283 relations: Abdullah Gül, Abdullah II of Jordan, Accolade, Admiral (Royal Navy), Air chief marshal, Air marshal, Air vice-marshal, Alan West, Baron West of Spithead, Albert, Prince Consort, Aleksander Kwaśniewski, Andrew Pulford, Anthony Battishill, Anthony Wagner, Ċensu Tabone, Banner, Baronet, Bath King of Arms, Bathing, BBC, Benito Mussolini, Benjamin Bathurst (Royal Navy officer), Black Rod, Blanc Coursier Herald, Brass, Brazil, British Army, Cambridge University Heraldic and Genealogical Society, Cathedral floorplan, Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood, Chapel, Charles Guthrie, Baron Guthrie of Craigiebank, Charles II of England, Charles Vyvyan, Charles, Prince of Wales, Chris Huhne, Christopher Geidt, Baron Geidt, Clive Whitmore, Coat of arms, Colin Powell, Collar day, College of Arms, Confession (religion), Coronation, Coronation of the British monarch, Coronet, Danilo Türk, David Craig, Baron Craig of Radley, David Evans (RAF officer), David Miliband, David Normington, ..., David Omand, David Parry-Evans, David Ramsbotham, Baron Ramsbotham, David Richards, Baron Richards of Herstmonceux, Dean of Westminster, Desmond Cassidi, Douglas MacArthur, Duke, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Earl Marshal, Eddie Fenech Adami, Edward VII, Edwin Bramall, Elizabeth II, England, Enrique Peña Nieto, Ernesto Burzagli, Eyre Coote (British Army officer), Feather, Felipe Calderón, Ferdinand Foch, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, François Hollande, Garter Principal King of Arms, General (United Kingdom), General (United States), Gentleman Usher of the Scarlet Rod, George Cooper (British Army officer), George H. W. Bush, George I of Great Britain, George IV of the United Kingdom, George V, George Zambellas, Georgy Zhukov, Germany, Glenn Torpy, Great Seal of the Realm, Gulf War, Gus O'Donnell, Gustav Heinemann, Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani, Hassanal Bolkiah, Hayden Phillips, Henry IV of England, Henry VII Chapel, Herald, Heraldry, Horst Köhler, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, House of Lords, Iain Henderson (Royal Navy officer), Ibn Saud, Ireland, Jacob Zuma, Jacques Chirac, James VI and I, Jean Nunn, Jeremy Mackenzie, Joachim Gauck, Jock Slater, Jock Stirrup, John Anstis, John Chapple (British Army officer), John Chilcot, John Hall (priest), John Kerr (Royal Navy officer), John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu, John Poulson, John Waters (British Army officer, born 1935), John Wilsey, Jonathon Band, Joseph Banks, Joseph Joffre, Josip Broz Tito, Juan Manuel Santos, Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, King, Kingdom of England, Kingdom of France, Kingdom of Ireland, Kingdom of Scotland, Knight, Knight Bachelor, Latin, Latvia, Lech Wałęsa, Letters patent, Lieutenant-general (United Kingdom), List of Amirs of Qatar, List of emirs of Kuwait, List of honorary British knights and dames, List of kings of Jordan, List of Knights Companion of the Order of the Bath, List of Knights Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, List of Marshals of France, List of people who have declined a British honour, List of post-nominal letters, List of revocations of appointments to orders and awarded decorations and medals of the United Kingdom, List of rulers of Lithuania, List of rulers of Oman, List of Sultans of Brunei, Luis Echeverría, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Major general, Malta, Maltese cross, Mark Stanhope, Marshal of the Soviet Union, Mass (liturgy), Mentioned in dispatches, Michael Alcock, Michael Boyce, Baron Boyce, Michael Graydon, Michael Scholar, Michael Walker, Baron Walker of Aldringham, Middle Ages, Mike Jackson (British Army officer), Monarchy of the United Kingdom, Nick Houghton, Nick Macpherson, Nicolae Ceaușescu, Nicolas Sarkozy, Nigel Essenhigh, Nigel Wicks, Nigeria, Norman Schwarzkopf Jr., Officer of arms, Olusegun Obasanjo, Order of chivalry, Order of precedence in England and Wales, Order of St Michael and St George, Order of St Patrick, Order of the Garter, Order of the Star of India, Order of the Thistle, Orders, decorations, and medals of the United Kingdom, Park Geun-hye, Parliament of Great Britain, Patrick Hine, Peerage, Peninsular War, Peter Inge, Baron Inge, Peter Middleton (banker), Peter Robin Harding, Peter Wall (British Army officer), Post-captain, President of Brazil, President of Colombia, President of Estonia, President of France, President of Germany, President of Indonesia, President of Malta, President of Mexico, President of Poland, President of Singapore, President of Slovenia, President of South Africa, President of South Korea, President of the United Arab Emirates, President of the United States, President of Turkey, President of Zimbabwe, Pretender, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, Prince of Wales, Prince of Wales's feathers, Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester, Qaboos bin Said al Said, Queen Victoria, Rear admiral, Richard Dannatt, Richard Johns, Richard Mottram, Richard Wilson, Baron Wilson of Dinton, Robert Armstrong, Baron Armstrong of Ilminster, Robert Fellowes, Baron Fellowes, Robert Mugabe, Robert Walpole, Robin Butler, Baron Butler of Brockwell, Robin Janvrin, Baron Janvrin, Roger Wheeler (British Army officer), Ronald Reagan, Rose, Royal Air Force, Royal Household, Royal Marines, Royal sign-manual, Royal Victorian Order, Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, Satin, Sceptre, Scotland, Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, Shamrock, Sinecure, Spur, Stephen Dalton, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, Sword, Taffeta, Terence Burns, Baron Burns, Terence Heiser, Thabo Mbeki, The Daily Telegraph, The Guardian, The Times, Thistle, Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald, Thomas Woodcock (officer of arms), Tony Tan, Toomas Hendrik Ilves, Trinity, Troy weight, Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga, Valdas Adamkus, Velvet, Vice admiral (Royal Navy), Vicky Pryce, Vigil, Westminster Abbey, Whigs (British political party), William George Pottinger, William Heseltine, William IV of the United Kingdom, William Kerr Fraser, World War I, World War II, Zimbabwe. 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Abdullah Gül (born 29 October 1950) is a Turkish politician who served as the 11th President of Turkey, in office from 2007 to 2014.
