230 relations: Acetic acid, Adhesive, Adolf von Baeyer, Agrochemical, Alcohol, Aldol reaction, Alicyclic compound, Alkali, Alkali metal, Alkaline earth metal, Alkaloid, Amine, Amino acid, Ammonium sulfate, Antiaromaticity, Applied science, Archibald Scott Couper, Aromaticity, Arrow pushing, Arsphenamine, Aspirin, August Kekulé, Bakelite, Bayer, Benzene, Biochemist, Biochemistry, Biological Abstracts, Biomolecule, Biopolymer, BIOSIS Previews, Bond energy, Branching (polymer chemistry), Buckminsterfullerene, Carbohydrate, Carbohydrate synthesis, Carbon, Carbon nanotube, Carbon-based life, Carbonyl group, Carboxylic acid, Cellulose, Cetane number, Chemical composition, Chemical formula, Chemical property, Chemical reaction, Chemistry, Chemotherapy, Cholesterol, ..., Chromatography, Citric acid cycle, Conductive polymer, Conjugated system, Copolymer, Crystallization, Crystallography, Cycloalkane, Cycloalkene, Cyclopropane, Database, Degree of polymerization, Delocalized electron, Density, Diethyl ether, Diphtheria, Distillation, DNA, Double bond, Drug, Dye, Electron affinity, Electrophile, Elemental analysis, Elias James Corey, Encyclopædia Britannica, Engineering, Enol, Ester, Ethanol, Explosive material, Fat, Fraction (chemistry), Friedrich Wöhler, Fuel, Fullerene, Functional group, Furan, Gas chromatography, Geneva Rules, Glucose, Halide, Halogen, Heterocyclic compound, High-performance liquid chromatography, History of biochemistry, Homologous series, Hydrocarbon, Hydrogen, Hydrogen bond, Hydrophile, Hydrophobe, In silico, Infrared spectroscopy, Inorganic compound, International Chemical Identifier, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Isoprene, John Wiley & Sons, Khan Academy, Lanthanide, Latex, Lipid, Liquid–liquid extraction, List of organic reactions, List of synthetic polymers, Lubricant, Lysergic acid, Lysergic acid diethylamide, Main-group element, Mass spectral interpretation, Mass spectrometry, Materials science, Mauveine, Medication, Medicinal chemistry, Metalloid, Michel Eugène Chevreul, Mixture, Molar mass, Molecular geometry, Molecular mass, Molecular modelling, Molecular solid, Monomer, Natural product, Natural rubber, Nonlinear optics, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Nucleic acid, Nucleophile, Nylon, Octane rating, Oligonucleotide synthesis, Optical rotation, Organic compound, Organic matter, Organic reaction, Organic Reactions, Organic semiconductor, Organic synthesis, Organometallic chemistry, Organophosphorus compound, Organosilicon, Organosulfur compounds, Oseltamivir, Parent structure, Peptide, Peptide synthesis, Petrochemical, Petrochemical industry, Petroleum, Petroleum ether, Physical property, Piezoelectricity, Piperidine, Plastic, Poly(methyl methacrylate), Polycyclic compound, Polyester, Polyethylene, Polymer, Polymer chemistry, Polymer science, Polymerization, Polypropylene, Polysaccharide, Polystyrene, Polytetrafluoroethylene, Polyvinyl chloride, Potassium cyanate, Purine, Pyridine, Quinine, Radioactive decay, Reactive intermediate, Reactivity (chemistry), Resonance (chemistry), Retrosynthetic analysis, RNA, Saturation (chemistry), Science, Science History Institute, Simplified molecular-input line-entry system, Skeletal formula, Small molecule, Soap, Solubility, Solvent, Spiro compound, Starch, Steric effects, Steroid, Steroid hormone, Structural formula, Substitution reaction, Synthetic rubber, Syphilis, Tacticity, Terpene, Terpenoid, Terpineol, Tetrahydrofuran, Tetravalence, Total synthesis, Transition metal, Triple bond, Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Ultimate tensile strength, Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, Urea, Urine, Valence (chemistry), Vitalism, Vitamin B12, Wöhler synthesis, White spirit, William Henry Perkin, 1,4-Dichlorobenzene, 5α-Dihydroprogesterone. Expand index (180 more) » « Shrink index
Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).
An adhesive, also known as glue, cement, mucilage, or paste, is any substance applied to one surface, or both surfaces, of two separate items that binds them together and resists their separation.
Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer (31 October 1835 – 20 August 1917) was a German chemist who synthesised indigo, developed a nomenclature for cyclic compounds (that was subsequently extended and adopted as part of the IUPAC organic nomenclature).
An agrochemical or agrichemical, a contraction of agricultural chemical, is a chemical product used in agriculture.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
The aldol reaction is a means of forming carbon–carbon bonds in organic chemistry.
An alicyclic compound is an organic compound that is both aliphatic and cyclic.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.
The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table.
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Ammonium sulfate (American English and international scientific usage; ammonium sulphate in British English); (NH4)2SO4, is an inorganic salt with a number of commercial uses.
Antiaromaticity is a characteristic of a cyclic molecule with a π electron system that has higher energy due to the presence of 4n electrons in it.
Applied science is the application of existing scientific knowledge to practical applications, like technology or inventions.
Archibald Scott Couper (31 March 1831 – 11 March 1892) was a Scottish chemist who proposed an early theory of chemical structure and bonding.
In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity is used to describe a cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms.
Arrow pushing or electron pushing is a technique used to describe the progression of organic chemistry reaction mechanisms.
Arsphenamine, also known as Salvarsan or compound 606, is a drug that was introduced at the beginning of the 1910s as the first effective treatment for syphilis, and was also used to treat trypanosomiasis.
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.
Friedrich August Kekulé, later Friedrich August Kekule von Stradonitz (7 September 1829 – 13 July 1896), was a German organic chemist.
Bakelite (sometimes spelled Baekelite), or polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride, is the first plastic made from synthetic components.
Bayer AG is a German multinational, pharmaceutical and life sciences company.
Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
Biochemists are scientists that are trained in biochemistry.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Biological Abstracts is a database produced by Clarivate Analytics.
A biomolecule or biological molecule is a loosely used term for molecules and ions that are present in organisms, essential to some typically biological process such as cell division, morphogenesis, or development.
Biopolymers are polymers produced by living organisms; in other words, they are polymeric biomolecules.
BIOSIS Previews is an English-language, bibliographic database service, with abstracts and citation indexing.
In chemistry, bond energy (E) or bond enthalpy (H) is the measure of bond strength in a chemical bond.
In polymer chemistry, branching occurs by the replacement of a substituent, e.g., a hydrogen atom, on a monomer subunit, by another covalently bonded chain of that polymer; or, in the case of a graft copolymer, by a chain of another type.
Buckminsterfullerene is a type of fullerene with the formula C60.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
Carbohydrate synthesis is a sub-field of organic chemistry concerned specifically with the generation of natural and unnatural carbohydrate structures.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure.
Carbon is a key component of all known life on Earth, representing approximately 45-50% of all dry biomass.
In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C.
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
Cetane number (cetane rating) is an indicator of the combustion speed of diesel fuel and compression needed for ignition.
Chemical composition refers to the identity and relative number of the chemical elements that make up any particular compound.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
A chemical property is any of a material's properties that becomes evident during, or after, a chemical reaction; that is, any quality that can be established only by changing a substance's chemical identity.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
Chromatography is a laboratory technique for the separation of a mixture.
The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Conductive polymers or, more precisely, intrinsically conducting polymers (ICPs) are organic polymers that conduct electricity.
In chemistry, a conjugated system is a system of connected p-orbitals with delocalized electrons in molecules which are conventionally represented as having alternating single and multiple bonds, which in general may lower the overall energy of the molecule and increase stability.
When two or more different monomers unite together to polymerize, the product is called a copolymer and the process is called copolymerization.
Crystallization is the (natural or artificial) process by which a solid forms, where the atoms or molecules are highly organized into a structure known as a crystal.
Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids (see crystal structure).
In organic chemistry, the cycloalkanes (also called naphthenes, but distinct from naphthalene) are the monocyclic saturated hydrocarbons.
A cycloalkene or cycloolefin is a type of alkene hydrocarbon which contains a closed ring of carbon atoms, but has no aromatic character.
Cyclopropane is a cycloalkane molecule with the molecular formula C3H6, consisting of three carbon atoms linked to each other to form a ring, with each carbon atom bearing two hydrogen atoms resulting in D3h molecular symmetry.
A database is an organized collection of data, stored and accessed electronically.
The degree of polymerization, or DP, is the number of monomeric units in a macromolecule or polymer or oligomer molecule.
In chemistry, delocalized electrons are electrons in a molecule, ion or solid metal that are not associated with a single atom or a covalent bond.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Diethyl ether, or simply ether, is an organic compound in the ether class with the formula, sometimes abbreviated as (see Pseudoelement symbols).
Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
A double bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.
