117 relations: Acrosome, Adenosine triphosphate, Analogy, Anammox, ATP synthase, Autophagosome, Bacteria, Bacterial microcompartment, Biomolecular complex, Capsid, Carbon fixation, Carboxysome, Cell (biology), Cell biology, Cell fractionation, Cell membrane, Cell nucleus, Cellular compartment, Centriole, Chloroplast, Chlorosome, Chondriome, Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg, Cilium, Cnidaria, Cnidocyte, CoRR hypothesis, Cytoskeleton, Cytosol, Diminutive, DNA, DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, Ejectosome, Electron microscope, Endomembrane system, Endoplasmic reticulum, Endosymbiont, Euglenid, Eukaryote, Evolution of flagella, Eyespot apparatus, Félix Dujardin, Flagellum, Genome, Germ cell, Glycolysis, Glycosome, Glyoxysome, Golgi apparatus, Green algae, ..., Green sulfur bacteria, GroEL, GroES, Homeostasis, Host–pathogen interaction, Human body, Hydrogenosome, Iron–sulfur cluster, Journal of Theoretical Biology, Karl Möbius, Kleptoplasty, Ladderane, Latin, Lipid bilayer, Lysosome, Macromolecule, Magnetosome, Magnetotactic bacteria, Melanosome, Membrane vesicle trafficking, Mesosome, Messenger RNP, Microscope, Microscopy, Microtubule, Microtubule organizing center, Mitochondrion, Mitosome, Myocyte, Myofibril, National Institutes of Health, Nucleoid, Nucleolus, Nucleosome, Optical microscope, Organ (anatomy), Organelle biogenesis, Organism, Parenthesome, Peroxisome, Photosynthesis, Photosystem I, Phototaxis, Pilus, Planctomycetes, Plasmid, Plastid, Prokaryote, Proteasome, Protein, Protein complex, Protozoa, Pseudo amino acid composition, Ribosome, RNA polymerase II holoenzyme, Spliceosome, Springer Science+Business Media, Stress granule, Symbiogenesis, Thylakoid, Transcription (biology), Translation (biology), Trypanosomatida, Unicellular organism, Vacuole, Vault (organelle), Vesicle (biology and chemistry). Expand index (67 more) » « Shrink index
The acrosome is an organelle that develops over the anterior half of the head in the spermatozoa (sperm cells) of many animals including humans.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Analogy (from Greek ἀναλογία, analogia, "proportion", from ana- "upon, according to" + logos "ratio") is a cognitive process of transferring information or meaning from a particular subject (the analog, or source) to another (the target), or a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process.
Anammox, an abbreviation for anaerobic ammonium oxidation, is a globally important microbial process of the nitrogen cycle that takes place in many natural environments.
ATP synthase is an enzyme that creates the energy storage molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
An autophagosome is a spherical structure with double layer membranes.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bacterial microcompartments (BMCs) are organelles consisting of a protein shell that encloses enzymes and other proteins.
Biomolecular complex, also called macromolecular complex or biomacromolecular complex, is any biological complex made of more than one molecule of protein, RNA, DNA, lipids, carbohydrates.
A capsid is the protein shell of a virus.
Carbon fixation or сarbon assimilation is the conversion process of inorganic carbon (carbon dioxide) to organic compounds by living organisms.
Carboxysomes are bacterial compartments consisting of polyhedral protein shells filled with the enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) -the predominant enzyme in carbon fixation and the rate limiting enzyme in the Calvin Cycle-and a carbonic anhydrase.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cell biology (also called cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, the basic unit of life.
Cell fractionation is the process used to separate cellular components while preserving individual functions of each component.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Cellular compartments in cell biology comprise all of the closed parts within the cytosol of a eukaryotic cell, usually surrounded by a single or double lipid layer membrane.
In cell biology a centriole is a cylindrical cellular organelle composed mainly of a protein called tubulin.
Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.
A Chlorosome is a photosynthetic antenna complex found in green sulfur bacteria (GSB) and some green filamentous anoxygenic phototrophs (FAP) (Chloroflexaceae, Oscillochloridaceae).
The chondriome is the whole set of intracellular organelles constituted by chondriosomes, contained in the cytosol, and bounded by the envelope that constitutes the plasma membrane.
Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg (19 April 1795 – 27 June 1876), German naturalist, zoologist, comparative anatomist, geologist, and microscopist, was one of the most famous and productive scientists of his time.
A cilium (the plural is cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic (freshwater and marine) environments: they are predominantly marine species.
A cnidocyte (also known as a cnidoblast or nematocyte) is an explosive cell containing one giant secretory organelle or cnida (plural cnidae) that defines the phylum Cnidaria (corals, sea anemones, hydrae, jellyfish, etc.). Cnidae are used for prey capture and defense from predators.
The CoRR hypothesis states that the location of genetic information in cytoplasmic organelles permits regulation of its expression by the reduction-oxidation ("redox") state of its gene products.
A cytoskeleton is present in all cells of all domains of life (archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes).
The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.
A diminutive is a word that has been modified to convey a slighter degree of its root meaning, to convey the smallness of the object or quality named, or to convey a sense of intimacy or endearment.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA polymerase III holoenzyme is the primary enzyme complex involved in prokaryotic DNA replication.
An ejectosome is a cellular organelle responsible for ejecting their contents from the cell.
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.
The endomembrane system is composed of the different membranes that are suspended in the cytoplasm within a eukaryotic cell.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.
An endosymbiont or endobiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism in a symbiotic relationship with the host body or cell, often but not always to mutual benefit.
Euglenids (euglenoids, or euglenophytes, formally Euglenida/Euglenoida, ICZN, or Euglenophyceae, ICBN) are one of the best-known groups of flagellates, which are excavate eukaryotes of the phylum Euglenophyta and their cell structure is typical of that group.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
The evolution of flagella is of great interest to biologists because the three known varieties of flagella (eukaryotic, bacterial, and archaeal) each represent a sophisticated cellular structure that requires the interaction of many different systems.
The eyespot apparatus (or stigma) is a photoreceptive organelle found in the flagellate or (motile) cells of green algae and other unicellular photosynthetic organisms such as euglenids.
Félix Dujardin (5 April 1801 – 8 April 1860) was a French biologist born in Tours.
A flagellum (plural: flagella) is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
A germ cell is any biological cell that gives rise to the gametes of an organism that reproduces sexually.
Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+.
The glycosome is a membrane-enclosed organelle that contains the glycolytic enzymes.
Glyoxysomes are specialized peroxisomes found in plants (particularly in the fat storage tissues of germinating seeds) and also in filamentous fungi.
The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.
The green algae (singular: green alga) are a large, informal grouping of algae consisting of the Chlorophyta and Charophyta/Streptophyta, which are now placed in separate divisions, as well as the more basal Mesostigmatophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae and Spirotaenia.
The green sulfur bacteria (Chlorobiaceae) are a family of obligately anaerobic photoautotrophic bacteria.
GroEL belongs to the chaperonin family of molecular chaperones, and is found in a large number of bacteria.
Heat shock 10 kDa protein 1 (Hsp10) also known as chaperonin 10 (cpn10) or early-pregnancy factor (EPF) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HSPE1 gene.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
The host-pathogen interaction is defined as how microbes or viruses sustain themselves within host organisms on a molecular, cellular, organismal or population level.
The human body is the entire structure of a human being.
A hydrogenosome is a membrane-enclosed organelle of some anaerobic ciliates, trichomonads, fungi, and animals.
Iron–sulfur clusters are molecular ensembles of iron and sulfide.
The Journal of Theoretical Biology is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering theoretical biology, as well as mathematical and computational aspects of biology.
Karl August Möbius (7 February 1825 in Eilenburg – 26 April 1908 in Berlin) was a German zoologist who was a pioneer in the field of ecology and a former director of the Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin.
Kleptoplasty or kleptoplastidy is a symbiotic phenomenon whereby plastids, notably chloroplasts from algae, are sequestered by host organisms.
In chemistry, a ladderane is an organic molecule containing two or more fused cyclobutane rings.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules.
A lysosome is a membrane-bound organelle found in nearly all animal cells.
A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).
Magnetosome are membranous structures present in magnetotactic bacteria (MTB).