Abdullah II bin Al-Hussein (عبد الله الثاني بن الحسين., ʿAbdullāh ath-thānī ibn Al-Ḥusayn, born 30 January 1962) has been King of Jordan since 1999.
The accolade (also known as dubbing or adoubement) (benedictio militis) was the central act in the rite of passage ceremonies conferring knighthood in the Middle Ages.
Admiral is a senior rank of the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom, which equates to the NATO rank code OF-9, outranked only by the rank admiral of the fleet.
Air chief marshal (Air Chf Mshl or ACM) is a four-star air officer rank which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force, where it is the most senior peacetime air force rank.
Air Marshal (Air Mshl or AM) is a three-star air-officer rank which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force.
Air vice-marshal (AVM) is a two-star air officer rank which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force.
Admiral Alan William John West, Baron West of Spithead, (born 21 April 1948) is a retired senior officer of the Royal Navy and formerly, from June 2007 to May 2010, a Labour Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State at the British Home Office with responsibility for security and a security advisor to Prime Minister Gordon Brown.
Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Francis Albert Augustus Charles Emmanuel; 26 August 1819 – 14 December 1861) was the husband and consort of Queen Victoria.
Aleksander Kwaśniewski (born 15 November 1954) is a Polish politician and journalist.
Air Chief Marshal Sir Andrew Douglas Pulford, (born 22 March 1958) is a retired senior Royal Air Force (RAF) commander.
Sir Anthony Michael William Battishill GCB (born 4 July 1937) is a former British senior civil servant.
Sir Anthony Richard Wagner (6 September 1908 – 5 May 1995) was a long-serving Officer of Arms at the College of Arms in London.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Vincent "Ċensu" Tabone (30 March 1913 – 14 March 2012) was the fourth President of Malta and a former Minister and Nationalist MP.
A banner can be a flag or other piece of cloth bearing a symbol, logo, slogan or other message.
A baronet (or; abbreviated Bart or Bt) or the rare female equivalent, a baronetess (or; abbreviation Btss), is the holder of a baronetcy, an hereditary title awarded by the British Crown.
The King of Arms of the Order of the Bath is the herald of the Order of the Bath.
Bathing is the washing of the body with a liquid, usually water or an aqueous solution, or the immersion of the body in water.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
Admiral of the Fleet Sir David Benjamin Bathurst (born 27 May 1936) is a former Royal Navy officer.
The Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod, or Lady Usher of the Black Rod, generally shortened to Black Rod, is an official in the parliaments of several Commonwealth countries.
Blanc Coursier Herald was an officer of arms in England in the 18th and 19th centuries, associated with the Order of the Bath.
Brass is a metallic alloy that is made of copper and zinc.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
The Cambridge University Heraldic and Genealogical Society was formed as the result of the merger in 1957 of a previous Heraldic Society (founded 1948) with the Cambridge University Society of Genealogists (founded 1954).
In Western ecclesiastical architecture, a cathedral diagram is a floor plan showing the sections of walls and piers, giving an idea of the profiles of their columns and ribbing.
The Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood is a small office within the Royal Household of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom responsible for the administration of orders of chivalry and some aspects of honours in general.
The term chapel usually refers to a Christian place of prayer and worship that is attached to a larger, often nonreligious institution or that is considered an extension of a primary religious institution.
Field Marshal Charles Ronald Llewelyn Guthrie, Baron Guthrie of Craigiebank, (born 17 November 1938) was Chief of the General Staff, the professional head of the British Army, from 1994 to 1997 and Chief of the Defence Staff from 1997 until his retirement in 2001.
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.
Major General Charles Gerard Courtenay Vyvyan, (born 29 September 1944) is a retired British Army officer and the current Gentleman Usher of the Scarlet Rod.
Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George; born 14 November 1948) is the heir apparent to the British throne as the eldest child of Queen Elizabeth II.
Christopher Murray Paul-Huhne (born 2 July 1954), known as Chris Huhne, is an energy and climate change consultant and formerly a British journalist and politician who was the Liberal Democrat Member of Parliament for Eastleigh from 2005 to 2013 and the Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change from 2010 to 2012.
Christopher Edward Wollaston MacKenzie Geidt, Baron Geidt, (born 17 August 1961) is a member of the House of Lords and Chairman of King's College London.
