272 relations: Abdulmejid I, Achievement (heraldry), Akihito, Alan Brooke, 3rd Viscount Brookeborough, Albert II of Belgium, Alexander Baring, 6th Baron Ashburton, Alexander I of Russia, Alexandra of Denmark, Anne, Princess Royal, Anne, Queen of Great Britain, Antony Acland, Australasia, Baron, Baronet, Bartholomew de Burghersh, 2nd Baron Burghersh, Beatrix of the Netherlands, Bicorne, Bishop of Oxford, Bishop of Salisbury, Bishop of Winchester, Black Rod, Brazil, British Library, British royal family, Bruges Garter Book, Buckingham Palace, Calais, Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood, Chancellor of the Order of the Garter, Charles Elworthy, Baron Elworthy, Charles I of England, Charles II of England, Charles Kay-Shuttleworth, 5th Baron Shuttleworth, Charles Lyttelton, 10th Viscount Cobham, Charles, Prince of Wales, Chivalric romance, Choir (architecture), Church of England, Clement Attlee, Coat of arms of Luxembourg, Coat of arms of Sweden, Coat of arms of the King of Spain, Collar day, College of Arms, Constantine II of Greece, Courtier, Crusades, David Brewer (broker), Dean of Windsor, ..., Diocese, Double-breasted, Duke of Abercorn, Dynastic order, Earl, Edmund Fellowes, Edmund Hillary, Edward III of England, Edward IV of England, Edward the Black Prince, Edward VI of England, Edward VII, Edward VIII abdication crisis, Edward Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax, Edwin Bramall, Elias Ashmole, Eliza Manningham-Buller, Elizabeth I of England, Elizabeth II, Emperor Meiji, Emperor of Ethiopia, Emperor of Japan, England and Wales, English claims to the French throne, Enguerrand VII, Lord of Coucy, Epaulette, Escutcheon (heraldry), Ex officio member, Felipe VI of Spain, Franz Joseph I of Austria, Garter (stockings), Garter Principal King of Arms, Garter stall plate, George Cadogan, 5th Earl Cadogan, George Cross, George I of Great Britain, George II of Great Britain, George III of the United Kingdom, George IV of the United Kingdom, George V, George VI, Governor-General of Australia, Hackle, Hagley Hall, Haile Selassie, Harald V of Norway, Harold Wilson, Henry Eam, Henry III of France, Henry IV of England, Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster, Henry V of England, Henry VI of England, Henry VII of England, Henry VIII of England, Heraldic knot, Heraldry, Hirohito, Historical monographs relating to St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, Honi soit qui mal y pense, House of Braganza, House of Lancaster, House of Lords, House of York, Hubert Chesshyre, Hugh Courtenay (died 1348), Hugh Wrottesley, Imperial Seal of Japan, Instrument of Degradation, James Audley, James Butler, 2nd Duke of Ormonde, James Hamilton, 5th Duke of Abercorn, James II of England, James VI and I, Jean III de Grailly, captal de Buch, Jean, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Jesus College, Oxford, Joanot Martorell, Jock Stirrup, John Baring, 7th Baron Ashburton, John Casimir of the Palatinate-Simmern, John Chandos, John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, John de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Beauchamp de Warwick, John de Grey, 2nd Baron Grey de Rotherfield, John de Lisle, 2nd Baron Lisle (second creation), John de Mohun, 2nd Baron Mohun, John Major, John Morris, Baron Morris of Aberavon, John Nevill, 5th Marquess of Abergavenny, John of Gaunt, John Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Preston Candover, Juan Carlos I of Spain, Juliana of the Netherlands, Keith Holyoake, Kenneth Kirk, Knight, Knight Bachelor, Laity, List of current Knights and Ladies of the Garter, List of Knights and Ladies of the Garter, List of Ladies of the Garter, List of monarchs of Brazil, List of Polish monarchs, List of rulers of Lithuania, Livery collar, Lords of Coucy, Mantle (clothing), Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby, Margaret Thatcher, Margrethe II of Denmark, Mary Fagan, Mary I of England, Mary II of England, Mary of Teck, Mervyn King, Baron King of Lothbury, Michael Boyce, Baron Boyce, Middle French, Miles Stapleton of Bedale, Military Knights of Windsor, 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Casey, Baron Casey, Richard Fitz-Simon, Richard I of England, Richard II of England, Richard III of England, Richard Luce, Baron Luce, Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 5th Marquess of Salisbury, Robert Willoughby, 1st Baron Willoughby de Broke, Robin Butler, Baron Butler of Brockwell, Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March, Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, Royal Peculiar, Russia, Saint George, Saint George's Cross, Saint George's Day, Sanchet D'Abrichecourt, Sash, Serjeant-at-arms, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, St Edward's Crown, St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, State visit, Sultan, Supporter, Surcoat, Tabard, Taffeta, Tailcoat, The Annual Register, The Society of the Friends of St George's and Descendants of the Knights of the Garter, Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick, Thomas Dunne (Lord Lieutenant), Thomas Holland, 1st Earl of Kent, Thomas Strong (bishop), Thomas Wale (Knight of the Garter), Timothy Colman, Tirant lo Blanch, Treason, Troy weight, Tudor bonnet, Tudor period, Ultramarine, United Kingdom, Valencian, Velvet, Vestment, Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, Victoria Cross, Walter Paveley, Wars of the Roses, Wilhelm II, German Emperor, William Cavendish-Bentinck, 6th Duke of Portland, William de Montagu, 2nd Earl of Salisbury, William Edington, William III of England, William IV of the United Kingdom, Winchester Cathedral, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, Winston Churchill. 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Abdülmecid I (Ottoman Turkish: عبد المجيد اول ‘Abdü’l-Mecīd-i evvel; 23/25 April 182325 June 1861), also known as Abdulmejid and similar spellings, was the 31st Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and succeeded his father Mahmud II on 2 July 1839.
