144 relations: 's-Hertogenbosch, Abbey of Saint Bertin, Akihito, Alain Chartier, Albert I of Belgium, Albert II of Belgium, Alexander, Margrave of Meissen, Alfonso XIII of Spain, Alois-Konstantin, 9th Prince of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg, Antwerp, Archbishop of Vienna, Archduke Carl Christian of Austria, Argonautica, Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, Austria, Barcelona, Barcelona Cathedral, Beatrix of the Netherlands, Bhumibol Adulyadej, Bruges, Brussels, Cadena COPE, Canon (priest), Cardinal (Catholic Church), Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, Carl, Duke of Württemberg, Carlism, Cathedral of Our Lady (Antwerp), Cathedral of St. Michael and St. Gudula, Catholic Church, Chapter (religion), Charles I of Austria, Charles II of Spain, Charles the Bold, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, Christoph Schönborn, Church of Our Lady, Bruges, Co-Princes of Andorra, Colchis, Constantine II of Greece, Dijon, Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza, Duke of Burgundy, Elizabeth II, English language, Enrique V. Iglesias, Excellency, Felipe VI of Spain, Ferdinand VII of Spain, ..., Ferdinand Zvonimir von Habsburg, Flanders, France, Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, Franz, Duke of Bavaria, Funeral, Georg von Habsburg, Georg, Duke of Hohenberg, Ghent, Gideon, Golden Fleece, Golden Fleece Award, Graf, Grand Master (order), Grote of Sint-Jacobskerk (The Hague), Hans-Adam II, Prince of Liechtenstein, Harald V of Norway, Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Heresy, Hohenberg family, House of Bourbon, House of Habsburg, House of Merode, Isabella II of Spain, Isabella of Portugal, Duchess of Burgundy, Javier Solana, Jean Le Fèvre de Saint-Remy, Jean, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Johan Huizinga, Joseph Bonaparte, Juan Carlos I of Spain, Karel Schwarzenberg, Karl von Habsburg, King of Arms, Knight, Kubrat, Prince of Panagyurishte, Leonor, Princess of Asturias, Lille, List of Knights of the Golden Fleece, Livery collar, Lobkowicz, Louis XVIII of France, Madame d'Or, Margrethe II of Denmark, Maria Theresa, Mariano Hugo, Prince of Windisch-Graetz, Mass (liturgy), Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, Mechelen, Michel, 14th Prince of Ligne, Middelburg, Monarchy of Spain, Mons, Napoleon, Nicolas Sarkozy, Nine Worthies, Order of chivalry, Otto von Habsburg, Paris Peace Conference, 1919, Personal union, Philip I of Castile, Philip II of Spain, Philip the Good, Philip V of Spain, Philippe of Belgium, Pope Pius VII, President of France, Prime Minister of Bulgaria, Prince Lorenz of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este, Protestantism, Reformation, Rogier van der Weyden, Saint-Omer, Salic law, Simeon Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Spain, Spanish Empire, St Bavo's Cathedral, Ghent, St. Donatian's Cathedral, St. John's Cathedral ('s-Hertogenbosch), St. Martin's Cathedral, Utrecht, St. Rumbold's Cathedral, St. Salvator's Cathedral, Switzerland, The Autumn of the Middle Ages, The Hague, Tournai, Tournai Cathedral, United States dollar, Utrecht, Valenciennes, Víctor García de la Concha, War of the Spanish Succession, World War I. Expand index (94 more) » « Shrink index
's-Hertogenbosch (literally "The Duke's Forest" in English, and historically in French: Bois-le-Duc), colloquially known as Den Bosch (literally "The Forest" in English), is a city and municipality in the Southern Netherlands with a population of 152,968.
The Abbey of St.
is the current Emperor of Japan.
Alain Chartier (1430) was a French poet and political writer.
Albert I (8 April 1875 – 17 February 1934) reigned as the third King of the Belgians from 1909 to 1934.
Albert II (born 6 June 1934) reigned as the sixth King of the Belgians from 1993 until his abdication in 2013.
Alexander, Prince of Saxe-Gessaphe (German: Alexander Prinz von Sachsen-Gessaphe Polish: Aleksander książę Sasko-Gessapski; born Alexander de Afif 12 February 1954), is the adopted son and heir of Maria Emanuel, Margrave of Meissen, and a businessman with Lebanese, Mexican and German roots.