Sir Clive Anthony Whitmore GCB CVO (born 1935) is a former British senior civil servant.
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard.
Colin Luther Powell (born April 5, 1937) is an American statesman and a retired four-star general in the United States Army.
Collar days are designated days on which the collar forming part of the insignia of certain members of British orders of knighthood may be worn.
The College of Arms, sometimes referred to as the College of Heralds, is a royal corporation consisting of professional officers of arms, with jurisdiction over England, Wales, Northern Ireland and some Commonwealth realms.
Confession, in many religions, is the acknowledgment of one's sins (sinfulness) or wrongs.
A coronation is the act of placement or bestowal of a crown upon a monarch's head.
The coronation of the British monarch is a ceremony (specifically, initiation rite) in which the monarch of the United Kingdom is formally invested with regalia and crowned at Westminster Abbey.
In English, a coronet is a small crown consisting of ornaments fixed on a metal ring.
Danilo Türk (born 19 February 1952) is a Slovenian diplomat, professor of international law, human rights expert, and political figure who served as President of Slovenia from 2007 to 2012.
Marshal of the Royal Air Force David Brownrigg Craig, Baron Craig of Radley, (born 17 September 1929) is a retired Royal Air Force officer and member of the House of Lords.
Air Chief Marshal Sir David George Evans, (born 14 July 1924) is a retired senior commander of the Royal Air Force.
David Wright Miliband (born 15 July 1965) is a British Labour Party politician, charity chief executive and public policy analyst who was the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs from 2007 to 2010 and the Member of Parliament (MP) for South Shields from 2001 to 2013.
Sir David John Normington, (born 18 October 1951) is a retired British civil servant.
Sir David Bruce Omand (born 15 April 1947) is a British former senior civil servant who served as the Director of the Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) from 1996 to 1997.
Air Chief Marshal Sir David George Parry-Evans, (born 19 July 1935) is a former senior Royal Air Force commander.
General David John Ramsbotham, Baron Ramsbotham (born 6 November 1934) is a retired British Army officer, who later served as Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Prisons.
General David Julian Richards, Baron Richards of Herstmonceux, (born 4 March 1952) is a retired senior British Army officer who was formerly the Chief of the Defence Staff, the professional head of the British Armed Forces.
The Dean of Westminster is the head of the chapter at Westminster Abbey.
Admiral Sir Arthur Desmond Cassidi GCB (born 26 January 1925) was Commander-in-Chief Naval Home Command.
Douglas MacArthur (26 January 18805 April 1964) was an American five-star general and Field Marshal of the Philippine Army.
A duke (male) or duchess (female) can either be a monarch ruling over a duchy or a member of royalty or nobility, historically of highest rank below the monarch.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
Earl Marshal (alternatively Marschal, Marischal or Marshall) is a hereditary royal officeholder and chivalric title under the sovereign of the United Kingdom used in England (then, following the Act of Union 1800, in the United Kingdom).
Edoardo "Eddie" Fenech Adami (born 7 February 1934) is a Maltese politician and Nationalist politician who served as Prime Minister of Malta from 1987 until 1996, and again from 1998 until 2004.
Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910.
Field Marshal Edwin Noel Westby Bramall, Baron Bramall, (born 18 December 1923) is a retired senior British Army officer.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Enrique Peña Nieto (born 20 July 1966), commonly referred to by his initials EPN, is a Mexican politician serving as the 57th President of Mexico, since 2012.
Ernesto Burzagli (7 June 1873 – 13 September 1944) was a prominent figure in the Kingdom of Italy during the early 20th century.
Eyre Coote (20 May 1762 – 10 December 1823) was an Irish-born British soldier and politician who served as Governor of Jamaica.
Feathers are epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds and other, extinct species' of dinosaurs.
Felipe de Jesús Calderón Hinojosa, GCB, R.E. (born 18 August 1962) is a Mexican politician who served as President of Mexico from 1 December 2006, to 30 November 2012.
Marshal Ferdinand Jean Marie Foch (2 October 1851 – 20 March 1929) was a French general and military theorist who served as the Supreme Allied Commander during the First World War.
Fernando Henrique Cardoso (born June 18, 1931), also known by his initials FHC, is a Brazilian sociologist, professor and politician who served as the 34th President of Brazil from January 1, 1995 to January 1, 2003.
François Gérard Georges Nicolas Hollande (born 12 August 1954) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 2012 to 2017.
The Garter Principal King of Arms (also Garter King of Arms or simply Garter) is the senior King of Arms, and the senior Officer of Arms of the College of Arms, the heraldic authority with jurisdiction over England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
General (or full general to distinguish it from the lower general officer ranks) is the highest rank currently achievable by serving officers of the British Army.
In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and United States Air Force, general (abbreviated as GEN in the Army or Gen in the Air Force and Marine Corps) is a four-star general officer rank, with the pay grade of O-10.
The Gentleman Usher of the Scarlet Rod is the Gentleman Usher to the Most Honourable Order of the Bath, established in 1725.
General Sir George Leslie Conroy Cooper (born 10 August 1925) is a former Adjutant-General to the Forces.
George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993.
George I (George Louis; Georg Ludwig; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) in the Holy Roman Empire from 1698 until his death.
George IV (George Augustus Frederick; 12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover following the death of his father, King George III, on 29 January 1820, until his own death ten years later.
George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936.
Admiral Sir George Michael Zambellas, (born 4 April 1958) is a retired Royal Navy officer.
Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (– 18 June 1974) was a Soviet Red Army General who became Chief of General Staff, Deputy Commander-in-Chief, Minister of Defence and a member of the Politburo.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Air Chief Marshal Sir Glenn Lester Torpy, (born 27 July 1953) is a retired senior Royal Air Force commander.
The Great Seal of the Realm or Great Seal of the United Kingdom (known prior to the Treaty of Union of 1707 as the Great Seal of England; and from then until the Union of 1801 as the Great Seal of Great Britain and Ireland) is a seal that is used to symbolise the Sovereign's approval of important state documents.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
Augustine Thomas O'Donnell, Baron O'Donnell, (born 1 October 1952) is a former British senior civil servant and economist, who between 2005 and 2011 (under three Prime Ministers) served as the Cabinet Secretary, the highest official in the British Civil Service.
Gustav Walter Heinemann (23 July 1899 – 7 July 1976) was a German politician.
Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa bin Hamad bin Abdullah bin Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani (الشيخ حمد بن خليفة آل ثاني; born 1 January 1952) is a member of the ruling Al Thani Qatari royal family.
Hassanal Bolkiah, GCB GCMG (full name: Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah ibn Al-Marhum Sultan Haji Omar Ali Saifuddien Sa'adul Khairi Waddien Sultan and Yang Di-Pertuan of Brunei Darussalam; born 15 July 1946) is the 29th and current Sultan and Yang Di-Pertuan of Brunei.
Sir Gerald Hayden Phillips (born 9 February 1943)'', Who's Who 2012, A & C Black, 2012; online edn, Oxford University Press, Dec 2011.
Henry IV (15 April 1367 – 20 March 1413), also known as Henry Bolingbroke, was King of England and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413, and asserted the claim of his grandfather, Edward III, to the Kingdom of France.
The Henry VII Lady Chapel, now more often known just as the Henry VII Chapel, is a large Lady chapel at the far eastern end of Westminster Abbey, paid for by the will of Henry VII.
A herald, or a herald of arms, is an officer of arms, ranking between pursuivant and king of arms.
Heraldry is a broad term, encompassing the design, display, and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, rank, and pedigree.
Horst Köhler (born 22 February 1943) is a German politician of the Christian Democratic Union, and served as President of Germany from 2004 to 2010.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Rear Admiral Iain R. Henderson, CB, CBE, DL is a retired senior Royal Navy officer.
Abdulaziz ibn Abdul Rahman ibn Faisal ibn Turki ibn Abdullah ibn Muhammad Al Saud (عبد العزيز بن عبد الرحمن آل سعود,; 15 January 1875 – 9 November 1953), usually known within the Arab world as Abdulaziz and in the West as Ibn Saud, was the first monarch and founder of Saudi Arabia, the "third Saudi state".
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma (born 12 April 1942) is a South African politician who served as the fourth President of South Africa from the 2009 general election until his resignation on 14 February 2018.
Jacques René Chirac (born 29 November 1932) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 1995 to 2007.
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.
Jean Josephine Nunn, CB, CBE (21 July 191624 November 1982) was a senior British civil servant.
General Sir Jeremy John George Mackenzie, (born 11 February 1941) is a retired senior British Army officer who served as Deputy Supreme Allied Commander Europe from 1994 to 1998.
Joachim Wilhelm Gauck (born 24 January 1940) is a retired German civil rights activist and nonpartisan politician who served as President of Germany from 2012 to 2017.
Admiral Sir John Cunningham Kirkwood "Jock" Slater, (born 27 March 1938) is a retired Royal Navy officer.
Marshal of the Royal Air Force Graham Eric Stirrup, Baron Stirrup, (born 4 December 1949), informally known as Jock Stirrup, is a former senior Royal Air Force commander who was the Chief of the Defence Staff from 2006 until his retirement in late 2010.
John Anstis (29 August 1669 – 4 March 1744) was an English officer of arms and antiquarian.
Field Marshal Sir John Lyon Chapple, (born 27 May 1931) was a career British Army officer in the second half of the 20th century.
Sir John Anthony Chilcot, (born 22 April 1939) is a British retired civil servant.
John Robert Hall (born 13 March 1949) is an English priest of the Church of England.
Admiral Sir John Beverley Kerr (born 27 October 1937) is a retired admiral in the Royal Navy.
John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu, (1690 – 5 July 1749), styled Viscount Monthermer until 1705 and Marquess of Monthermer between 1705 and 1709, was a British peer.
John Garlick Llewellyn Poulson (14 April 1910 – 31 January 1993) was a British architect and businessman who caused a major political scandal when his use of bribery was disclosed in 1972.
General Sir Charles John Waters (born 2 September 1935) is a former Commander-in-Chief, Land Forces.
General Sir John Finlay Willasey Wilsey (born 18 February 1939) is a former Commander-in-Chief, Land Forces.
Admiral Sir Jonathon Band (born 2 February 1950) was the First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff from 2006 to 2009, the most senior serving officer in the Royal Navy.
Sir Joseph Banks, 1st Baronet, (19 June 1820) was an English naturalist, botanist and patron of the natural sciences.
Marshal Joseph Jacques Césaire Joffre (12 January 1852 – 3 January 1931), was a French general who served as Commander-in-Chief of French forces on the Western Front from the start of World War I until the end of 1916.
