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Orders of magnitude (temperature)

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Most ordinary human activity takes place at temperatures of this order of magnitude. [1]

257 relations: Absolute hot, Absolute zero, Accretion disk, Active galactic nucleus, Agence France-Presse, Alaska, Allotropes of phosphorus, Almond, Aluminium, Antarctica, Antiproton, Argentina, Asymptotic giant branch, Autoignition temperature, Avgas, Barium, Big Bang, Boiling point, Boomerang Nebula, Bose gas, Bose–Einstein condensate, Bromine, Brown dwarf, Bunsen burner, Butter, Calcium, California, Canola, Caramelization, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbon-burning process, Celsius, Charlotte Pass, New South Wales, Coconut oil, Coffee, Coherence (physics), Concorde, Coordinated Universal Time, Copper, Corn oil, Corona, Cosmic microwave background, Cottonseed oil, Critical point (thermodynamics), Curie temperature, Cyanogen, Dallol, Ethiopia, Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit, Dark matter, ..., Death Valley, Debye model, Deep frying, Denali, Deuterium fusion, Diamond, Dicyanoacetylene, Diesel fuel, Dilution refrigerator, Disproportionation, Dome A, Doneness, Doppler effect, Draper point, Dry ice, Electron, Electronvolt, Electrostatic discharge, Electroweak star, Eta Carinae, Ethanol, Evaporative cooler, Fahrenheit, Fermi energy, Fermionic condensate, Ferromagnetism, Fort Nelson, British Columbia, Francium, Frost, Furnace Creek, California, Gallium, Gamma ray, Gamma-ray burst, Gasoline, Geon (physics), Ghee, Glass transition, Grand Unified Theory, Grape seed oil, Greenland, Growing degree-day, Hadron, Hafnium(IV) carbide, Hagedorn temperature, Hawking radiation, Helium, Helium star, Helium-3, Helium-4, Hemp oil, Hot spring, Human body temperature, Hydrogen, Hypothermia, Ideal gas, Ifrane, Inductively coupled plasma, Infrared, Initial singularity, Inner core, Inyo County, California, Iron, Isopropyl alcohol, Isotopes of beryllium, Jet fuel, Jupiter, K-type main-sequence star, Kebili, Kelvin, Kinetic energy, Kugelblitz (astrophysics), Lambda point, Landau pole, Large extra dimension, Large Hadron Collider, Laser cooling, Lead, Light, Lightning, Linseed oil, Lithium burning, Little Boy, Lowest temperature recorded on Earth, Magnesium, Magnetic confinement fusion, Magnetic refrigeration, Magneto-optical trap, Mars, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Melting point, Mercury (element), Mercury (planet), Microwave, Morocco, Mount Everest, Needles, California, Neon-burning process, Neptune, Neutron star, NGC 6302, Nickel, Niobium, Nitrogen, North Ice, Northern Hemisphere, Nova, Olive oil, Oodnadatta, Orders of magnitude (energy), Oven, Oxygen, Oxygen-burning process, Oymyakon, Oymyakonsky District, Ozone, Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, Palm kernel oil, Palm oil, Paper, Paramagnetism, Particle in a box, Pasteurization, Peanut oil, Phase (matter), Photosphere, Pion, Planck particle, Planck temperature, Planck units, Pluto, Poaching (cooking), Poland, Popcorn, Positron, Potassium, Proton, Proton–proton chain reaction, Protostar, Quantum decoherence, Quantum tunnelling, Quark–gluon plasma, Quasar, R136a1, Racławice, Red dwarf, Red Sea, Rocky Mountains, Room temperature, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Safflower, Sakha Republic, Saturn, Sauna, Sesame oil, Silicon-burning process, Simmering, Sirius, Smoke point, Snowball Earth, Sodium, Solar core, Solar flare, Solar wind, Southern Hemisphere, Soviet Union, Soybean oil, Space Shuttle orbiter, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, String theory, Sublimation (phase transition), Sulfur, Sun, Sunflower oil, Superconductivity, Supercooling, Superheating, Superluminous supernova, Supermassive black hole, Supernova, Syrup, T Tauri star, Temperature, Territory of Alaska, Tevatron, Thallium, Theory of everything, Thermodynamic system, Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, Triple point, Triple-alpha process, Tungsten, Tunisia, Ultra-high-energy cosmic ray, Ultraviolet, United States, Universe, Uranus, Valence electron, Vanda Station, Venus, Vostok Station, White dwarf, Wolf–Rayet star, X-ray, Yttrium, Yttrium barium copper oxide, Zero-point energy. Expand index (207 more) »

Absolute hot

Absolute hot is a concept of temperature that postulates the existence of a highest attainable temperature of matter.

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Absolute zero

Absolute zero is the lower limit of the thermodynamic temperature scale, a state at which the enthalpy and entropy of a cooled ideal gas reach their minimum value, taken as 0.

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Accretion disk

An accretion disk is a structure (often a circumstellar disk) formed by diffused material in orbital motion around a massive central body.

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Active galactic nucleus

An active galactic nucleus (AGN) is a compact region at the center of a galaxy that has a much higher than normal luminosity over at least some portion—and possibly all—of the electromagnetic spectrum, with characteristics indicating that the excess luminosity is not produced by stars.

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Agence France-Presse

Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.

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Alaska

Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.

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Allotropes of phosphorus

Elemental phosphorus can exist in several allotropes, the most common of which are white and red solids.

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Almond

The almond (Prunus dulcis, syn. Prunus amygdalus) is a species of tree native to Mediterranean climate regions of the Middle East, from Syria and Turkey to India and Pakistan, although it has been introduced elsewhere.

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Aluminium

Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.

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Antarctica

Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.

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Antiproton

The antiproton,, (pronounced p-bar) is the antiparticle of the proton.

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Argentina

Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.

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Asymptotic giant branch

The asymptotic giant branch (AGB) is a region of the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram populated by evolved cool luminous stars.

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Autoignition temperature

The autoignition temperature or kindling point of a substance is the lowest temperature at which it spontaneously ignites in normal atmosphere without an external source of ignition, such as a flame or spark.

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Avgas

Avgas (aviation gasoline, also known as aviation spirit in the UK), is an aviation fuel used in spark-ignited internal-combustion engines to propel aircraft.

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Barium

Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56.

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Big Bang

The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.

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Boiling point

The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.

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Boomerang Nebula

The Boomerang Nebula is a protoplanetary nebula located 5,000 light-years away from Earth in the constellation Centaurus.

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Bose gas

An ideal Bose gas is a quantum-mechanical phase of matter, analogous to a classical ideal gas.

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Bose–Einstein condensate

A Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is a state of matter of a dilute gas of bosons cooled to temperatures very close to absolute zero.

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Bromine

Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.

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Brown dwarf

Brown dwarfs are substellar objects that occupy the mass range between the heaviest gas giant planets and the lightest stars, having masses between approximately 13 to 75–80 times that of Jupiter, or approximately to about.

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Bunsen burner

A Bunsen burner, named after Robert Bunsen, is a common piece of laboratory equipment that produces a single open gas flame, which is used for heating, sterilization, and combustion.

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Butter

Butter is a dairy product containing up to 80% butterfat (in commercial products) which is solid when chilled and at room temperature in some regions and liquid when warmed.

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Calcium

Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.

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California

California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.

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Canola

Canola oil, or canola for short, is a vegetable oil derived from rapeseed that is low in erucic acid, as opposed to colza oil.

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Caramelization

Caramelization is the browning of sugar, a process used extensively in cooking for the resulting sweet nutty flavor and brown color.

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Carbon

Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Carbon-burning process

The carbon-burning process or carbon fusion is a set of nuclear fusion reactions that take place in the cores of massive stars (at least 8 \beginsmallmatrixM_\odot\endsmallmatrix at birth) that combines carbon into other elements.

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Celsius

The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).

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Charlotte Pass, New South Wales

Charlotte Pass (often erroneously referred to as Charlotte's Pass), elevation, is a location, snow resort and village in the Snowy Mountains of New South Wales, Australia.

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Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Coconut oil

Coconut oil, or copra oil, is an edible oil extracted from the kernel or meat of mature coconuts harvested from the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera).

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Coffee

Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.

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Coherence (physics)

In physics, two wave sources are perfectly coherent if they have a constant phase difference and the same frequency, and the same waveform.

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Concorde

The Aérospatiale/BAC Concorde is a British-French turbojet-powered supersonic passenger airliner that was operated from 1976 until 2003.

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Coordinated Universal Time

No description.