Alfonso XIII (Spanish: Alfonso León Fernando María Jaime Isidro Pascual Antonio de Borbón y Habsburgo-Lorena; 17 May 1886 – 28 February 1941) was King of Spain from 1886 until the proclamation of the Second Republic in 1931.
Alois-Konstantin, Prince of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg, full German name: Alois Konstantin Karl Eduard Joseph Johann Konrad Antonius Gerhard Georg Benediktus Pius Eusebius Maria, Fürst zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg (born 16 December 1941 in Würzburg, Bavaria) is a German businessman and, since 1990, the head of the mediatised House of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg, the catholic cadet line of the Princes of Löwenstein-Wertheim, itself the patrilineally senior but morganatic branch of the royal house of Wittelsbach, which ruled the Kingdom of Bavaria until 1918.
Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.
The Archbishop of Vienna is the prelate of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Vienna who is concurrently the metropolitan bishop of its ecclesiastical province which includes the dioceses of Eisenstadt, Linz and St. Pölten.
Archduke Carl Christian of Austria (Carl Christian Maria Anna Rudolph Anton Marcus d'Aviano, Erzherzog und Prinz von Österreich, Prinz von Ungarn, Kroatien, und Böhmen) (born 26 August 1954 at Château de Belœil in Belœil, Belgium) is a Belgian aristocrat and a member of the formerly ruling Austro-Hungarian House of Habsburg-Lorraine.
The Argonautica (translit) is a Greek epic poem written by Apollonius Rhodius in the 3rd century BC.
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, (1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852) was an Anglo-Irish soldier and statesman who was one of the leading military and political figures of 19th-century Britain, serving twice as Prime Minister.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Barcelona is a city in Spain.
The Cathedral of the Holy Cross and Saint Eulalia (Catedral de la Santa Creu i Santa Eulàlia, Catedral de la Santa Cruz y Santa Eulalia), also known as Barcelona Cathedral, is the Gothic cathedral and seat of the Archbishop of Barcelona, Spain.
Beatrix (Beatrix Wilhelmina Armgard,; born 31 January 1938) is a member of the Dutch royal family who reigned as Queen of the Netherlands from 30 April 1980 until her abdication on 30 April 2013.
Bhumibol Adulyadej (ภูมิพลอดุลยเดช;;; see full title below; 5 December 1927 – 13 October 2016), conferred with the title King Bhumibol the Great in 1987, was the ninth monarch of Thailand from the Chakri dynasty as Rama IX.
Bruges (Brugge; Bruges; Brügge) is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium, in the northwest of the country.
Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
COPE, an acronym for Cadena de Ondas Populares Españolas ("People's Radiowaves of Spain Network") formerly called Radio Popular, is a Spanish radio station.
A canon (from the Latin canonicus, itself derived from the Greek κανονικός, kanonikós, "relating to a rule", "regular") is a member of certain bodies subject to an ecclesiastical rule.
A cardinal (Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, literally Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church) is a senior ecclesiastical leader, considered a Prince of the Church, and usually an ordained bishop of the Roman Catholic Church.
Carl XVI Gustaf (full name: Carl Gustaf Folke Hubertus; born 30 April 1946) is the King of Sweden.
Carl Maria Peter Ferdinand Philipp Albrecht Joseph Michael Pius Konrad Robert Ulrich Herzog von Württemberg (born 1 August 1936) is the current head of the House of Württemberg.
Carlism (Karlismo; Carlisme) is a Traditionalist and legitimist political movement in Spain seeking the establishment of a separate line of the Bourbon dynasty on the Spanish throne.
The Cathedral of Our Lady (Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekathedraal) is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Antwerp, Belgium.
The Cathedral of St.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
A chapter (capitulum or capitellum) is one of several bodies of clergy in Roman Catholic, Anglican, and Nordic Lutheran churches or their gatherings.
Charles I or Karl I (Karl Franz Joseph Ludwig Hubert Georg Otto Maria; 17 August 18871 April 1922) was the last reigning monarch of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Charles II of Spain (Carlos II; 6 November 1661 – 1 November 1700), also known as El Hechizado or the Bewitched, was the last Habsburg ruler of the Spanish Empire.
Charles the Bold (also translated as Charles the Reckless).
Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.
Charles VI (1 October 1685 – 20 October 1740; Karl VI.) succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia (as Charles II), King of Hungary and Croatia, Serbia and Archduke of Austria (as Charles III) in 1711.
Christoph Maria Michael Hugo Damian Peter Adalbert, Count of Schönborn, O.P. (German: Christoph Maria Michael Hugo Damian Peter Adalbert, Graf von Schönborn; born 22 January 1945), is a Bohemian-born Austrian Dominican friar and theologian, who is a cardinal of the Catholic Church.
The Church of Our Lady (Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekerk) in Bruges, Belgium, dates mainly from the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries.
The Co-Princes of Andorra or Co-Monarchs of Andorra are jointly the head of state (Cap de l'Estat) of the Principality of Andorra, a landlocked microstate lying in the Pyrenees mountains between France and Spain.
Colchis (კოლხეთი K'olkheti; Greek Κολχίς Kolkhís) was an ancient Georgian kingdom and region on the coast of the Black Sea, centred in present-day western Georgia.
Constantine II (Κωνσταντίνος Βʹ, Konstantínos II,; born 2 June 1940) reigned as the King of Greece, from 1964 until the abolition of the monarchy in 1973.
Dijon is a city in eastern:France, capital of the Côte-d'Or département and of the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region.
Dom Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza (Duarte Pio João Miguel Gabriel Rafael; born 15 May 1945) is a claimant to the Portuguese throne, as the head of the House of Braganza.
Duke of Burgundy (duc de Bourgogne) was a title borne by the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy, a small portion of traditional lands of Burgundians west of river Saône which in 843 was allotted to Charles the Bald's kingdom of West Franks.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Enrique Valentín Iglesias García, KOGF (born 29 March 1930 in Arancedo, Asturias) is an economist of Uruguayan-Spanish dual citizenship.
Excellency is an honorific style given to certain high-level officers of a sovereign state, officials of an international organization, or members of an aristocracy.
Felipe VI (Felipe Juan Pablo Alfonso de Todos los Santos de Borbón y de Grecia; born 30 January 1968) is the King of Spain.
Ferdinand VII (Fernando; 14 October 1784 – 29 September 1833) was twice King of Spain: in 1808 and again from 1813 to his death.
Ferdinand Zvonimir Maria Balthus Keith Michael Otto Antal Bahnam Leonhard von Habsburg,The Habsburgs' titles are not recognised anymore in Austria or in Hungary.
Flanders (Vlaanderen, Flandre, Flandern) is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francis I (Franz Stefan, François Étienne; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real powers of those positions.
Franz, Duke of Bavaria (German: Franz Bonaventura Adalbert Maria Herzog von Bayern; born 14 July 1933) is head of the House of Wittelsbach, the former ruling family of the Kingdom of Bavaria.
A funeral is a ceremony connected with the burial, cremation, or interment of a corpse, or the burial (or equivalent) with the attendant observances.
Georg von HabsburgThe Habsburgs' titles are not recognised anymore in Austria or in Hungary, where he is referred to as Georg Habsburg-Lothringen, which is his legal name (see Austrian nobility and Statute IV of 1947 regarding the abolition of certain titles and ranks (Hungary)).
Georg, Duke of Hohenberg (born 25 April 1929), is a grandson of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg.
Ghent (Gent; Gand) is a city and a municipality in the Flemish Region of Belgium.
Gideon or Gedeon, also named Jerubbaal, and Jerubbesheth, was a military leader, judge and prophet whose calling and victory over the Midianites are recounted in of the Book of Judges in the Hebrew Bible.
In Greek mythology, the Golden Fleece (χρυσόμαλλον δέρας chrysómallon déras) is the fleece of the gold-haired winged ram, which was held in Colchis.
The Golden Fleece Award (1975–1988) was a tongue-in-cheek award given to public officials in the United States for their squandering of public money, its name sardonically purloined from the actual Order of the Golden Fleece, a prestigious chivalric award created in the late-15th Century, and a play on the transitive verb fleece, as in charging excessively for goods or services.
Graf (male) or Gräfin (female) is a historical title of the German nobility, usually translated as "count".
Grand Master (Magister generalis; Großmeister) is a title of the supreme head of various orders, including chivalric orders such as military orders and dynastic orders of knighthood.
Grote of Sint-Jacobskerk (Great, or St. James Church) is a landmark Protestant church in The Hague, Netherlands.
Hans-Adam II (Johannes Adam Ferdinand Alois Josef Maria Marco d'Aviano Pius; born 14 February 1945) is the reigning Prince of Liechtenstein.
Harald V (born 21 February 1937) is the King of Norway, having ascended the throne following the death of his father on 17 January 1991.
Henri (Henri Albert Gabriel Félix Marie Guillaume,; born 16 April 1955) is the Grand Duke of Luxembourg, reigning since 7 October 2000.
Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization.
Hohenberg is an Austrian noble family that descends from Countess Sophie Chotek (1868–1914), who in 1900 married Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Este (1863–1914), the heir presumptive to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
Merode is one of the most important families of the Belgian nobility.
Isabella II (Isabel; 10 October 1830 – 9 April 1904) was Queen of Spain from 1833 until 1868.
Isabella of Portugal (22 February 1397 – 17 December 1471) was Duchess of Burgundy as the third wife of Duke Philip the Good.
Francisco Javier Solana de Madariaga, KOGF, KCMG (born 14 July 1942), is a Spanish physicist and Socialist politician.
Jean le Fèvre de Saint-Remy or Jean Lefebvre de Saint-Remy (c. 1394 – June 16, 1468) born in Abbeville, was a Burgundian chronicler during the Hundred Years' War and lord (seigneur) of Saint Remy, la Vacquerie, Avesnes and Morienne.
Jean (given names: Jean Benoît Guillaume Robert Antoine Louis Marie Adolphe Marc d'Aviano; born 5 January 1921) reigned as Grand Duke of Luxembourg from 1964 until his abdication in 2000.
Johan Huizinga (7 December 1872 – 1 February 1945) was a Dutch historian and one of the founders of modern cultural history.
Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte, born Giuseppe Buonaparte (7 January 1768 – 28 July 1844) was a French diplomat and nobleman, the elder brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, who made him King of Naples and Sicily (1806–1808, as Giuseppe I), and later King of Spain (1808–1813, as José I).
Juan Carlos I (Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias, born 5 January 1938) reigned as King of Spain from 1975 until his abdication in 2014.
Karel Schwarzenberg (born 10 December 1937) is a Czech politician, former leader of the TOP 09 party and its candidate for President of the Czech Republic in the 2013 election.
Karl von Habsburg (Karl Thomas Robert Maria Franziskus Georg Bahnam; born 11 January 1961), also known as Karl of Austria and referred to by his ancestral titles as Archduke of Austria, Royal Prince of Hungary, Bohemia and Croatia, is an Austrian politician, the current head of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine which ruled the lands of the Habsburg Monarchy, the Empire of Austria, the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, and the Kingdom of Hungary as well as the Crown lands of Bohemia and Croatia by hereditary right until the end of World War I. Born in Starnberg, Germany, in 1961, he is the son of Archduke Otto von Habsburg, Crown Prince of Austria and Princess Regina of Saxe-Meiningen, and the grandson of the last Austrian emperor, Charles I. He served as a Member of the European Parliament for the Austrian People's Party 1996–1999.
King of Arms is the senior rank of an officer of arms.
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political leader for service to the monarch or a Christian Church, especially in a military capacity.
Kubrat, Prince of Panagyurishte, Duke of Saxony – Official website of H.M. King Simeon II (born 5 November 1965), known by his civilian name as Kubrat de Sajonia-Coburgo-Gotha y Gómez-Acebo (in Spain) or Kubrat Sakskoburggotski (in Bulgaria), is a Spanish surgeon and member of the former Bulgarian Royal Family.
Leonor, Princess of Asturias (born 31 October 2005) is the heir presumptive to the throne of Spain as the elder daughter of King Felipe VI and Queen Letizia.
Lille (Rijsel; Rysel) is a city at the northern tip of France, in French Flanders.
This page contains a list of Knights of the Order of the Golden Fleece.
A livery collar or chain of office is a collar or heavy chain, usually of gold, worn as insignia of office or a mark of fealty or other association in Europe from the Middle Ages onwards.
The House of Lobkowicz (Lobkovicové in modern Czech, sg. z Lobkovic; Lobkowitz in German) is a Czech noble family that dates back to the 14th century and is one of the oldest Bohemian noble families.