Magnetotactic bacteria (or MTB) are a polyphyletic group of bacteria discovered by Richard P. Blakemore in 1975, that orient along the magnetic field lines of Earth's magnetic field.
A melanosome is an organelle found in animal cells and is the site for synthesis, storage and transport of melanin, the most common light-absorbing pigment found in the animal kingdom.
Membrane vesicle trafficking in eukaryotic animal cells involves movement of important biochemical signal molecules from synthesis-and-packaging locations in the Golgi body to specific 'release' locations on the inside of the plasma membrane of the secretory cell, in the form of Golgi membrane-bound micro-sized vesicles, termed membrane vesicles (MVs).
Mesosomes or chondrioids are folded invaginations in the plasma membrane of bacteria that are produced by the chemical fixation techniques used to prepare samples for electron microscopy.
Messenger RNP (messenger ribonucleoprotein) is mRNA with bound proteins.
A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.
Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye).
Microtubules are tubular polymers of tubulin that form part of the cytoskeleton that provides the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells and some bacteria with structure and shape.
The microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) is a structure found in eukaryotic cells from which microtubules emerge.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
A mitosome is an organelle found in some unicellular eukaryotic organisms.
A myocyte (also known as a muscle cell) is the type of cell found in muscle tissue.
A myofibril (also known as a muscle fibril) is a basic rod-like unit of a muscle cell.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.
The nucleoid (meaning nucleus-like) is an irregularly shaped region within the cell of a prokaryote that contains all or most of the genetic material, called genophore.
The nucleolus (plural nucleoli) is the largest structure in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells.
A nucleosome is a basic unit of DNA packaging in eukaryotes, consisting of a segment of DNA wound in sequence around eight histone protein cores.
The optical microscope, often referred to as the light microscope, is a type of microscope that uses visible light and a system of lenses to magnify images of small subjects.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
Organelle biogenesis is the biogenesis, or creation, of cellular organelles in cells.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Within the cells of some members of basidiomycete fungi are found microscopic structures called parenthesomes or septal pore caps.
A peroxisome is a type of organelle known as a microbody, found in virtually all eukaryotic cells.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Photosystem I (PS I, or plastocyanin-ferredoxin oxidoreductase) is the second photosystem in the photosynthetic light reactions of algae, plants, and some bacteria.
Phototaxis is a kind of taxis, or locomotory movement, that occurs when a whole organism moves towards or away from stimulus of light.
A pilus (Latin for 'hair'; plural: pili) is a hair-like appendage found on the surface of many bacteria.
Planctomycetes are a phylum of aquatic bacteria and are found in samples of brackish, and marine and fresh water.
A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.
The plastid (Greek: πλαστός; plastós: formed, molded – plural plastids) is a double-membrane organelle found in the cells of plants, algae, and some other eukaryotic organisms.
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
Proteasomes are protein complexes which degrade unneeded or damaged proteins by proteolysis, a chemical reaction that breaks peptide bonds.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
A protein complex or multiprotein complex is a group of two or more associated polypeptide chains.
Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.
Pseudo amino acid composition, or PseAAC, was originally introduced by Kuo-Chen Chou (周国城) in 2001 to represent protein samples for improving protein subcellular localization prediction and membrane protein type prediction.
The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).
RNA polymerase II holoenzyme is a form of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II that is recruited to the promoters of protein-coding genes in living cells.
A spliceosome is a large and complex molecular machine found primarily within the splicing speckles of the cell nucleus of eukaryotic cells.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
Stress granules are dense aggregations in the cytosol composed of proteins & RNAs that appear when the cell is under stress.
Symbiogenesis, or endosymbiotic theory, is an evolutionary theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic organisms, first articulated in 1905 and 1910 by the Russian botanist Konstantin Mereschkowski, and advanced and substantiated with microbiological evidence by Lynn Margulis in 1967.
A thylakoid is a membrane-bound compartment inside chloroplasts and cyanobacteria.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.
Trypanosomatida is a group of kinetoplastid excavates distinguished by having only a single flagellum.
A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism that consists of only one cell, unlike a multicellular organism that consists of more than one cell.
A vacuole is a membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal and bacterial cells.
The vault or vault cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein is a eukaryotic organelle whose function is not fully understood.
In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer.