113 relations: Animal style, Baiyin, Baoji, Baotou, Bayannur, Beidi, Caucasian race, China, China National Highway 210, China proper, Chinese art, Classic of Mountains and Seas, Daur people, Dengkou County, Desertification, Donghu people, Emperor Wu of Han, Encyclopedia of China, Erosion, Eurasian nomads, Eurasian Steppe, Evenks, Fen River, Finial, Gansu, Gaolan County, Grand Canal (China), Great Wall of China, Guanzhong, Han dynasty, Han River (Hubei), Han–Xiongnu War, Hancheng, Hangu Pass, Harper (publisher), Helan Mountains, Henan, Hetao, Hexi Corridor, Historical capitals of China, History of China, Hohhot, Hukou Waterfall, Iaroslav Lebedynsky, Inner Mongolia, Iron Age, Issyk-Kul, Jacquetta Hawkes, Kushan Empire, Lang Mountains, ..., Lanzhou, Lüliang Mountains, Leonard Woolley, Levallois technique, Lhasa, Linhe District, Loess Plateau, Lower Xiajiadian culture, Maqu County, Mitochondrial DNA, Modu Chanyu, Mongoloid, Mount Hua, Neolithic, Ningxia, North China Plain, Ordos culture, Ordos Desert, Ordosian culture, Otto J. Maenchen-Helfen, Princeton University Press, Qin (state), Qin dynasty, Qinghai–Tibet railway, Qingtongxia, Qinling, Saka, Sanjiangyuan, Scythian art, Scythians, Shaanxi, Shuofang, Silk Road, Silt, Six Frontier Towns, Tang dynasty, Tarim Basin, Tianshui, Tibetan Plateau, Tongguan County, University of California Press, Upper Paleolithic, Warring States period, Wei River, Weinan, Wuhai, Wuhan, Wuzhong, Ningxia, Xi'an, Xianyang, Xining, Xiongnu, Yangtze, Yellow River, Yi Zhou Shu, Yin Mountains, Yinchuan, Yuezhi, Zhao (state), Zhongning County, Zhongwei, Zhou dynasty, Zhukaigou culture. Expand index (63 more) » « Shrink index
Animal style art is an approach to decoration found from China to Northern Europe in the early Iron Age, and the barbarian art of the Migration Period, characterized by its emphasis on animal motifs.
Baiyin is a prefecture-level city in northeastern Gansu province, People's Republic of China.
() is a prefecture-level city in western Shaanxi province, People's Republic of China.
Baotou (ᠪᠤᠭᠤᠲᠤ Buɣutu qota, Бугат хот) also known as Bugat hot is the second largest city by urban population in Inner Mongolia.
Bayannur or Bayannao'er (style Bayannaɣur qota) is a prefecture-level city in western Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China.
The Beidi, Northern Di, or Northern Barbarians were various ethnic groups who lived north of the Chinese (Huaxia) realms during the Zhou dynasty.
The Caucasian race (also Caucasoid or Europid) is a grouping of human beings historically regarded as a biological taxon, which, depending on which of the historical race classifications used, have usually included some or all of the ancient and modern populations of Europe, the Caucasus, Asia Minor, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Western Asia, Central Asia and South Asia.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
China National Highway 210 (G210) runs from Baotou, Inner Mongolia to Nanning, Guangxi Province.
China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western writers on the Manchu Qing dynasty to express a distinction between the core and frontier regions of China.
Chinese art is visual art that, whether ancient or modern, originated in or is practiced in China or by Chinese artists.
The Classic of Mountains and Seas or Shan Hai Jing, formerly romanized as the Shan-hai Ching, is a Chinese classic text and a compilation of mythic geography and myth.
The Daur people (Khalkha Mongolian: Дагуур/Daguur;; the former name "Dahur" is considered derogatory) are a Mongolic-speaking ethnic group in northeastern China.
Dengkou County (Mongolian: Денкеү сийан Dėŋḵėü siyan), is a county with 120,000 inhabitants (2004) under the administration of Baynnur, Inner Mongolia.