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Copper

Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

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Corn oil

Corn oil (maize oil) is oil extracted from the germ of corn (maize).

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Corona

A corona (Latin, 'crown') is an aura of plasma that surrounds the Sun and other stars.

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Cosmic microwave background

The cosmic microwave background (CMB, CMBR) is electromagnetic radiation as a remnant from an early stage of the universe in Big Bang cosmology.

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Cottonseed oil

Cottonseed oil is a cooking oil extracted from the seeds of cotton plants of various species, mainly Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium herbaceum, that are grown for cotton fiber, animal feed, and oil.

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Critical point (thermodynamics)

In thermodynamics, a critical point (or critical state) is the end point of a phase equilibrium curve.

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Curie temperature

In physics and materials science, the Curie temperature (TC), or Curie point, is the temperature above which certain materials lose their permanent magnetic properties, to be replaced by induced magnetism.

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Cyanogen

Cyanogen is the chemical compound with the formula (CN)2.

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Dallol, Ethiopia

Dallol (Amharic: ዳሎል) is a locality in the Dallol woreda of northern Ethiopia.

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Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit

Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit FRS (24 May 1686 – 16 September 1736) was a Dutch-German-Polish physicist, inventor, and scientific instrument maker.

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Dark matter

Dark matter is a theorized form of matter that is thought to account for approximately 80% of the matter in the universe, and about a quarter of its total energy density.

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Death Valley

Death Valley is a desert valley located in Eastern California, in the northern Mojave Desert bordering the Great Basin Desert.

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Debye model

In thermodynamics and solid state physics, the Debye model is a method developed by Peter Debye in 1912 for estimating the phonon contribution to the specific heat (heat capacity) in a solid.

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Deep frying

Deep frying (also referred to as deep fat frying) is a cooking method in which food is submerged in hot fat, most commonly oil, rather than the shallow oil used in conventional frying, done in a frying pan.

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Denali

Denali (also known as Mount McKinley, its former official name) is the highest mountain peak in North America, with a summit elevation of above sea level.

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Deuterium fusion

Deuterium fusion, also called deuterium burning, is a nuclear fusion reaction that occurs in stars and some substellar objects, in which a deuterium nucleus and a proton combine to form a helium-3 nucleus.

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Diamond

Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.

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Dicyanoacetylene

Dicyanoacetylene, also called carbon subnitride or but-2-ynedinitrile (IUPAC), is a compound of carbon and nitrogen with chemical formula C4N2.

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Diesel fuel

Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.

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Dilution refrigerator

A 3He/4He dilution refrigerator is a cryogenic device that provides continuous cooling to temperatures as low as 2 mK, with no moving parts in the low-temperature region.

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Disproportionation

Disproportionation, sometimes called dismutation, is a redox reaction in which a compound of intermediate oxidation state converts to two different compounds, one of higher and one of lower oxidation states.

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Dome A

Dome A or Dome Argus is the loftiest ice dome on the Antarctic Plateau, located inland.

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Doneness

Doneness is a gauge of how thoroughly cooked a cut of meat is based on the colour, juiciness and internal temperature when cooked.

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Doppler effect

The Doppler effect (or the Doppler shift) is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to observer who is moving relative to the wave source.

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Draper point

The Draper point is the approximate temperature above which almost all solid materials visibly glow as a result of blackbody radiation.

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Dry ice

Dry ice, sometimes referred to as "cardice" (chiefly by British chemists), is the solid form of carbon dioxide.

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Electron

The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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Electronvolt

In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).

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Electrostatic discharge

Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is the sudden flow of electricity between two electrically charged objects caused by contact, an electrical short, or dielectric breakdown.

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Electroweak star

An electroweak star is a theoretical type of exotic star, whereby the gravitational collapse of the star is prevented by radiation pressure resulting from electroweak burning, that is, the energy released by conversion of quarks to leptons through the electroweak force.

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Eta Carinae

Eta Carinae (η Carinae, abbreviated to η Car), formerly known as Eta Argus, is a stellar system containing at least two stars with a combined luminosity greater than five million times that of the Sun, located around 7,500 light-years (2,300 parsecs) distant in the constellation Carina.

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Ethanol

Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.

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Evaporative cooler

An evaporative cooler (also swamp cooler, desert cooler and wet air cooler) is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water.

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Fahrenheit

The Fahrenheit scale is a temperature scale based on one proposed in 1724 by Dutch-German-Polish physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736).

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Fermi energy

The Fermi energy is a concept in quantum mechanics usually referring to the energy difference between the highest and lowest occupied single-particle states in a quantum system of non-interacting fermions at absolute zero temperature.

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Fermionic condensate

A fermionic condensate is a superfluid phase formed by fermionic particles at low temperatures.

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Ferromagnetism

Ferromagnetism is the basic mechanism by which certain materials (such as iron) form permanent magnets, or are attracted to magnets.

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Fort Nelson, British Columbia

Fort Nelson is a community in northeast British Columbia, Canada within the Northern Rockies Regional Municipality (NRRM).

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Francium

Francium is a chemical element with symbol Fr and atomic number 87.

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Frost

Frost is the coating or deposit of ice that may form in humid air in cold conditions, usually overnight.

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Furnace Creek, California

Furnace Creek is a census-designated place (CDP) in Inyo County, California.

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Gallium

Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31.

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Gamma ray

A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.

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Gamma-ray burst

In gamma-ray astronomy, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are extremely energetic explosions that have been observed in distant galaxies.

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Gasoline

Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.

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Geon (physics)

In theoretical general relativity, a geon is an electromagnetic or gravitational wave which is held together in a confined region by the gravitational attraction of its own field energy.

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Ghee

Ghee is a class of clarified butter that originated from the Indian subcontinent.

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Glass transition

The glass–liquid transition, or glass transition, is the gradual and reversible transition in amorphous materials (or in amorphous regions within semicrystalline materials), from a hard and relatively brittle "glassy" state into a viscous or rubbery state as the temperature is increased.

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Grand Unified Theory

A Grand Unified Theory (GUT) is a model in particle physics in which, at high energy, the three gauge interactions of the Standard Model which define the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, or forces, are merged into one single force.

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Grape seed oil

Grape seed oil (also called grapeseed oil or grape oil) is pressed from the seeds of grapes, and is thus an abundant by-product of winemaking.

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Greenland

Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

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Growing degree-day

Growing degree days (GDD), also called growing degree units (GDUs), are a heuristic tool in phenology.

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Hadron

In particle physics, a hadron (ἁδρός, hadrós, "stout, thick") is a composite particle made of quarks held together by the strong force in a similar way as molecules are held together by the electromagnetic force.

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Hafnium(IV) carbide

Hafnium carbide (HfC) is a chemical compound of hafnium and carbon.

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Hagedorn temperature

The Hagedorn temperature is the temperature in theoretical physics where hadronic matter (i.e. ordinary matter) is no longer stable, and must either "evaporate" or convert into quark matter; as such, it can be thought of as the "boiling point" of hadronic matter.

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Hawking radiation

Hawking radiation is blackbody radiation that is predicted to be released by black holes, due to quantum effects near the event horizon.

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Helium

Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.

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Helium star

A helium star or helium strong star is a class O or B star (blue), which has extraordinarily strong helium lines and weaker than normal hydrogen lines, indicating strong stellar winds and a mass loss of the outer envelope.

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Helium-3

Helium-3 (He-3, also written as 3He, see also helion) is a light, non-radioactive isotope of helium with two protons and one neutron (common helium having two protons and two neutrons).

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Helium-4

Helium-4 is a non-radioactive isotope of the element helium.

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Hemp oil

Hemp oil or hempseed oil is obtained by pressing hemp seeds.

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Hot spring

A hot spring is a spring produced by the emergence of geothermally heated groundwater that rises from the Earth's crust.

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Human body temperature

Normal human body temperature, also known as normothermia or euthermia, is the typical temperature range found in humans.

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Hydrogen

Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Hypothermia

Hypothermia is reduced body temperature that happens when a body dissipates more heat than it absorbs.

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Ideal gas

An ideal gas is a theoretical gas composed of many randomly moving point particles whose only interactions are perfectly elastic collisions.

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Ifrane

Ifrane (إفران.; Berber: ⵉⴼⵔⴰⵏ) is a city in the Middle Atlas region of Morocco (population 73,782 in November 2014).

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Inductively coupled plasma

An inductively coupled plasma (ICP) or transformer coupled plasma (TCP) is a type of plasma source in which the energy is supplied by electric currents which are produced by electromagnetic induction, that is, by time-varying magnetic fields.

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Infrared

Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.

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Initial singularity

The initial singularity was a singularity of seemingly infinite density and mass thought to have contained all of the mass and space-time of the Universe before quantum fluctuations caused it to rapidly expand in the Big Bang and subsequent inflation, creating the present-day Universe.

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Inner core

The Earth's inner core is the Earth's innermost part.

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Inyo County, California

Inyo County is a county in the U.S. state of California.

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Iron

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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Isopropyl alcohol

Isopropyl alcohol (IUPAC name propan-2-ol; commonly called isopropanol) is a compound with the chemical formula C3H8O.

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Isotopes of beryllium

Beryllium (4Be) has 12 known isotopes, but only one of these isotopes is stable and a primordial nuclide.

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Jet fuel

Jet fuel, aviation turbine fuel (ATF), or avtur, is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in aircraft powered by gas-turbine engines.

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Jupiter

Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.

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K-type main-sequence star

A K-type main-sequence star (K V), also referred to as an orange dwarf or K dwarf, is a main-sequence (hydrogen-burning) star of spectral type K and luminosity class V. These stars are intermediate in size between red M-type main-sequence stars ("red dwarfs") and yellow G-type main-sequence stars.

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Kebili

Kebili is a town in the south of Tunisia and one of the main cities in the Nefzaoua region.

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Kelvin

The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.

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Kinetic energy

In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.

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Kugelblitz (astrophysics)

In theoretical physics, a kugelblitz (German: "ball lightning") is a concentration of light or radiation so intense that its energy forms an event horizon and becomes self-trapped: according to general relativity and the equivalence of mass and energy, if enough radiation is aimed into a region, the concentration of energy can warp spacetime enough for the region to become a black hole (although this would be a black hole whose original mass-energy had been in the form of radiant energy rather than matter).

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Lambda point

The Lambda point is the temperature at which normal fluid helium (helium I) makes the transition to superfluid helium II (approximately 2.17 K at 1 atmosphere).

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Landau pole

In physics, the Landau pole (or the Moscow zero, or the Landau ghost) is the momentum (or energy) scale at which the coupling constant (interaction strength) of a quantum field theory becomes infinite.

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Large extra dimension

In particle physics, the ADD model, also known as the model with large extra dimensions (LED), is a model framework that attempts to solve the hierarchy problem by explaining the weakness of gravity relative to the other forces.

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Large Hadron Collider

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and most powerful particle collider, the most complex experimental facility ever built and the largest single machine in the world.

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Laser cooling

Laser cooling refers to a number of techniques in which atomic and molecular samples are cooled down to near absolute zero.

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Lead

Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.

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Light

Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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Lightning

Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.

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Linseed oil

Linseed oil, also known as flaxseed oil or flax oil, is a colourless to yellowish oil obtained from the dried, ripened seeds of the flax plant (Linum usitatissimum).

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Lithium burning

Lithium burning is a nucleosynthetic process in which lithium is depleted in a star.

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Little Boy

"Little Boy" was the codename for the atomic bomb dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima on 6 August 1945 during World War II by the Boeing B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay, piloted by Colonel Paul W. Tibbets, Jr., commander of the 509th Composite Group of the United States Army Air Forces.

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Lowest temperature recorded on Earth

The lowest natural temperature ever directly recorded at ground level on Earth is in East Antartica in March 2018.

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Magnesium

Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.

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Magnetic confinement fusion

Magnetic confinement fusion is an approach to generate thermonuclear fusion power that uses magnetic fields to confine the hot fusion fuel in the form of a plasma.

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Magnetic refrigeration

Magnetic refrigeration is a cooling technology based on the magnetocaloric effect.

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Magneto-optical trap

A magneto-optical trap (abbreviated MOT) is an apparatus that uses laser cooling with magneto-optical trapping in order to produce samples of cold, trapped, neutral atoms at temperatures as low as several microkelvins, two or three times the recoil limit (see Doppler cooling limit).

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Mars

Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.

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Melting point

The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.

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Mercury (element)

Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.

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Mercury (planet)

Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System.

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Microwave

Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between and.

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Morocco

Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.

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Mount Everest

Mount Everest, known in Nepali as Sagarmāthā and in Tibetan as Chomolungma, is Earth's highest mountain above sea level, located in the Mahalangur Himal sub-range of the Himalayas.

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Needles, California

Needles (Mojave: ʼAha Kuloh) is a city in San Bernardino County, California, United States.

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Neon-burning process

The neon-burning process (nuclear decay) is a set of nuclear fusion reactions that take place in massive stars (at least 8 Solar masses).

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Neptune

Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System.

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Neutron star

A neutron star is the collapsed core of a large star which before collapse had a total of between 10 and 29 solar masses.

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NGC 6302

NGC 6302, also called the Bug Nebula, Butterfly Nebula, is a bipolar planetary nebula in the constellation Scorpius.

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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Nickel

Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.

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Niobium

Niobium, formerly known as columbium, is a chemical element with symbol Nb (formerly Cb) and atomic number 41.

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Nitrogen

Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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North Ice

North Ice was a research station of the British North Greenland Expedition (1952 to 1954) on the inland ice of Greenland.

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Northern Hemisphere

The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is north of the Equator.

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Nova

A nova (plural novae or novas) or classical nova (CN, plural CNe) is a transient astronomical event that causes the sudden appearance of a bright, apparently "new" star, that slowly fades over several weeks or many months.

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Olive oil

Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.

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Oodnadatta

Oodnadatta, in the Australian state of South Australia, is a small town surrounded by an area of with cattle stations in arid pastoral rangelands close to the Simpson Desert, north of the state capital of Adelaide and 112 m above sea level.

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Orders of magnitude (energy)

This list compares various energies in joules (J), organized by order of magnitude.

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Oven

An oven is a thermally insulated chamber used for the heating, baking, or drying of a substance, and most commonly used for cooking.

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Oxygen

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Oxygen-burning process

The oxygen-burning process is a set of nuclear fusion reactions that take place in massive stars that have used up the lighter elements in their cores.

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Oymyakon

Oymyakon (Оймяко́н,; Өймөкөөн, Öymököön) is a rural locality (a selo) in Oymyakonsky District of the Sakha Republic, Russia, located along the Indigirka River, northwest of Tomtor on the Kolyma Highway.

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Oymyakonsky District

Oymyakonsky District (Оймяко́нский улу́с; Өймөкөөн улууһа, Öymököön uluuha) is an administrativeConstitution of the Sakha Republic and municipalLaw #172-Z #351-III district (raion, or ulus), one of the thirty-four in the Sakha Republic, Russia.

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Ozone

Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.

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Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum

The Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), alternatively (ETM1), and formerly known as the "Initial Eocene" or "" was a time period with more than 8 °C warmer global average temperature than today.

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Palm kernel oil

Palm kernel oil is an edible plant oil derived from the kernel of the oil palm Elaeis guineensis.

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Palm oil

Palm oil is an edible vegetable oil derived from the mesocarp (reddish pulp) of the fruit of the oil palms, primarily the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis, and to a lesser extent from the American oil palm Elaeis oleifera and the maripa palm Attalea maripa.

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Paper

Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.

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Paramagnetism

Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism whereby certain materials are weakly attracted by an externally applied magnetic field, and form internal, induced magnetic fields in the direction of the applied magnetic field.

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Particle in a box

In quantum mechanics, the particle in a box model (also known as the infinite potential well or the infinite square well) describes a particle free to move in a small space surrounded by impenetrable barriers.

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Pasteurization

Pasteurization or pasteurisation is a process in which packaged and non-packaged foods (such as milk and fruit juice) are treated with mild heat (Today, pasteurization is used widely in the dairy industry and other food processing industries to achieve food preservation and food safety. This process was named after the French scientist Louis Pasteur, whose research in the 1880s demonstrated that thermal processing would inactivate unwanted microorganisms in wine. Spoilage enzymes are also inactivated during pasteurization. Most liquid products are heat treated in a continuous system where heat can be applied using plate heat exchanger and/or direct or indirect use of steam and hot water. Due to the mild heat there are minor changes to the nutritional quality of foods as well as the sensory characteristics. Pascalization or high pressure processing (HPP) and Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) are non-thermal processes that are also used to pasteurize foods.

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Peanut oil

Peanut oil, also known as groundnut oil or arachis oil, is a mild-tasting vegetable oil derived from peanuts.

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Phase (matter)

In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.

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Photosphere

The photosphere is a star's outer shell from which light is radiated.