Josip Broz (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз,; 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito (Cyrillic: Тито), was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and political leader, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980.
Juan Manuel Santos Calderón (born 10 August 1951) is a Colombian politician and the President of Colombia, in office since 2010.
Khalifa bin Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan (خليفة بن زايد بن سلطان آل نهيان; born 7 September 1948; referred to as Sheikh Khalifa) is the President of the United Arab Emirates, the Emir of Abu Dhabi and the Supreme Commander of the Union Defence Force.
King, or King Regnant is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of France (Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe.
The Kingdom of Ireland (Classical Irish: Ríoghacht Éireann; Modern Irish: Ríocht Éireann) was a nominal state ruled by the King or Queen of England and later the King or Queen of Great Britain that existed in Ireland from 1542 until 1800.
The Kingdom of Scotland (Rìoghachd na h-Alba; Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843.
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political leader for service to the monarch or a Christian Church, especially in a military capacity.
The dignity of Knight Bachelor is the most basic and lowest rank of a man who has been knighted by the monarch but not as a member of one of the organised orders of chivalry; it is a part of the British honours system.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
Lech Wałęsa (born 29 September 1943) is a retired Polish politician and labour activist.
Letters patent (always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order issued by a monarch, president, or other head of state, generally granting an office, right, monopoly, title, or status to a person or corporation.
Lieutenant general (Lt Gen), formerly more commonly lieutenant-general, is a senior rank in the British Army and the Royal Marines.
The Amir of the State of Qatar is the monarch and head of state of Qatar.
The Emir of the State of Kuwait is the monarch and head of state of Kuwait.
This is an incomplete list of people who have been created honorary Knights or Dames by the British crown, as well as those who have been raised to the two comparable Orders of Chivalry (Order of Merit and Order of the Companions of Honour) and the Royal Victorian Chain, which do not carry pre-nominal styles.
The King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is Jordan's head of state and monarch.
This is a list of those men who were made Knights Companion of the Order of the Bath from the date of the Order's revival by King George I of Great Britain, 18 May 1725, to its reorganisation on 2 January 1815.
This is an incomplete list of those who were made Knights/Dames Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath from the date of the Order's structural change by the Prince Regent on behalf of his father, King George III, on 2 January 1815.
Marshal of France (Maréchal de France, plural Maréchaux de France) is a French military distinction, rather than a military rank, that is awarded to generals for exceptional achievements.
The following is a partial list of people who have declined a British honour, such as a knighthood or other grade of honour.
Post-nominal letters are letters placed after the name of a person to indicate that the individual holds a position, office, or honour.
List of revocations of appointments to orders and awarded decorations and medals of the United Kingdom
The following is a list of rulers over Lithuania—grand dukes, kings, and presidents—the heads of authority over historical Lithuanian territory.
The Sultan of the Sultanate of Oman is the monarch and head of state of Oman.
The Sultan of Brunei is the head of state and absolute monarch of Brunei.
Luis Echeverría Álvarez, OMRI GCB OJ (Hon.) (born 17 January 1922) is a Mexican politician affiliated with the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) who served as the 50th President of Mexico from 1970 to 1976.
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (born 27 October 1945), popularly known as Lula, is a Brazilian politician and former union leader, who served as the 35th President of Brazil from 2003 to 2011.
Major general (abbreviated MG, Maj. Gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
The Maltese cross is the cross symbol associated with the Order of St. John since 1567, with the Knights Hospitaller and the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, and by extension with the island of Malta.
Admiral Sir Mark Stanhope, (born 26 March 1952) is a retired Royal Navy officer.
Marshal of the Soviet Union (Маршал Советского Союза) was the highest military rank of the Soviet Union, below Generalissimus of the Soviet Union.
Mass is a term used to describe the main eucharistic liturgical service in many forms of Western Christianity.
A member of the armed forces mentioned in dispatches (or despatches, MiD) is one whose name appears in an official report written by a superior officer and sent to the high command, in which his or her gallant or meritorious action in the face of the enemy is described.
Air Chief Marshal Sir Robert James Michael Alcock, (born 11 July 1936), usually referred to as Sir Michael Alcock, is a retired senior Royal Air Force commander and an aerospace consultant.
Admiral of the Fleet Michael Cecil Boyce, Baron Boyce, (born 2 April 1943) is a former Royal Navy officer who now sits as a crossbench member of the House of Lords.
Air Chief Marshal Sir Michael James Graydon, (born 24 October 1938) is a retired Royal Air Force (RAF) officer.
Sir Michael Charles Scholar, KCB (born 3 January 1942) is a British civil servant and former President of St John's College, Oxford.
Field Marshal Michael John Dawson Walker, Baron Walker of Aldringham, (born 7 July 1944) is a retired British Army officer.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
General Sir Michael David Jackson,, (born 21 March 1944) is a retired British Army officer and one of its most high-profile generals since the Second World War.
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories.
General John Nicholas Reynolds Houghton, Baron Houghton of Richmond, (born 18 October 1954) is a retired senior British Army officer and former Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS) of the British Armed Forces.
Nicholas Ian Macpherson, Baron Macpherson of Earl's Court, GCB (born 1959) is a former senior British civil servant.
Nicolae Ceaușescu (26 January 1918 – 25 December 1989) was a Romanian Communist politician.
Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sarközy de Nagy-Bocsa KOGF GCB (born 28 January 1955) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 16 May 2007 until 15 May 2012.
Admiral Sir Nigel Richard Essenhigh (born 8 November 1944) is a former Royal Navy officer who served as First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff from 2001 to 2002.
Sir Nigel Leonard Wicks (born 16 June 1940) is a British financier and former senior British civil servant, currently serving as Chairman of Euroclear.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
Herbert Norman Schwarzkopf Jr. (August 22, 1934 – December 27, 2012) was a United States Army general.
An officer of arms is a person appointed by a sovereign or state with authority to perform one or more of the following functions.
Chief Olusegun Mathew Okikiola Aremu Obasanjo, GCFR, Ph.D. (Olúṣẹ́gun Ọbásanjọ́; born 5 May 1937) is a former Nigerian Army general who was President of Nigeria from 1999 to 2007.
A chivalric order, order of chivalry, order of knighthood or equestrian order is an order, confraternity or society of knights typically founded during or in inspiration of the original Catholic military orders of the Crusades (circa 1099-1291), paired with medieval concepts of ideals of chivalry.
The following is the order of precedence in England and Wales.
The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George is a British order of chivalry founded on 28 April 1818 by George, Prince Regent, later King George IV, while he was acting as regent for his father, King George III.
The Most Illustrious Order of Saint Patrick is a dormant British order of chivalry associated with Ireland.
The Order of the Garter (formally the Most Noble Order of the Garter) is an order of chivalry founded by Edward III in 1348 and regarded as the most prestigious British order of chivalry (though in precedence inferior to the military Victoria Cross and George Cross) in England and the United Kingdom.
The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India is an order of chivalry founded by Queen Victoria in 1861.
The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle is an order of chivalry associated with Scotland.
The British honours system is a means of rewarding individuals' personal bravery, achievement, or service to the United Kingdom and the British Overseas Territories.
Park Geun-hye (born 2 February 1952) is a former South Korean politician who served as the 11th President of South Korea from 2013 to 2017.
The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Acts of Union by both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland.
Air Chief Marshal Sir Patrick "Paddy" Bardon Hine, (born 14 July 1932) is a former senior Royal Air Force commander.
A peerage is a legal system historically comprising hereditary titles in various countries, comprising various noble ranks.
The Peninsular War (1807–1814) was a military conflict between Napoleon's empire (as well as the allied powers of the Spanish Empire), the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Kingdom of Portugal, for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars.
Field Marshal Peter Anthony Inge, Baron Inge, (born 5 August 1935) was the Chief of the General Staff, the professional head of the British Army, from 1992 to 1994.
Sir Peter Edward Middleton, GCB (born 23 April 1934) is a British UK Chairman, Marsh & McLennan Companies, former banker and former Chancellor of the University of Sheffield.
Marshal of the Royal Air Force Sir Peter Robin Harding, (born 2 December 1933) is a retired Royal Air Force officer who served as a bomber pilot in the 1950s, a squadron commander in the 1960s and a station commander in the 1970s.
General Sir Peter Anthony Wall, (born 10 July 1955) is a retired British Army officer who served as the Chief of the General Staff, the professional head of the British Army, until September 2014.
Post-captain is an obsolete alternative form of the rank of captain in the Royal Navy.
The President of Brazil, officially the President of the Federative Republic of Brazil (Presidente da República Federativa do Brasil) or simply the President of the Republic, is both the head of state and the head of government of the Federative Republic of Brazil.
The President of Colombia (Presidente de Colombia), officially known as the President of the Republic of Colombia (Presidente de la República de Colombia) is the head of state and head of government of Colombia.
The President of the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariigi President) is the head of state of the Republic of Estonia.
The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française) is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic.
The President of Germany, officially the Federal President of the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundespräsident der Bundesrepublik Deutschland),The official title within Germany is Bundespräsident, with der Bundesrepublik Deutschland being added in international correspondence; the official English title is President of the Federal Republic of Germany is the head of state of Germany.
The President of the Republic of Indonesia (Presiden Republik Indonesia) is the head of state and also head of government of the Republic of Indonesia.
The President of Malta (President ta' Malta) is the constitutional head of state of Malta.
The President of Mexico (Presidente de México), officially known as the President of the United Mexican States (Presidente de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos), is the head of state and government of Mexico.
The President of the Republic of Poland (Prezydent Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, shorter form: Prezydent RP) is the head of state of Poland.
The President of the Republic of Singapore is the country's head of state.
The office of President of Slovenia, officially President of the Republic of Slovenia (Predsednik Republike Slovenije), was established on 23 December 1991 when the National Assembly passed a new Constitution as a result of independence from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
The President of the Republic of South Africa is the head of state and head of government under the Constitution of South Africa.
The President of the Republic of Korea is, according to the South Korean constitution, the chairperson of the cabinet, the chief executive of the government, commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and the head of state of South Korea.
The President of the United Arab Emirates is the head of state of the United Arab Emirates.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
The President of the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Cumhurbaşkanı) is the head of state of the Republic of Turkey.
The President of Zimbabwe is the head of state of Zimbabwe.