An achievement, armorial achievement or heraldic achievement (historical: hatchment) in heraldry is a full display or depiction of all the heraldic components to which the bearer of a coat of arms is entitled.
is the current Emperor of Japan.
Alan Henry Brooke, 3rd Viscount Brookeborough,, (born 30 June 1952), is a Northern Irish peer and landowner.
Albert II (born 6 June 1934) reigned as the sixth King of the Belgians from 1993 until his abdication in 2013.
Alexander Francis St Vincent Baring, 6th Baron Ashburton (7 April 1898 – 12 June 1991) was a British businessman and politician.
Alexander I (Александр Павлович, Aleksandr Pavlovich; –) reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1801 and 1825.
Alexandra of Denmark (Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julia; 1 December 1844 – 20 November 1925) was Queen consort of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Empress of India as the wife of King Edward VII.
Anne, Princess Royal, (Anne Elizabeth Alice Louise; born 15 August 1950) is the second child and only daughter of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.
Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) was the Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland between 8 March 1702 and 1 May 1707.
Sir Antony Arthur Acland (born 12 March 1930) is a former British diplomat and Provost of Eton College.
Australasia, a region of Oceania, comprises Australia, New Zealand, neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean and, sometimes, the island of New Guinea (which is usually considered to be part of Melanesia).
Baron is a rank of nobility or title of honour, often hereditary.
A baronet (or; abbreviated Bart or Bt) or the rare female equivalent, a baronetess (or; abbreviation Btss), is the holder of a baronetcy, an hereditary title awarded by the British Crown.
Bartholomew de Burghersh, 2nd Baron Burghersh KG (bef. 1329 – 5 April 1369) was an English nobleman and soldier.
Beatrix (Beatrix Wilhelmina Armgard,; born 31 January 1938) is a member of the Dutch royal family who reigned as Queen of the Netherlands from 30 April 1980 until her abdication on 30 April 2013.
The bicorne or bicorn (two-cornered/horned or twihorn) is a historical form of hat widely adopted in the 1790s as an item of uniform by European and American military and naval officers.
The Bishop of Oxford is the diocesan bishop of the Church of England Diocese of Oxford in the Province of Canterbury; his seat is at Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford.
The Bishop of Salisbury is the ordinary of the Church of England's Diocese of Salisbury in the Province of Canterbury.
The Bishop of Winchester is the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Winchester in the Church of England.
The Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod, or Lady Usher of the Black Rod, generally shortened to Black Rod, is an official in the parliaments of several Commonwealth countries.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom and the largest national library in the world by number of items catalogued.
The British royal family comprises Queen Elizabeth II and her close relations.
William Bruges dressed as Garter King of Arms, kneels before St George, from his Garter Book The Bruges Garter Book is a 15th-century illuminated manuscript containing portraits of the founder knights of the Order of the Garter.
Buckingham Palace is the London residence and administrative headquarters of the monarch of the United Kingdom.
Calais (Calés; Kales) is a city and major ferry port in northern France in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture.
Carl XVI Gustaf (full name: Carl Gustaf Folke Hubertus; born 30 April 1946) is the King of Sweden.
The Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood is a small office within the Royal Household of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom responsible for the administration of orders of chivalry and some aspects of honours in general.
The Chancellor of the Order of the Garter is an officer of the Order of the Garter.
Marshal of the Royal Air Force Samuel Charles Elworthy, Baron Elworthy, (23 March 1911 – 4 April 1993) was a senior officer in the Royal Air Force.
Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.
Charles Geoffrey Nicholas Kay-Shuttleworth, 5th Baron Shuttleworth, (born 2 August 1948) is a British hereditary peer.
Charles John Lyttelton, 10th Viscount Cobham, (8 August 1909 – 20 March 1977) was the ninth Governor-General of New Zealand and an English cricketer from the Lyttelton family.
Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George; born 14 November 1948) is the heir apparent to the British throne as the eldest child of Queen Elizabeth II.
As a literary genre of high culture, romance or chivalric romance is a type of prose and verse narrative that was popular in the aristocratic circles of High Medieval and Early Modern Europe.
A choir, also sometimes called quire, is the area of a church or cathedral that provides seating for the clergy and church choir.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was a British statesman of the Labour Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1935 to 1955.
The coat of arms of Luxembourg has its origins in the Middle Ages and was derived from the arms of the Duchy of Limburg, in modern-day Belgium and the Netherlands.
The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Sweden (Sveriges riksvapen) has a lesser and a greater version.
The coat of arms of the King of Spain is the heraldic symbol representing the monarch of Spain.
Collar days are designated days on which the collar forming part of the insignia of certain members of British orders of knighthood may be worn.
The College of Arms, sometimes referred to as the College of Heralds, is a royal corporation consisting of professional officers of arms, with jurisdiction over England, Wales, Northern Ireland and some Commonwealth realms.
Constantine II (Κωνσταντίνος Βʹ, Konstantínos II,; born 2 June 1940) reigned as the King of Greece, from 1964 until the abolition of the monarchy in 1973.
A courtier is a person who is often in attendance at the court of a monarch or other royal personage.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
Sir David William Brewer, (born 28 May 1940) is an English marine insurance broker who served as Lord Mayor of London (2005–06)London Lieutenancy: and Lord-Lieutenant of Greater London to Elizabeth II (2008–15).
The Dean of Windsor is the spiritual head of the Canons of St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle, England.
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration".
A double-breasted garment is a coat, jacket, or vest with wide, overlapping front flaps which has on its front two symmetrical columns of buttons; by contrast, a single-breasted item has a narrow overlap and only one column of buttons.
The title Duke of Abercorn is a title in the Peerage of Ireland.
A dynastic order, monarchical order, or house order, is an order under royal patronage, bestowed by the head of a currently or formerly sovereign royal family as legitimate fons honorum.
An earl is a member of the nobility.
Edmund Horace Fellowes (11 November 1870 – 21 December 1951), was a Church of England clergyman and musical scholar who became well known for his work in promoting the revival of sixteenth and seventeenth century English music.
Sir Edmund Percival Hillary OSN (20 July 1919 – 11 January 2008) was a New Zealand mountaineer, explorer, and philanthropist.
Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from January 1327 until his death; he is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II.
Edward IV (28 April 1442 – 9 April 1483) was the King of England from 4 March 1461 to 3 October 1470, and again from 11 April 1471 until his death.
Edward of Woodstock, known as the Black Prince (15 June 1330 – 8 June 1376), was the eldest son of Edward III, King of England, and Philippa of Hainault and participated in the early years of the Hundred Years War.
Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) was King of England and Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death.
Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910.
In 1936, a constitutional crisis in the British Empire arose when King-Emperor Edward VIII proposed to marry Wallis Simpson, an American socialite who was divorced from her first husband and was pursuing the divorce of her second.
Edward Frederick Lindley Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax, (16 April 1881 – 23 December 1959), styled Lord Irwin from 1925 until 1934 and Viscount Halifax from 1934 until 1944, was one of the most senior British Conservative politicians of the 1930s.
Field Marshal Edwin Noel Westby Bramall, Baron Bramall, (born 18 December 1923) is a retired senior British Army officer.
Elias Ashmole (23 May 1617 – 18 May 1692) was an English antiquary, politician, officer of arms, astrologer and student of alchemy.
Elizabeth Lydia "Eliza" Manningham-Buller, Baroness Manningham-Buller, (born 14 July 1948) was Director General of MI5, the British internal Security Service, from October 2002 until her retirement on 20 April 2007, aged 58.
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
, or, was the 122nd Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from February 3, 1867 until his death on July 29, 1912.
The Emperor of Ethiopia (ንጉሠ ነገሥት, nəgusä nägäst, "King of Kings") was the hereditary ruler of the Ethiopian Empire, until the abolition of the monarchy in 1975.
The Emperor of Japan is the head of the Imperial Family and the head of state of Japan.
England and Wales is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom.
From the 1340s to the 19th century, excluding two brief intervals in the 1360s and the 1420s, the kings and queens of England (and, later, of Great Britain) also claimed the throne of France.
Enguerrand VII de Coucy, KG (1340, Picardy - 18 February 1397, in captivity at Bursa), also known as Ingelram de Coucy, was a 14th-century French nobleman, the last Lord of Coucy, and the son-in-law of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault.
Epaulette (also spelled epaulet) is a type of ornamental shoulder piece or decoration used as insignia of rank by armed forces and other organizations.
In heraldry, an escutcheon is a shield that forms the main or focal element in an achievement of arms.
An ex officio member is a member of a body (a board, committee, council, etc.) who is part of it by virtue of holding another office.
Felipe VI (Felipe Juan Pablo Alfonso de Todos los Santos de Borbón y de Grecia; born 30 January 1968) is the King of Spain.
Franz Joseph I also Franz Josef I or Francis Joseph I (Franz Joseph Karl; 18 August 1830 – 21 November 1916) was Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, and monarch of other states in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, from 2 December 1848 to his death.
Garters are articles of clothing: narrow bands of fabric fastened about the leg, used to keep up stockings, and sometimes socks.
The Garter Principal King of Arms (also Garter King of Arms or simply Garter) is the senior King of Arms, and the senior Officer of Arms of the College of Arms, the heraldic authority with jurisdiction over England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
Garter stall plates are small enamelled brass plates located in St George's Chapel displaying the names and arms of the Knights of the Garter.
George Henry Cadogan, 5th Earl Cadogan, (12 May 1840 – 6 March 1915), styled Viscount Chelsea from 1864 to 1873, was a British Conservative politician.
The George Cross (GC) is the second highest award of the United Kingdom honours system.
George I (George Louis; Georg Ludwig; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) in the Holy Roman Empire from 1698 until his death.
George II (George Augustus; Georg II.; 30 October / 9 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 (O.S.) until his death in 1760.
George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.
George IV (George Augustus Frederick; 12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover following the death of his father, King George III, on 29 January 1820, until his own death ten years later.
George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936.
George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death in 1952.
The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia is the representative of the Australian monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II.
The hackle is a clipped feather plume that is attached to a military headdress.
Hagley Hall is a Grade I listed 18th-century house in Hagley, Worcestershire, the home of the Lyttelton family.
Haile Selassie I (ቀዳማዊ ኃይለ ሥላሴ, qädamawi haylä səllasé,;, born Ras Tafari Makonnen, was Ethiopia's regent from 1916 to 1930 and emperor from 1930 to 1974.
Harald V (born 21 February 1937) is the King of Norway, having ascended the throne following the death of his father on 17 January 1991.
James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was a British Labour politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1964 to 1970 and from 1974 to 1976.
Sir Henry Eam (also spelled Esme, Em and Eme; died before 1360) was a Founder Knight of the Order of the Garter.
Henry III (19 September 1551 – 2 August 1589; born Alexandre Édouard de France, Henryk Walezy, Henrikas Valua) was King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1573 to 1575 and King of France from 1574 until his death.
Henry IV (15 April 1367 – 20 March 1413), also known as Henry Bolingbroke, was King of England and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413, and asserted the claim of his grandfather, Edward III, to the Kingdom of France.
Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster, 4th Earl of Leicester and Lancaster, KG (c. 1310 – 23 March 1361), also Earl of Derby, was a member of the English nobility in the 14th century, and a prominent English diplomat, politician, and soldier.
Henry V (9 August 1386 – 31 August 1422) was King of England from 1413 until his death at the age of 36 in 1422.
Henry VI (6 December 1421 – 21 May 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471, and disputed King of France from 1422 to 1453.
Henry VII (Harri Tudur; 28 January 1457 – 21 April 1509) was the King of England and Lord of Ireland from his seizure of the crown on 22 August 1485 to his death on 21 April 1509.
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death.
A heraldic knot (referred to in heraldry as simply a knot) is a knot, unknot, or design incorporating a knot used in European heraldry.
Heraldry is a broad term, encompassing the design, display, and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, rank, and pedigree.
was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from 25 December 1926, until his death on 7 January 1989.
The historical monographs relating to St.
Honi soit qui mal y pense (UK: or US) is a French maxim used as the motto of the British chivalric Order of the Garter.
The Most Serene House of Braganza (Sereníssima Casa de Bragança), or the Brigantine Dynasty (Dinastia Brigantina), also known in the Empire of Brazil as the Most August House of Braganza (Augustíssima Casa de Bragança), is a dynasty of emperors, kings, princes, and dukes of Portuguese origin, a branch of the House of Aviz.
The House of Lancaster was the name of two cadet branches of the royal House of Plantagenet.
The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The House of York was a cadet branch of the English royal House of Plantagenet.
David Hubert Boothby Chesshyre (born 22 June 1940) is a retired British officer of arms.
Sir Hugh Courtenay (22 March 1327 – after Easter term 1348), KG, was the eldest son and heir apparent of Hugh Courtenay, 10th Earl of Devon (1303–1377), whom he predeceased, and was a founding member of the Order of the Garter.
Sir Hugh Wrottesley, KG (fl. 1334 - d. 23 January 1381), was a Founder member and 18th Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1348.
The Imperial Seal of Japan, also called the, or, is one of the national seals and a crest (mon) used by the Emperor of Japan and members of the Imperial Family.
Instrument of Degradation is a written list of charges against a person who holds a title or office that has religious significance.
Sir James Audley (or Audeley) KG (c. 1318–1369) was one of the original knights, or founders, of the Order of the Garter.
James FitzJames Butler, 2nd Duke of Ormonde, 13th Earl of Ormond, 7th Earl of Ossory, 2nd Baron Butler, (29 April 1665 – 16 November 1745) was an Irish statesman and soldier.
James Hamilton, 5th Duke of Abercorn, (born 4 July 1934), is a British nobleman, peer, and politician.
James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701An assertion found in many sources that James II died 6 September 1701 (17 September 1701 New Style) may result from a miscalculation done by an author of anonymous "An Exact Account of the Sickness and Death of the Late King James II, as also of the Proceedings at St. Germains thereupon, 1701, in a letter from an English gentleman in France to his friend in London" (Somers Tracts, ed. 1809–1815, XI, pp. 339–342). The account reads: "And on Friday the 17th instant, about three in the afternoon, the king died, the day he always fasted in memory of our blessed Saviour's passion, the day he ever desired to die on, and the ninth hour, according to the Jewish account, when our Saviour was crucified." As 17 September 1701 New Style falls on a Saturday and the author insists that James died on Friday, "the day he ever desired to die on", an inevitable conclusion is that the author miscalculated the date, which later made it to various reference works. See "English Historical Documents 1660–1714", ed. by Andrew Browning (London and New York: Routledge, 2001), 136–138.) was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.
Sir Jean III de Grailly, Captal de Buch KG (d. Paris, 7 September 1376), son of Jean II de Grailly, Captal de Buch, Vicomte de Benauges, and Blanch de Foix, was a cousin of the Counts of Foix and a military leader in the Hundred Years' War who was praised by the chronicler Jean Froissart as an ideal of chivalry.
Jean (given names: Jean Benoît Guillaume Robert Antoine Louis Marie Adolphe Marc d'Aviano; born 5 January 1921) reigned as Grand Duke of Luxembourg from 1964 until his abdication in 2000.
Jesus College (in full: Jesus College in the University of Oxford of Queen Elizabeth's Foundation) is one of the colleges of the University of Oxford in England.
Joanot Martorell (Gandia, south of Valencia, 1413 – 1468) was a Valencian knight and the author of the novel Tirant lo Blanch, written in the Valencian vernacular (Martorell calls it vulgar llengua valenciana) and published at Valencia in 1490.
Marshal of the Royal Air Force Graham Eric Stirrup, Baron Stirrup, (born 4 December 1949), informally known as Jock Stirrup, is a former senior Royal Air Force commander who was the Chief of the Defence Staff from 2006 until his retirement in late 2010.
John Francis Harcourt Baring, 7th Baron Ashburton, (born 2 November 1928) is a British merchant banker and former chairman of British Petroleum (BP).
John Casimir, Count Palatine of Simmern (German: Johann Casimir von Pfalz-Simmern) (7 March 1543 – Brockhaus Geschichte Second Edition) was a German prince and a younger son of Frederick III, Elector Palatine.
Sir John Chandos, Viscount of Saint-Sauveur in the Cotentin, Constable of Aquitaine, Seneschal of Poitou, KG (c.1320 — 31 December 1369) was a medieval English knight who hailed from Radbourne Hall, Derbyshire.
General John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, 1st Prince of Mindelheim, 1st Count of Nellenburg, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, (26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722 O.S.) was an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs.
Admiral of the Fleet Sir John Paveley de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Beauchamp de Warwick KG (c. 1316 – 2 December 1360) was the third son of Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick, and brother of Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick, with whom he became a founder and the tenth Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1348.
John de Grey, 2nd Baron Grey de Rotherfield, KG (9 October 1300 – September 1359) was an English soldier and courtier.
John de Lisle, 2nd Baron Lisle of Rougemont, KG (c. 1318 – 14 October 1355) was an English peer and soldier who spent much of his career serving in the wars in France.
John de Mohun, 2nd Baron Mohun, 9th feudal baron of Dunster, KG (1320–1376) was a founder member and the 11th Knight of the Most Noble Order of the Garter in 1348.
Sir John Major (born 29 March 1943) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1990 to 1997.
John Morris, Baron Morris of Aberavon, (born 5 November 1931) is a retired British politician.
Lieutenant Colonel John Henry Guy Nevill, 5th Marquess of Abergavenny, (8 November 1914 – 23 February 2000) was a British peer.
John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, KG (6 March 1340 – 3 February 1399) was an English nobleman, soldier, statesman, and prince, the third of five surviving sons of King Edward III of England.
John Davan Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Preston Candover, (born 2 November 1927) is the President of Sainsbury's, a British businessman, and a politician.
Juan Carlos I (Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias, born 5 January 1938) reigned as King of Spain from 1975 until his abdication in 2014.
Juliana (Juliana Louise Emma Marie Wilhelmina; 30 April 1909 – 20 March 2004) was Queen of the Netherlands from 1948 until her abdication in 1980.
Sir Keith Jacka Holyoake (11 February 1904 – 8 December 1983) was the 26th Prime Minister of New Zealand, serving for a brief period in 1957 and then from 1960 to 1972, and also the 13th Governor-General of New Zealand, serving from 1977 to 1980.
Kenneth Escott Kirk (21 February 1886 – 8 June 1954) was a British Anglican bishop.
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political leader for service to the monarch or a Christian Church, especially in a military capacity.
The dignity of Knight Bachelor is the most basic and lowest rank of a man who has been knighted by the monarch but not as a member of one of the organised orders of chivalry; it is a part of the British honours system.
A layperson (also layman or laywoman) is a person who is not qualified in a given profession and/or does not have specific knowledge of a certain subject.
The Most Noble Order of the Garter is a British order of chivalry.
The Most Noble Order of the Garter was founded by Edward III of England in 1348.
The Most Noble Order of the Garter was founded by King Edward III of England in 1348 as "a society, fellowship and college of knights".
Brazil was ruled by a series of monarchs in the period 1815–1889; first as a kingdom united with Portugal in the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves (1815–1822), subsequently as a sovereign and independent state, the Empire of Brazil (1822–1889).
Poland was ruled at various times either by dukes (the 10th–14th century) or by kings (the 11th-18th century).
The following is a list of rulers over Lithuania—grand dukes, kings, and presidents—the heads of authority over historical Lithuanian territory.
A livery collar or chain of office is a collar or heavy chain, usually of gold, worn as insignia of office or a mark of fealty or other association in Europe from the Middle Ages onwards.
The Lords of Coucy (Sires de Coucy), also spelt Couci, were a medieval lordship based on the barony of Coucy-le-Château-Auffrique, in Picardy.
A mantle (from mantellum, the Latin term for a cloak) is a type of loose garment usually worn over indoor clothing to serve the same purpose as an overcoat.
Lady Margaret Beaufort (usually pronounced:,; or), later Countess of Richmond and Derby (31 May 1441/1443 – 29 June 1509), was the mother of King Henry VII and paternal grandmother of King Henry VIII of England.
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.
Margrethe II (Margrethe 2.,; Margreta 2.; Margrethe II; full name: Margrethe Alexandrine Þórhildur Ingrid; born 16 April 1940) is the Queen of Denmark; as well as the supreme authority of the Church of Denmark and Commander-in-Chief of the Danish Defence.