Louis XVIII (Louis Stanislas Xavier; 17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), known as "the Desired" (le Désiré), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1814 to 1824, except for a period in 1815 known as the Hundred Days.
Madame d'Or was a French jester of the 15th century.
Margrethe II (Margrethe 2.,; Margreta 2.; Margrethe II; full name: Margrethe Alexandrine Þórhildur Ingrid; born 16 April 1940) is the Queen of Denmark; as well as the supreme authority of the Church of Denmark and Commander-in-Chief of the Danish Defence.
Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina (Maria Theresia; 13 May 1717 – 29 November 1780) was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg.
Mariano Hugo, Prince of Windisch-Graetz (German: Mariano Hugo Fürst zu Windisch-Graetz, Italian: Mariano Ugo, Principe di Windisch-Graetz; born 27 July 1955) is the current head of the Austrian or ItalianLes Manuscrits du CEDRE V, Le Royaume d'Italie I. Cercle d'Etudes des Dynasties Royales Europėennes (CEDRE), Paris, 1992, p. 196-197 House of Windisch-Graetz.
Mass is a term used to describe the main eucharistic liturgical service in many forms of Western Christianity.
Maximilian I (22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519) was King of the Romans (also known as King of the Germans) from 1486 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death, though he was never crowned by the Pope, as the journey to Rome was always too risky.
Mechelen (Malines, traditional English name: MechlinMechelen has been known in English as Mechlin, from where the adjective Mechlinian is derived. This name may still be used, especially in a traditional or historical context. The city's French name Malines had also been used in English in the past (in the 19th and 20th century) however this has largely been abandoned. Meanwhile, the Dutch derived Mechelen began to be used in English increasingly from late 20th century onwards, even while Mechlin remained still in use (for example a Mechlinian is an inhabitant of this city or someone seen as born-and-raised there; the term is also the name of the city dialect; as an adjective Mechlinian may refer to the city or to its dialect.) is a city and municipality in the province of Antwerp, Flanders, Belgium. The municipality comprises the city of Mechelen proper, some quarters at its outskirts, the hamlets of Nekkerspoel (adjacent) and Battel (a few kilometers away), as well as the villages of Walem, Heffen, Leest, Hombeek, and Muizen. The Dyle (Dijle) flows through the city, hence it is often referred to as the Dijlestad ("City on the river Dijle"). Mechelen lies on the major urban and industrial axis Brussels–Antwerp, about 25 km from each city. Inhabitants find employment at Mechelen's southern industrial and northern office estates, as well as at offices or industry near the capital and Zaventem Airport, or at industrial plants near Antwerp's seaport. Mechelen is one of Flanders' prominent cities of historical art, with Antwerp, Bruges, Brussels, Ghent, and Leuven. It was notably a centre for artistic production during the Northern Renaissance, when painters, printmakers, illuminators and composers of polyphony were attracted by patrons such as Margaret of York, Margaret of Austria and Hieronymus van Busleyden.
Michel Charles Eugène Marie Lamoral, Prince de Ligne, Prince d'Épinoy, Prince d'Amblise, Grandee of Spain (born 26 May 1951, Château de Belœil, BelgiumEnache, Nicolas. La Descendance de Marie-Therese de Habsburg. ICC, Paris, 1996. pp. 46, 51, 427-429. (French).) is the head of the princely House of Ligne.
Middelburg is a city and municipality in the south-western Netherlands serving as the capital of the province of Zeeland.
The monarchy of Spain (Monarquía de España), constitutionally referred to as the Crown (La Corona), is a constitutional institution and historic office of Spain.
Mons (Bergen; Mont; Mont) is a Walloon city and municipality, and the capital of the Belgian province of Hainaut.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sarközy de Nagy-Bocsa KOGF GCB (born 28 January 1955) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 16 May 2007 until 15 May 2012.
The Nine Worthies are nine historical, scriptural, and legendary personages who personify the ideals of chivalry as were established in the Middle Ages.
A chivalric order, order of chivalry, order of knighthood or equestrian order is an order, confraternity or society of knights typically founded during or in inspiration of the original Catholic military orders of the Crusades (circa 1099-1291), paired with medieval concepts of ideals of chivalry.