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Pion

In particle physics, a pion (or a pi meson, denoted with the Greek letter pi) is any of three subatomic particles:,, and.

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Planck particle

A Planck particle, named after physicist Max Planck, is a hypothetical particle defined as a tiny black hole whose Compton wavelength is equal to its Schwarzschild radius.

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Planck temperature

Planck temperature, denoted by TP, is the unit of temperature in the system of natural units known as Planck units.

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Planck units

In particle physics and physical cosmology, Planck units are a set of units of measurement defined exclusively in terms of five universal physical constants, in such a manner that these five physical constants take on the numerical value of 1 when expressed in terms of these units.

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Pluto

Pluto (minor planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune.

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Poaching (cooking)

Poaching is a type of moist-heat cooking technique that involves cooking by submerging food in a liquid, such as water, milk, stock or wine.

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Poland

Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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Popcorn

Popcorn, popcorns, or pop-corn, is a variety of corn kernel, which expands and puffs up when heated.

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Positron

The positron or antielectron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron.

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Potassium

Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.

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Proton

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Proton–proton chain reaction

The proton–proton chain reaction is one of the two (known) sets of fusion reactions by which stars convert hydrogen to helium.

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Protostar

A protostar is a very young star that is still gathering mass from its parent molecular cloud.

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Quantum decoherence

Quantum decoherence is the loss of quantum coherence.

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Quantum tunnelling

Quantum tunnelling or tunneling (see spelling differences) is the quantum mechanical phenomenon where a particle tunnels through a barrier that it classically cannot surmount.

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Quark–gluon plasma

A quark–gluon plasma (QGP) or quark soup is a state of matter in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) which exists at extremely high temperature and/or density.

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Quasar

A quasar (also known as a QSO or quasi-stellar object) is an extremely luminous active galactic nucleus (AGN).

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R136a1

RMC 136a1 (usually abbreviated to R136a1) is a Wolf–Rayet star located at the center of R136, the central condensation of stars of the large NGC 2070 open cluster in the Tarantula Nebula.

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Racławice

Racławice is a village located in Lesser Poland Voivodeship in southern Poland.

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Red dwarf

A red dwarf (or M dwarf) is a small and relatively cool star on the main sequence, of M spectral type.

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Red Sea

The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.

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Rocky Mountains

The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America.

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Room temperature

Colloquially, room temperature is the range of air temperatures that most people prefer for indoor settings, which feel comfortable when wearing typical indoor clothing.

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Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.

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Safflower

Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) is a highly branched, herbaceous, thistle-like annual plant.

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Sakha Republic

The Sakha (Yakutia) Republic (p; Sakha Öröspüübülükete), simply Sakha (Yakutia) (Саха (Якутия); Sakha Sire), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).

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Saturn

Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.

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Sauna

A sauna, or sudatory, is a small room or building designed as a place to experience dry or wet heat sessions, or an establishment with one or more of these facilities.

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Sesame oil

Sesame oil is an edible vegetable oil derived from sesame seeds.

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Silicon-burning process

In astrophysics, silicon burning is a very brief sequence of nuclear fusion reactions that occur in massive stars with a minimum of about 8-11 solar masses.

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Simmering

Simmering is a food preparation technique in which foods are cooked in hot liquids kept just below the boiling point of water (which is 100 °C or 212 °F at average sea level air pressure), but higher than poaching temperature.

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Sirius

Sirius (a romanization of Greek Σείριος, Seirios,."glowing" or "scorching") is a star system and the brightest star in the Earth's night sky.

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Smoke point

The smoke point also known as burning point of an oil or fat is the temperature at which, under specific and defined conditions, it begins to produce a continuous bluish smoke that becomes clearly visible.

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Snowball Earth

The Snowball Earth hypothesis proposes that Earth surface's became entirely or nearly entirely frozen at least once, sometime earlier than 650 Mya (million years ago).

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Sodium

Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.

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Solar core

The core of the Sun is considered to extend from the center to about 0.2 to 0.25 of solar radius.

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Solar flare

A solar flare is a sudden flash of increased Sun's brightness, usually observed near its surface.

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Solar wind

The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the corona.

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Southern Hemisphere

The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is south of the Equator.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Soybean oil

Soybean oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of the soybean (Glycine max).

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Space Shuttle orbiter

The Space Shuttle orbiter was the spaceplane component of the Space Shuttle, a partially reusable orbital spacecraft system that was part of the Space Shuttle program.

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Standard conditions for temperature and pressure

Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.

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String theory

In physics, string theory is a theoretical framework in which the point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings.

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Sublimation (phase transition)

Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase, without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.

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Sulfur

Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.

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Sun

The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.

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Sunflower oil

Sunflower oil is the non-volatile oil pressed from the seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus).

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Superconductivity

Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.

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Supercooling

Supercooling, also known as undercooling, is the process of lowering the temperature of a liquid or a gas below its freezing point without it becoming a solid.

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Superheating

In physics, superheating (sometimes referred to as boiling retardation, or boiling delay) is the phenomenon in which a liquid is heated to a temperature higher than its boiling point, without boiling.

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Superluminous supernova

A superluminous supernova (SLSN, plural superluminous supernovae or SLSNe; also known as hypernova) is a type of stellar explosion with a luminosity 10 or more times higher than that of standard supernovae.

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Supermassive black hole

A supermassive black hole (SMBH or SBH) is the largest type of black hole, on the order of hundreds of thousands to billions of solar masses, and is found in the centre of almost all currently known massive galaxies.

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Supernova

A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.

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Syrup

In cooking, a syrup or sirup (from شراب; sharāb, beverage, wine and sirupus) is a condiment that is a thick, viscous liquid consisting primarily of a solution of sugar in water, containing a large amount of dissolved sugars but showing little tendency to deposit crystals.

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T Tauri star

T Tauri stars (TTS) are a class of variable stars associated with youth.

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Temperature

Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

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Territory of Alaska

The Territory of Alaska or Alaska Territory was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from August 24, 1912, until January 3, 1959, when it was admitted to the Union as the State of Alaska.

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Tevatron

The Tevatron was a circular particle accelerator (now inactive, since 2011) in the United States, at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (also known as Fermilab), east of Batavia, Illinois, and holds the title of the second highest energy particle collider in the world, after the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) near Geneva, Switzerland.

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Thallium

Thallium is a chemical element with symbol Tl and atomic number 81.

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Theory of everything

A theory of everything (ToE), final theory, ultimate theory, or master theory is a hypothetical single, all-encompassing, coherent theoretical framework of physics that fully explains and links together all physical aspects of the universe.

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Thermodynamic system

A thermodynamic system is the material and radiative content of a macroscopic volume in space, that can be adequately described by thermodynamic state variables such as temperature, entropy, internal energy, and pressure.

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Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was an experimental tokamak built at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) circa 1980 and entering service in 1982.

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Triple point

In thermodynamics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.

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Triple-alpha process

The triple-alpha process is a set of nuclear fusion reactions by which three helium-4 nuclei (alpha particles) are transformed into carbon.

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Tungsten

Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.

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Tunisia

Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.

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Ultra-high-energy cosmic ray

In astroparticle physics, an ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) is a cosmic ray particle with a kinetic energy greater than eV, far beyond both the rest mass and energies typical of other cosmic ray particles.

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Ultraviolet

Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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Universe

The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.

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Uranus

Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun.

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Valence electron

In chemistry, a valence electron is an outer shell electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond if the outer shell is not closed; in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair.

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Vanda Station

Vanda Station was an Antarctic research base in the western highlands (Victoria Land) of the Ross Dependency, specifically on the shore of Lake Vanda, at the mouth of Onyx River, in the Wright Valley.

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Venus

Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.

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Vostok Station

Vostok Station (translit,, literally "Station East") is a Russian research station in inland Princess Elizabeth Land, Antarctica.

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White dwarf

A white dwarf, also called a degenerate dwarf, is a stellar core remnant composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter.

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Wolf–Rayet star

Wolf–Rayet stars, often abbreviated as WR stars, are a rare heterogeneous set of stars with unusual spectra showing prominent broad emission lines of highly ionised helium and nitrogen or carbon.

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X-ray

X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.

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Yttrium

Yttrium is a chemical element with symbol Y and atomic number 39.

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Yttrium barium copper oxide

Yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) is a family of crystalline chemical compounds, famous for displaying high-temperature superconductivity.

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Zero-point energy

Zero-point energy (ZPE) or ground state energy is the lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical system may have.

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2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orders_of_magnitude_(temperature)

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