A pretender is one who is able to maintain a claim that they are entitled to a position of honour or rank, which may be occupied by an incumbent (usually more recognised), or whose powers may currently be exercised by another person or authority.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, (Arthur William Patrick Albert; 1 May 185016 January 1942) was a member of the British Royal Family who served as the Governor General of Canada, the tenth since Canadian Confederation.
Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, (27 January 1773 – 21 April 1843) was the sixth son and ninth child of King George III and his consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany (Frederick Augustus; 16 August 1763 – 5 January 1827) was the second son of George III, King of the United Kingdom and Hanover, and his consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, (Henry William Frederick Albert; 31 March 1900 – 10 June 1974) was the third son of King George V and Queen Mary.
Prince of Wales (Tywysog Cymru) was a title granted to princes born in Wales from the 12th century onwards; the term replaced the use of the word king.
The Prince of Wales's feathers is the heraldic badge of the Prince of Wales.
Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester, (born Alice Christabel Montagu Douglas Scott; 25 December 1901 – 29 October 2004) was the wife of Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, the third son of King George V and Queen Mary.
Sayyid Qaboos bin Said Al Said (قابوس بن سعيد آل سعيد,; born 18 November 1940) is the Sultan of Oman.
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.
Rear admiral is a naval commissioned officer rank above that of a commodore (U.S equivalent of Commander) and captain, and below that of a vice admiral.
General Francis Richard Dannatt, Baron Dannatt, (born 23 December 1950) is a retired senior British Army officer and member of the House of Lords.
Air Chief Marshal Sir Richard Edward Johns, (born 28 July 1939) is a retired senior Royal Air Force commander.
Sir Richard Clive Mottram, (born 23 April 1946) is a former British civil servant, who retired in 2007 from his most recent senior post as Permanent Secretary, Intelligence, Security and Resilience in the Cabinet Office.
Richard Thomas James Wilson, Baron Wilson of Dinton, GCB (born 11 October 1942) is a crossbench member of the British House of Lords.
Robert Temple Armstrong, Baron Armstrong of Ilminster, (born 30 March 1927), son of the musician Sir Thomas Armstrong, is a British Lord Temporal and former civil servant.
Robert Fellowes, Baron Fellowes, (born 11 December 1941) was Private Secretary to Queen Elizabeth II from 1990 to 1999, and is also known as a brother-in-law of Diana, Princess of Wales and first cousin of Ronald Ferguson, the father of Sarah, Duchess of York.
Robert Gabriel Mugabe (born 21 February 1924) is a former Zimbabwean politician and revolutionary who served as Prime Minister of Zimbabwe from 1980 to 1987 and then as President from 1987 to 2017.
Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, (26 August 1676 – 18 March 1745), known before 1742 as Sir Robert Walpole, was a British statesman who is generally regarded as the de facto first Prime Minister of Great Britain.
Frederick Edward Robin Butler, Baron Butler of Brockwell, (born 3 January 1938) is a retired British civil servant, now sitting in the House of Lords as a crossbencher.
Robin Berry Janvrin, Baron Janvrin, (born 20 September 1946 in Cheltenham) was the Private Secretary to Elizabeth II from February 1999 to September 2007.
General Sir Roger Neil Wheeler, (born 16 December 1941) is a retired British Army officer who served as Chief of the General Staff from 1997 to 2000.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
A rose is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus Rosa, in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
A royal household or imperial household in ancient and medieval monarchies, and papal household for popes, formed the basis for the general government of the country as well as providing for the needs of the sovereign and his relations.
The Corps of Royal Marines (RM) is the amphibious light infantry of the Royal Navy.
The royal sign-manual is the signature of the sovereign, by the affixing of which the monarch expresses his or her pleasure either by order, commission, or warrant.
The Royal Victorian Order (Ordre royal de Victoria) is a dynastic order of knighthood established in 1896 by Queen Victoria.
Sheikh Sabah IV Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah GCB (Hon) (الشيخ صباح الأحمد الجابر الصباح; born 16 June 1929) is the 15th Ruler and 5th Emir of Kuwait and the Commander of the Kuwait Military Forces.
Satin is a weave that typically has a glossy surface and a dull back.
A sceptre (British English) or scepter (American English; see spelling differences) is a symbolic ornamental staff or wand held in the hand by a ruling monarch as an item of royal or imperial insignia.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, normally referred to as the Foreign Secretary, is a senior, high-ranking official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office.
A shamrock is a young sprig, used as a symbol of Ireland.
A sinecure (from Latin sine.
A spur is a metal tool designed to be worn in pairs on the heels of riding boots for the purpose of directing a horse to move forward or laterally while riding.
Air Chief Marshal Sir Stephen Gary George Dalton, (born 23 April 1954)Who's Who 2010, A & C Black, 2010, is a retired Royal Air Force commander and current Lieutenant Governor of Jersey.
Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (born 9 September 1949) (pronounced) is an Indonesian politician and retired Army general officer who was the President of Indonesia from 2004 to 2014.
A sword is a bladed weapon intended for slashing or thrusting that is longer than a knife or dagger.
Taffeta (archaically spelled taffety) is a crisp, smooth, plain woven fabric made from silk or cuprammonium rayons.
Terence Burns, Baron Burns, GCB (born 13 March 1944, Hetton-le-Hole, County Durham), sometimes known as Terry Burns, is a British economist, made a life peer in 1998 for his services as former Chief Economic Advisor and Permanent Secretary to HM Treasury.