Otto von Habsburg (20 November 1912 4 July 2011), also known by his traditional royal title of Archduke Otto of Austria, was the last Crown Prince of Austria-Hungary from 1916 until the dissolution of the empire in 1919, a realm which comprised modern-day Austria, Hungary, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, and parts of Italy, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Ukraine.
The Paris Peace Conference, also known as Versailles Peace Conference, was the meeting of the victorious Allied Powers following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers.
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.
Philip I (22 July 1478 – 25 September 1506) called the Handsome or the Fair, was the first member of the house of Habsburg to be King of Castile.
Philip II (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–58).
Philip the Good (Philippe le Bon, Filips de Goede; 31 July 1396 – 15 June 1467) was Duke of Burgundy as Philip III from 1419 until his death.
Philip V (Felipe V, Philippe, Filippo; 19 December 1683 – 9 July 1746) was King of Spain from 1 November 1700 to his abdication in favour of his son Louis on 15 January 1724, and from his reascendancy of the throne upon his son's death on 6 September 1724 to his own death on 9 July 1746.
Philippe or Filip (Philippe Léopold Louis Marie, Filip Leopold Lodewijk Maria, Philipp Leopold Ludwig Maria; born 15 April 1960) is the seventh King of the Belgians, having ascended the throne on 21 July 2013, following his father's abdication.
Pope Pius VII (14 August 1742 – 20 August 1823), born Barnaba Niccolò Maria Luigi Chiaramonti, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 14 March 1800 to his death in 1823.
The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française) is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic.
The Prime Minister of Bulgaria (Министър-председател, Ministar-predsedatel) is the head of government of Bulgaria.
Prince Lorenz of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este (born 16 December 1955) is a member of the Belgian Royal Family and has both Austrian and Belgian citizenships.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
Rogier van der Weyden or Roger de la Pasture (1399 or 140018 June 1464) was an Early Netherlandish painter whose surviving works consist mainly of religious triptychs, altarpieces and commissioned single and diptych portraits.
Saint-Omer (Sint-Omaars) is a commune in France.
The Salic law (or; Lex salica), or the was the ancient Salian Frankish civil law code compiled around AD 500 by the first Frankish King, Clovis.
Simeon II of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: Симеон Борисов Сакскобургготски, (transliteration: Simeon Borisov Sakskoburggotski) or Цар Симеон II (Tsar Simeon II); Wettin; Simeone di Sassonia-Coburgo-Gotha; born 16 June 1937) is the last reigning Bulgarian monarch and later served as Prime Minister of Bulgaria from 2001 to 2005.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
The Saint Bavo Cathedral (also known as Sint-Baafs Cathedral, or in Dutch Sint Baafskathedraal) an 89-meter-tall Gothic cathedral in Ghent, Belgium.
The Roman Catholic Cathedral Church of St.
The Saint-Salvator Cathedral is the cathedral of Bruges, Flanders, in present-day Belgium.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
The Autumn of the Middle Ages, or The Waning of the Middle Ages (published in 1919 as Herfsttij der Middeleeuwen and translated into English in 1924), is the best-known work by the Dutch historian Johan Huizinga.
The Hague (Den Haag,, short for 's-Gravenhage) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.
Tournai (Latin: Tornacum, Picard: Tornai), known in Dutch as Doornik and historically as Dornick in English, is a Walloon municipality of Belgium, southwest of Brussels on the river Scheldt.
The Tournai Cathedral, or Cathedral of Our Lady (Notre-Dame de Tournai, Onze-Lieve-Vrouw van Doornik), is a Roman Catholic church, see of the Diocese of Tournai in Tournai, Belgium.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
Utrecht is a city and municipality in the Netherlands, capital and most populous city of the province of Utrecht.
Valenciennes (Dutch: Valencijn, Latin: Valentianae, Valincyinne) is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
Víctor García de la Concha, KOGF (born 2 January 1934, Villaviciosa, Asturias) El País is a Spanish philologist.
The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death of the childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Austrian Order of the Golden Fleece, Golden Fleece Order, KOGF, Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece, Knights of the Golden Fleece, Knights of the golden fleece, Noble Order of the Golden Fleece, Orden del Toisón de Oro, Order of the golden fleece, Society of the golden fleece, The Order of the Golden Fleece, The order of the Golden Fleece.