Lady Florence Mary Fagan (born 11 September 1939)After appointment as a Lady Companion of the Order of the Garter (LG), she has chosen to be known as Lady Mary Fagan in lieu of the previously correct Dame Mary Fagan is a former Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire, who served from 1994 until her retirement on 11 September 2014.
Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558) was the Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death.
Mary II (30 April 1662 – 28 December 1694) was Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland, co-reigning with her husband and first cousin, King William III and II, from 1689 until her death; popular histories usually refer to their joint reign as that of William and Mary.
Mary of Teck (Victoria Mary Augusta Louise Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes; 26 May 1867 – 24 March 1953) was Queen consort of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Empress of India as the wife of King George V. Although technically a princess of Teck, in the Kingdom of Württemberg, she was born and raised in England.
Mervyn Allister King, Baron King of Lothbury, (born 30 March 1948) is a British economist and public servant who served as the Governor of the Bank of England from 2003 to 2013.
Admiral of the Fleet Michael Cecil Boyce, Baron Boyce, (born 2 April 1943) is a former Royal Navy officer who now sits as a crossbench member of the House of Lords.
Middle French (le moyen français) is a historical division of the French language that covers the period from the 14th to the early 17th centuries.
Sir Miles Stapleton of Bedale (or of Cotherstone) KG (1320?–1364) was an English knight, one of the Knights Founder of the Order of the Garter.
The Military Knights of Windsor, originally the Alms Knights and informally the Poor Knights, are retired military officers who receive a pension and accommodation at Windsor Castle, and who provide support for the Order of the Garter and for the services of St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.
The mitre (British English) (Greek: μίτρα, "headband" or "turban") or miter (American English; see spelling differences), is a type of headgear now known as the traditional, ceremonial head-dress of bishops and certain abbots in traditional Christianity.
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories.
Morning dress is the formal dress code for day attire, consisting chiefly of, for men, a morning coat, waistcoat, and formal trousers, and an appropriate gown for women.
Mother church or matrice is a term depicting the Christian Church as a mother in her functions of nourishing and protecting the believer.
A motto (derived from the Latin muttum, 'mutter', by way of Italian motto, 'word', 'sentence') is a maxim; a phrase meant to formally summarize the general motivation or intention of an individual, family, social group or organization.
Naser al-Din Shah Qajar (16 July 1831 – 1 May 1896) (ناصرالدین شاه قاجار), also Nassereddin Shah Qajar, was the King of Persia from 5 September 1848 to 1 May 1896 when he was assassinated.
Sir Neil Loring ("Loryng", "Loringe" etc., Neel alias Nigel, Latin: Nigellus) (c. 1320 – 18 March 1386), KG, was a medieval English soldier and diplomat and a founding member of the Order of the Garter, established by King Edward III in 1348.
New Zealanders, colloquially known as Kiwis, are people associated with New Zealand, sharing a common history, culture, and language (New Zealand English).
Nicholas Addison Phillips, Baron Phillips of Worth Matravers (called Nick; born 21 January 1938) is a British lawyer and former senior English judge.
Sir Ninian Martin Stephen (15 June 1923 – 29 October 2017) was an Australian judge who served as the 20th Governor-General of Australia, in office from 1982 to 1989.
An officer of arms is a person appointed by a sovereign or state with authority to perform one or more of the following functions.
Oliver Lyttelton, 1st Viscount Chandos, (15 March 1893 – 21 January 1972) was a British businessman from the Lyttelton family who was brought into government during the Second World War, holding a number of ministerial posts.
A chivalric order, order of chivalry, order of knighthood or equestrian order is an order, confraternity or society of knights typically founded during or in inspiration of the original Catholic military orders of the Crusades (circa 1099-1291), paired with medieval concepts of ideals of chivalry.
The Most Illustrious Order of Saint Patrick is a dormant British order of chivalry associated with Ireland.
The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle is an order of chivalry associated with Scotland.
The Order of precedence in the United Kingdom is the sequential hierarchy for Peers of the Realm, officers of state, senior members of the clergy, holders of the various Orders of Chivalry and other persons in the three legal jurisdictions within the United Kingdom.
Sir Otho Holand (c. 1316–3 September 1359) was an English soldier and a founder Knight of the Garter.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism, Eastern Orthodoxy, or particular branches of Islam, is regarded as the heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family or person.
As a highly celebrated saint in both the Western and Eastern Christian churches, Saint George is connected with a large number of patronages throughout the world, and his iconography can be found on the flags and coats of arms of a number of cities and countries.
Sir Paul Meernaa Caedwalla Hasluck (1 April 1905 – 9 January 1993) was an Australian statesman who served as the 17th Governor-General of Australia, in office from 1969 to 1974.
Paul (Παύλος, Pávlos; 14 December 1901 – 6 March 1964) was King of Greece from 1947 until his death in 1964.
Dom Pedro II (English: Peter II; 2 December 1825 – 5 December 1891), nicknamed "the Magnanimous", was the second and last ruler of the Empire of Brazil, reigning for over 58 years.
Peter Alexander Rupert Carington, 6th Baron Carrington, (born 6 June 1919) is a British Conservative politician and hereditary peer who served as Defence Secretary between 1970 and 1974, Foreign Secretary between 1979 and 1982, chairman of General Electric between 1983 and 1984, and Secretary General of NATO from 1984 to 1988.
Field Marshal Peter Anthony Inge, Baron Inge, (born 5 August 1935) was the Chief of the General Staff, the professional head of the British Army, from 1992 to 1994.
Philip II (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–58).
Philippe or Filip (Philippe Léopold Louis Marie, Filip Leopold Lodewijk Maria, Philipp Leopold Ludwig Maria; born 15 April 1960) is the seventh King of the Belgians, having ascended the throne on 21 July 2013, following his father's abdication.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
A prelate is a high-ranking member of the clergy who is an ordinary or who ranks in precedence with ordinaries.
Prince Andrew, Duke of York, (Andrew Albert Christian Edward, born 19 February 1960) is a member of the British royal family.
Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, (Edward George Nicholas Paul Patrick; born 9 October 1935) is a member of the British royal family.
Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, (Edward Antony Richard Louis; born 10 March 1964) is the youngest of four children and the third son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.
Prince of Wales (Tywysog Cymru) was a title granted to princes born in Wales from the 12th century onwards; the term replaced the use of the word king.
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (born Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark, 10 June 1921) is the husband and consort of Queen Elizabeth II.
Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester, (Richard Alexander Walter George; born 26 August 1944) is the youngest grandchild of King George V and Queen Mary.
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, (William Arthur Philip Louis; born 21 June 1982) is a member of the British royal family.
Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy, (Alexandra Helen Elizabeth Olga Christabel; born 25 December 1936) is a member of the British royal family.
Elizabeth Angela Marguerite Bowes-Lyon (4 August 1900 – 30 March 2002) was the wife of King George VI and the mother of Queen Elizabeth II and Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon.
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.
Ralph de Stafford, 2nd Baron Stafford, 1st Earl of Stafford, KG (24 September 1301 – 31 August 1372) was an English nobleman and notable soldier during the Hundred Years War against France.
Richard Gavin Gardiner Casey, Baron Casey (29 August 1890 – 17 June 1976) was an Australian statesman who served as the 16th Governor-General of Australia, in office from 1965 to 1969.
Sir Richard Fitz-Simon KG, of Pensthorpe, Bawsey, and Glosthorpe (in Bawsey), Norfolk, Letheringham, Suffolk, etc., Founder member and 15th Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1348.
Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 1189 until his death.
Richard II (6 January 1367 – c. 14 February 1400), also known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399.
Richard III (2 October 1452 – 22 August 1485) was King of England from 1483 until his death at the Battle of Bosworth Field.
Richard Napier Luce, Baron Luce, (born 14 October 1936) was Lord Chamberlain to the Queen from 2000 to 2006, and has been Governor of Gibraltar, a Conservative Member of Parliament (MP) and Government Minister.
Robert Arthur James Gascoyne-Cecil, 5th Marquess of Salisbury, (27 August 1893 – 23 February 1972), known as Viscount Cranborne from 1903 to 1947, was a British Conservative politician.
Robert Willoughby, 1st Baron Willoughby de Broke, de jure 9th Baron Latimer (c. 1452 – 23 August 1502), KG, of Brook (anciently "Broke"), in the parish of Heywood, near Westbury in Wiltshire, was one of the chief commanders of the royal forces of King Henry VII against the Cornish Rebellion of 1497.
Frederick Edward Robin Butler, Baron Butler of Brockwell, (born 3 January 1938) is a retired British civil servant, now sitting in the House of Lords as a crossbencher.
Sir Roger de Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March, 4th Baron Mortimer, KG (11 November 1328 – 26 February 1360) was an English nobleman and military commander during the Hundred Years' War.
The royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, or the Royal Arms for short, is the official coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II.
A Royal Peculiar (or Royal Peculier) is a Church of England parish or church exempt from the jurisdiction of the diocese and the archdiocese in which it lies and subject to the direct jurisdiction of the monarch.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Saint George (Γεώργιος, Geṓrgios; Georgius;; to 23 April 303), according to legend, was a Roman soldier of Greek origin and a member of the Praetorian Guard for Roman emperor Diocletian, who was sentenced to death for refusing to recant his Christian faith.
In heraldry, the Saint George's Cross, also called Cross of Saint George, is a red cross on a white background, which from the Late Middle Ages became associated with Saint George, the military saint, often depicted as a crusader.
Saint George's Day, also known as the Feast of Saint George, is the feast day of Saint George as celebrated by various Christian Churches and by the several nations, kingdoms, countries, and cities of which Saint George is the patron saint.
Sir Sanchet D'Abrichecourt (c.1330–c.1360) was a French knight and a founder Knight of the Garter.
A sash is a large and usually colorful ribbon or band of material worn around the body, draping from one shoulder to the opposing hip, or else running around the waist.
A serjeant-at-arms, or sergeant-at-arms is an officer appointed by a deliberative body, usually a legislature, to keep order during its meetings.
Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (Middle English: Sir Gawayn and þe Grene Knyȝt) is a late 14th-century Middle English chivalric romance.
St Edward's Crown is the centrepiece of the Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom.
St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle in England, is a chapel designed in the high-medieval Gothic style.
A state visit is a formal visit by a head of state to a foreign country, at the invitation of that country's head of state, with the latter also acting as the official host for the duration of the state visit.
Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.
In heraldry, supporters, sometimes referred to as attendants, are figures or objects usually placed on either side of the shield and depicted holding it up.