Sir Terence Michael Heiser GCB (born 1932) is a former British senior civil servant.
Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (born 18 June 1942) is a South African politician who served as the second President of South Africa from 14 June 1999 to 24 September 2008.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
Thistle is the common name of a group of flowering plants characterised by leaves with sharp prickles on the margins, mostly in the family Asteraceae.
Admiral Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald, Marquess of Maranhão, GCB, ODM, OSC (14 December 1775 – 31 October 1860), styled Lord Cochrane between 1778 and 1831, was a British naval flag officer of the Royal Navy, mercenary and radical politician.
Thomas Woodcock (born 20 May 1951) is the Garter Principal King of Arms.
Tony Tan Keng Yam was the seventh President of Singapore, holding office from 2011 to 2017 after winning the Singaporean presidential election, 2011.
Toomas Hendrik Ilves (born 26 December 1953) is an Estonian politician who served as the fourth President of Estonia from 2006 until 2016.
The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (from Greek τριάς and τριάδα, from "threefold") holds that God is one but three coeternal consubstantial persons or hypostases—the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit—as "one God in three Divine Persons".
Troy weight is a system of units of mass customarily used for precious metals and gemstones.
Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga (born 1 December 1937) is a Latvian politician who served as the sixth President of Latvia and the first female President of Latvia.
Valdas Adamkus (born Voldemaras Adamkavičius; 3 November 1926) is a Lithuanian politician.
Velvet is a type of woven tufted fabric in which the cut threads are evenly distributed, with a short dense pile, giving it a distinctive soft feel.
Vice admiral is a flag officer rank of the British Royal Navy and equates to the NATO rank code OF-8.
Vasiliki "Vicky" Pryce ((Βασιλική Κουρμούζη); born July 1952) is a Greek-born British economist, and former Joint Head of the United Kingdom's Government Economic Service.
A vigil, from the Latin vigilia meaning wakefulness (Greek: pannychis, παννυχίς or agrypnia ἀγρυπνία), is a period of purposeful sleeplessness, an occasion for devotional watching, or an observance.
Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster.
The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom.
(William) George Pottinger (11 June 1916 – 15 January 1998), Herald Scotland, 19 January 1998.
Sir William Frederick Payne Heseltine, (born 17 July 1930) was Private Secretary to Queen Elizabeth II from 1986 to 1990.
William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death in 1837.
Sir William Kerr Fraser (born 18 May 1929) is a retired British civil servant, who served as Permanent Secretary at the Scottish Office, and as Principal and later Chancellor of the University of Glasgow.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
Bath star, Bath stars, CB (Honour), Commander of the Order of the Bath, Companion in The Most Honourable Order of the Bath, Companion in the Most Honourable Order of the Bath, Companion of The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath, Companion of The Most Honourable Order of the Bath, Companion of the Bath, Companion of the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath, Companion of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath, Companion of the Order of the Bath, Companion of the order of the Bath, Companions of the Bath, Companions of the Order of the Bath, D.C.B., Dame Commander of The Most Honourable Order of the Bath, Dame Commander of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath, Dame Commander of the Order of the Bath, Dame Grand Cross of The Most Honourable Order of the Bath, Dame Grand Cross of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath, Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, G.C.B., G.c.b., Grand Cross in the Order of the Bath, Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, Great Master of the Order of the Bath, Great Masters of the Order of the Bath, Honorary Companion of The Most Honourable Order of the Bath, Honorary Companion of the Order of the Bath, Honorary Dame Command of The Most Honorable Order of the Bath, Honorary Dame Command of the Most Honorable Order of the Bath, Honorary Dame Commander of the Most Honorable Order of the Bath, Honorary Dame Grand Cross of The Most Honourable Order of the Bath, Honorary Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, Honorary Knight Commander of The Most Honourable Order of the Bath, Honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath, Honorary Knight Grand Cross of The Most Honourable Order of the Bath, Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, K. B., K.C.B., Knight Commander of The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath, Knight Commander of The Most Honourable Order of the Bath, Knight Commander of the Bath, Knight Commander of the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath, Knight Commander of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath, Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath, Knight Companion of The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath, Knight Companion of the Bath, Knight Companion of the Bath (1725-1815), Knight Companion of the Bath (1725–1815), Knight Companion of the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath, Knight Companion of the Order of the Bath, Knight Companion of the Order of the Bath (1725-1815), Knight Companion of the Order of the Bath (1725–1815), Knight Grand Cross in the Order of the Bath, Knight Grand Cross of The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath, Knight Grand Cross of The Most Honourable Order of the Bath, Knight Grand Cross of The Order of the Bath, Knight Grand Cross of the Bath, Knight Grand Cross of the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath, Knight Grand Cross of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath, Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, Knight commander of the Bath, Knight commander of the Order of the Bath, Knight commander of the order of the Bath, Knight of the Bath, Knight of the Bath (1399-1725), Knight of the Bath (1399–1725), Knight of the Order of the Bath, Knighthood of the Bath, Knighthoods of the Bath, Knights Commander of the Order of the Bath, Knights of the Bath, List of Knights Commander of the Order of the Bath, Most Honourable Order of the Bath, Order of Bath, Order of Companion of the Bath, Order of the bath, Our Most Honourable Order of the Bath, The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath, The Most Honourable Order of the Bath, Tria iuncta in uno, Tria juncto in uno.