Desertification is a type of land degradation in which a relatively dry area of land becomes increasingly arid, typically losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife.
Donghu (IPA:; literally: "Eastern foreigners" or "Eastern barbarians") was a confederation of nomadic people that was first recorded from the 7th century BCE and was destroyed by the Xiongnu in 150 BCE.
Emperor Wu of Han (30 July 157BC29 March 87BC), born Liu Che, courtesy name Tong, was the seventh emperor of the Han dynasty of China, ruling from 141–87 BC.
The Encyclopedia of China is the first large-entry modern encyclopedia in the Chinese language.
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
The Eurasian nomads were a large group of nomadic peoples from the Eurasian Steppe, who often appear in history as invaders of Europe, the Middle East and China.
The Eurasian Steppe, also called the Great Steppe or the steppes, is the vast steppe ecoregion of Eurasia in the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome.
The Evenks (also spelled Ewenki or Evenki) (autonym: Эвэнкил Evenkil; Эвенки Evenki; Èwēnkè Zú; formerly known as Tungus or Tunguz; Хамниган Khamnigan) are a Tungusic people of Northern Asia.
The Fen River drains the center of Shanxi Province, China.
A finial or hip-knob is an element marking the top or end of some object, often formed to be a decorative feature.
Gansu (Tibetan: ཀན་སུའུ་ Kan su'u) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.
Gaolan County is an administrative district in Gansu, the People's Republic of China.
The Grand Canal, known to the Chinese as the Beijing–Hangzhou Grand Canal (Jīng-Háng Dà Yùnhé), a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the longest as well as one of the oldest canal or artificial river in the world and a famous tourist destination.
The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China to protect the Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of the various nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe with an eye to expansion.
Guanzhong (formerly romanised as Kwanchung), or Guanzhong Plain, is a historical region of China corresponding to the lower valley of the Wei River.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
The Han River, also known by its Chinese names Hanshui and Han Jiang, is a left tributary of the Yangtze in central China.
The Han–Xiongnu War,.
Hancheng is a city in Shaanxi Province, People's Republic of China, about 125 miles northeast of Xi'an, at the point where the south-flowing Yellow River enters the Guanzhong Plain.
Hangu Pass or Hanguguan is a pass separating the upper Yellow River and Wei valleys—the cradle of Chinese civilization and seat of its longtime capital Xi'an—from the fertile North China Plain.
Harper is an American publishing house, currently the flagship imprint of global publisher HarperCollins.
The Helan Mountains, frequently called Alashan Mountains in older sources, are an isolated desert mountain range forming the border of Inner Mongolia's Alxa League and Ningxia.
Henan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country.
Hetao is a region in the upper reaches of the Yellow River in Northwestern China.
Hexi Corridor (Xiao'erjing: حْسِ ظِوْلاْ, IPA: /xɤ˧˥ɕi˥ tsoʊ˨˩˦lɑŋ˧˥/) or Gansu Corridor refers to the historical route in Gansu province of China.
There are traditionally four historical capitals of China, collectively referred to as the "Four Great Ancient Capitals of China".
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
Hohhot, abbreviated in Chinese as Hushi, formerly known as Kweisui, is the capital of Inner Mongolia in the north of the People's Republic of China, serving as the region's administrative, economic and cultural center.
The Hukou Waterfall, is the largest waterfall on the Yellow River, China, the second largest waterfall in China (after the Huangguoshu Waterfall), and the world's largest yellow waterfall.
Iaroslav Lebedynsky, born in Paris in 1960, is a French historian of Ukrainian origin, a specialist in ancient warrior cultures of the steppe and the Caucasus, and a prolific author in that field.
Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol Autonomous Region (Ѳвѳр Монголын Ѳѳртѳѳ Засах Орон in Mongolian Cyrillic), is one of the autonomous regions of China, located in the north of the country.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
Issyk-Kul (also Ysyk Köl, Issyk-Kol: Ысык-Көл, Isıq-Köl, ىسىق-كۅل,; Иссык-Куль, Issyk-Kulj) is an endorheic lake in the northern Tian Shan mountains in eastern Kyrgyzstan.
Jacquetta Hawkes (5 August 1910 – 18 March 1996) was a British archaeologist and writer.
The Kushan Empire (Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; Κυϸανο, Kushano; कुषाण साम्राज्य Kuṣāṇa Samrajya; BHS:; Chinese: 貴霜帝國; Kušan-xšaθr) was a syncretic empire, formed by the Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century.
The Lang Mountains or Lang Shan (Khara Narin Ula Хара Нарин Ула) is a mountain range at the northwest corner of the Ordos Loop in Inner Mongolia, China.
Lanzhou is the capital and largest city of Gansu Province in Northwest China.
The Lüliang Mountains are a mountain range in central China, dividing Shanxi's Fen River valley from the Yellow River.
Sir Charles Leonard Woolley (17 April 1880 – 20 February 1960) was a British archaeologist best known for his excavations at Ur in Mesopotamia.
The Levallois technique is a name given by archaeologists to a distinctive type of stone knapping developed by precursors to modern humans during the Palaeolithic period.
Lhasa is a city and administrative capital of the Tibet Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China.
Linhe (Mongolian: Linhė toɣoriɣ) is a District with 550,000 inhabitants under the administration of Baynnur, Inner Mongolia, situated at the northern loop of the Yellow River, south of the Lang Shan range (south-east of the Huhebashige).
The Loess Plateau, also known as the Huangtu Plateau, is a plateau located around the Wei River valley and the southern half of the Ordos Loop of the Yellow River in central China.
The Lower Xiajiadian culture (2200–1600 BC) is an archaeological culture in Northeast China, found mainly in southeastern Inner Mongolia, northern Hebei and western Liaoning, China.
Maqu County (Chinese: 玛曲县; Tibetanརྨ་ཆུ་རྫོང，Rma chu rdzong) is an administrative district in Gansu, the People's Republic of China.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Modu, Modun, or Maodun (Mongolian: Модунь, Modun; Баатар, Baatar; c. 234 – c. 174 BC) was the fourth known Xiongnu ruler and the founder of the Xiongnu Empire.
Mongoloid is a grouping of all or some peoples indigenous to East Asia, Central Asia, Southeast Asia, North Asia, South Asia, the Arctic, the Americas and the Pacific Islands.
Mount Hua is a mountain located near the city of Huayin in Shaanxi province, about east of Xi'an.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Ningxia (pronounced), officially the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest part of the country.
The North China Plain is based on the deposits of the Yellow River and is the largest alluvial plain of China.
The Ordos culture was a culture occupying a region centered on the Ordos Loop (modern Inner Mongolia, China) during the Bronze and early Iron Age from the 6th to 2nd centuries BCE.
The Ordos Desert, also known as the Muu-us or Bad Water Desert,Donovan Webster.
The Ordosian culture, sometimes referred to as the Ordos culture, is a culture documented in the Ordos Plateau, in the south of the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China, from the Upper Palaeolithic.
Otto John Maenchen-Helfen (in German: Otto Mänchen-Helfen) (July 26, 1894 in Vienna, Austria – January 29, 1969 in Berkeley, California) was an Austrian academic, sinologist, historian, author, and traveler.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Qin (Old Chinese: *) was an ancient Chinese state during the Zhou dynasty.
The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.
The Qinghai–Tibet railway or Qingzang railway (མཚོ་བོད་ལྕགས་ལམ།, mtsho bod lcags lam), is a high-elevation railway that connects Xining, Qinghai Province, to Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region of China.
Qingtongxia is a city in north-central Ningxia, China.
The Qinling or Qin Mountains, formerly known as the Nanshan ("Southern Mountains") and sometimes called the "Szechuan Alps", are a major east-west mountain range in southern Shaanxi Province, China.
Saka, Śaka, Shaka or Saca mod. ساکا; Śaka; Σάκαι, Sákai; Sacae;, old *Sək, mod. Sāi) is the name used in Middle Persian and Sanskrit sources for the Scythians, a large group of Eurasian nomads on the Eurasian Steppe speaking Eastern Iranian languages.
The Sanjiangyuan, is an area of the Tibetan Plateau in Qinghai province, China which contains the headwaters of three great rivers of Asia: the Yellow, the Yangtze, and the Mekong.
Scythian art is art, primarily decorative objects, such as jewellery, produced by the nomadic tribes in the area known to the ancient Greeks as Scythia, which was centred on the Pontic-Caspian steppe and ranged from modern Kazakhstan to the Baltic coast of modern Poland and to Georgia.
or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
Shaanxi is a province of the People's Republic of China.
Shuofang was an ancient Chinese commandery, situated in the Hetao region in modern-day Inner Mongolia near Baotou.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
Silt is granular material of a size between sand and clay, whose mineral origin is quartz and feldspar.
The Six Frontier Towns (Traditional Chinese:六鎮; Simplified Chinese:六镇), also known as Northern Frontier Towns (北镇), refers to six military towns in the Hetao region that Northern Wei government built during Huangshi era and Yanhe era to prevent the southward invasion by Rouran.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
The Tarim Basin is an endorheic basin in northwest China occupying an area of about.
Tianshui is the second-largest city in Gansu Province, China.
The Tibetan Plateau, also known in China as the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau or the Qing–Zang Plateau or Himalayan Plateau, is a vast elevated plateau in Central Asia and East Asia, covering most of the Tibet Autonomous Region and Qinghai in western China, as well as part of Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India.
Tongguan County (formerly romanized as Tungkwan) is a county in Shaanxi, China, administered as part of the prefecture-level city of Weinan.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.
The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.
The Wei River is a major river in west-central China's Gansu and Shaanxi provinces.
Weinan is a prefecture-level city in the east of Shaanxi province, China.
Wuhai (style, |translit.
Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China.
Wuzhong is a prefecture-level city in the Ningxia autonomous region of the People's Republic of China.
Xi'an is the capital of Shaanxi Province, China.
Xianyang is a prefecture-level city in central Shaanxi province, situated on the Wei River a few kilometers upstream (west) from the provincial capital of Xi'an.
Xining (Xīníng; ཟི་ལིང་། Ziling) is the capital of Qinghai province in western China, and the largest city on the Tibetan Plateau.
The Xiongnu were a confederation of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources, inhabited the eastern Asian Steppe from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD.
The Yangtze, which is 6,380 km (3,964 miles) long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world.
The Yellow River or Huang He is the second longest river in Asia, after the Yangtze River, and the sixth longest river system in the world at the estimated length of.
The Yi Zhou Shu is a compendium of Chinese historical documents about the Western Zhou period (1046–771 BCE).
The Yin Mountains, also known colloquially as the Daqing Mountains, and in Mongolian as Dalan Qara, Dalan Terigün, Dalan Khar, Moni Agula, and Moni Uul, are mountains in the steppe forming the southern border of the eastern Gobi Desert of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, as well as the northern part of Hebei province.
Yinchuan is the capital of the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China, and historically it was the former capital of the Western Xia Empire of the Tanguts.
The Yuezhi or Rouzhi were an ancient people first reported in Chinese histories as nomadic pastoralists living in an arid grassland area in the western part of the modern Chinese province of Gansu, during the 1st millennium BC.
Zhao was one of the seven major states during the Warring States period of ancient China.
Zhongning County is a county under the administration of Zhongwei city in west-central Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China, bordering Inner Mongolia to the northwest.
Zhongwei is a prefecture-level city of Ningxia, People's Republic of China.
The Zhou dynasty or the Zhou Kingdom was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty.
The Zhukaigou culture was a late Neolithic and early Bronze Age culture centered in the Ordos Plateau of Inner Mongolia, China.