A surcoat or surcote initially was an outer garment commonly worn in the Middle Ages by both men and women in Western Europe.
A tabard is a short coat common for men during the Middle Ages.
Taffeta (archaically spelled taffety) is a crisp, smooth, plain woven fabric made from silk or cuprammonium rayons.
A tailcoat is a coat with the front of the skirt cut away, so as to leave only the rear section of the skirt, known as the tails.
The Annual Register (originally subtitled "A View of the History, Politicks and Literature of the Year...") is a long-established reference work, written and published each year, which records and analyses the year’s major events, developments and trends throughout the world.
The Society of the Friends of St George's and Descendants of the Knights of the Garter is a constituent group of the Foundation of the College of St George, Windsor Castle which is a national charity in England.
Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick, KG (c. 14 February 1313 – 13 November 1369) was an English nobleman and military commander during the Hundred Years' War.
Sir Thomas Raymond Dunne, (born 24 October 1933) was the Lord Lieutenant of Hereford and Worcester from 1977, then (after the historic counties were restored) from 1998 the Lord Lieutenant of Worcestershire until 2001 and the Lord Lieutenant of Herefordshire until 2008.
Thomas Holland, 2nd Baron Holand, and jure uxoris 1st Earl of Kent, KG (c. 1314 – 26 December 1360) was an English nobleman and military commander during the Hundred Years' War.
Thomas Banks Strong (24 October 1861 – 8 July 1944) was an English theologian who was Bishop of Ripon and Oxford.
Sir Thomas Wale (1303 – 26 October 1352) was an English soldier and founder Knight of the Garter.
Sir Timothy James Alan Colman (born 19 September 1929) is a British businessman and a former Lord Lieutenant of Norfolk.
Tirant lo Blanch (modern orthography: Tirant lo Blanc) is a chivalric romance written by the Valencian knight Joanot Martorell, finished posthumously by his friend Martí Joan de Galba and published in the city of Valencia in 1490 as an incunabulum edition.
In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's nation or sovereign.
Troy weight is a system of units of mass customarily used for precious metals and gemstones.
A Tudor bonnet (also referred to as a doctor's bonnet or round cap) is a traditional soft-crowned, round-brimmed cap, with a tassel hanging from a cord encircling the hat.
The Tudor period is the period between 1485 and 1603 in England and Wales and includes the Elizabethan period during the reign of Elizabeth I until 1603.
Ultramarine is a deep blue color and a pigment which was originally made by grinding lapis lazuli into a powder.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
Valencian (or; endonym: valencià, llengua valenciana, or idioma valencià) is a linguistic variety spoken in the Valencian Community, Spain. In the Valencian Community, Valencian is the traditional language and is co-official with Spanish. It is considered different from Catalan by a slight majority of the people of the Valencian Community (including non-speakers), but this is at odds with the broad academic view, which considers it a dialect of Catalan. A standardized form exists, based on the Southern Valencian dialect. Valencian belongs to the Western group of Catalan dialects. Under the Valencian Statute of Autonomy, the Valencian Academy of the Language (Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua, AVL) has been established as its regulator. The AVL considers Catalan and Valencian to be simply two names for the same language. Some of the most important works of Valencian literature experienced a golden age during the Late Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Important works include Joanot Martorell's chivalric romance Tirant lo Blanch, and Ausiàs March's poetry. The first book produced with movable type in the Iberian Peninsula was printed in the Valencian variety. The earliest recorded chess game with modern rules for moves of the queen and bishop was in the Valencian poem Scachs d'amor (1475).
Velvet is a type of woven tufted fabric in which the cut threads are evenly distributed, with a short dense pile, giving it a distinctive soft feel.
Vestments are liturgical garments and articles associated primarily with the Christian religion, especially among the Eastern Orthodox, Catholics (Latin Church and others), Anglicans, and Lutherans.
Victor Emmanuel III (Vittorio Emanuele Ferdinando Maria Gennaro di Savoia; Vittorio Emanuele III, Viktor Emanueli III; 11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947) was the King of Italy from 29 July 1900 until his abdication on 9 May 1946.
The Victoria Cross (VC) is the highest award of the British honours system.
Sir Walter Paveley KG (1319–1375) was an English knight from Kent, a Knight Founder of the Order of the Garter.
The Wars of the Roses were a series of English civil wars for control of the throne of England fought between supporters of two rival branches of the royal House of Plantagenet: the House of Lancaster, associated with a red rose, and the House of York, whose symbol was a white rose.
Wilhelm II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern; 27 January 18594 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918.
William John Arthur Charles James Cavendish-Bentinck, 6th Duke of Portland, (28 December 1857 – 26 April 1943), known as William Cavendish-Bentinck until 1879, was a British landowner, courtier, and Conservative politician.
Sir William de Montagu, 2nd Earl of Salisbury, 4th Baron Montagu, King of Mann, KG (25 June 1328 – 3 June 1397) was an English nobleman and commander in the English army during King Edward III's French campaigns in the Hundred Years War.
William Edington (died 6 or 7 October 1366) was an English bishop and administrator.
William III (Willem; 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702), also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702.
William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death in 1837.
Winchester Cathedral is a Church of England cathedral in Winchester, Hampshire, England.
Windsor Castle is a royal residence at Windsor in the English county of Berkshire.
Windsor is a historic market town and unparished area in the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead in Berkshire, England.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
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