joaquim', is a hybrid orchid cultivar that is Singapore's national flower.
Vanilla, the vanilla orchids, forms a flowering plant genus of about 110 species in the orchid family (Orchidaceae).
Vanilla planifolia is a species of vanilla orchid.
Vanilloideae is one of the subfamilies of orchids belonging to the large family Orchidaceae.
A vascular bundle is a part of the transport system in vascular plants.
Velamen is a spongy, multiple epidermis that covers the roots of some epiphytic or semi-epiphytic plants, such as orchid and Clivia species.
Yoania is a genus of flowering plants from the orchid family, Orchidaceae.
Zeuxine is a large genus of about 80 orchids belonging to the subfamily Orchidoideae.
Zingerone, also called vanillylacetone, is thought by some to be a key component of the pungency of ginger, but imparts the "sweet" flavor of cooked ginger.
Zygopetalum is a genus of the orchid family (Orchidaceae) (subfamily Epidendroideae, tribe Maxillarieae, subtribe Zygopetalinae), consisting of fourteen currently recognized species.
The 54th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 54 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.