In chemistry and atomic physics, the electron affinity (Eea) of an atom or molecule is defined as the amount of energy released or spent when an electron is added to a neutral atom or molecule in the gaseous state to form a negative ion.
In organic chemistry, an electrophile is a reagent attracted to electrons.
Elemental analysis is a process where a sample of some material (e.g., soil, waste or drinking water, bodily fluids, minerals, chemical compounds) is analyzed for its elemental and sometimes isotopic composition.
Elias James "E.J." Corey (born July 12, 1928) is an American organic chemist.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.
Enols, or more formally, alkenols, are a type of reactive structure or intermediate in organic chemistry that is represented as an alkene (olefin) with a hydroxyl group attached to one end of the alkene double bond.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
A fraction in chemistry is a quantity collected from a sample or batch of a substance in a fractionating separation process.
Friedrich Wöhler (31 July 1800 – 23 September 1882) was a German chemist, best known for his synthesis of urea, but also the first to isolate several chemical elements.
A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work.
A fullerene is a molecule of carbon in the form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, tube, and many other shapes.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
Furan is a heterocyclic organic compound, consisting of a five-membered aromatic ring with four carbon atoms and one oxygen.
Gas chromatography (GC) is a common type of chromatography used in analytical chemistry for separating and analyzing compounds that can be vaporized without decomposition.
The Geneva Rules are the rules established by the International Chemistry Committee in 1892.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
A halide is a binary phase, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative (or more electropositive) than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, astatide, or theoretically tennesside compound.
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
A heterocyclic compound or ring structure is a cyclic compound that has atoms of at least two different elements as members of its ring(s).
High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; formerly referred to as high-pressure liquid chromatography), is a technique in analytical chemistry used to separate, identify, and quantify each component in a mixture.
The history of biochemistry can be said to have started with the ancient Greeks who were interested in the composition and processes of life, although biochemistry as a specific scientific discipline has its beginning around the early 19th century.
In organic chemistry, a homologous series is a series of compounds with the same functional group and similar chemical properties.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
A hydrophile is a molecule or other molecular entity that is attracted to water molecules and tends to be dissolved by water.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
In silico (literally cod Latin for "in silicon", alluding to the mass use of silicon for semiconductor computer chips) is an expression used to mean "performed on computer or via computer simulation." The phrase was coined in 1989 as an allusion to the Latin phrases in vivo, in vitro, and in situ, which are commonly used in biology (see also systems biology) and refer to experiments done in living organisms, outside living organisms, and where they are found in nature, respectively.
Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy) involves the interaction of infrared radiation with matter.
An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.
The IUPAC International Chemical Identifier (InChI or) is a textual identifier for chemical substances, designed to provide a standard way to encode molecular information and to facilitate the search for such information in databases and on the web.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
Isoprene, or 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, is a common organic compound with the formula CH2.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
Khan Academy is a non-profit educational organization created in 2006 by educator Salman Khan with a goal of creating a set of online tools that help educate students.
The lanthanide or lanthanoid series of chemical elements comprises the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum through lutetium.
Latex is a stable dispersion (emulsion) of polymer microparticles in an aqueous medium.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
Liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), also known as solvent extraction and partitioning, is a method to separate compounds or metal complexes, based on their relative solubilities in two different immiscible liquids, usually water (polar) and an organic solvent (non-polar).
Well-known reactions and reagents in organic chemistry include.
Synthetic polymers are human-made polymers.
A lubricant is a substance, usually organic, introduced to reduce friction between surfaces in mutual contact, which ultimately reduces the heat generated when the surfaces move.
Lysergic acid, also known as D-lysergic acid and (+)-lysergic acid, is a precursor for a wide range of ergoline alkaloids that are produced by the ergot fungus and found in the seeds of Turbina corymbosa (ololiuhqui), Argyreia nervosa (Hawaiian Baby Woodrose), and Ipomoea tricolor (morning glories, tlitliltzin).
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), also known as acid, is a psychedelic drug known for its psychological effects, which may include altered awareness of one's surroundings, perceptions, and feelings as well as sensations and images that seem real though they are not.
In chemistry and atomic physics, the main group is the group of elements whose lightest members are represented by helium, lithium, beryllium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine as arranged in the periodic table of the elements.
Mass spectral interpretation is the method employed to identify the chemical formula, characteristic fragment patterns and possible fragment ions from the mass spectra.
Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.
The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids.
Mauveine, also known as aniline purple and Perkin's mauve, was the first synthetic dye.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry are disciplines at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for market of pharmaceutical agents, or bio-active molecules (drugs).
A metalloid is any chemical element which has properties in between those of metals and nonmetals, or that has a mixture of them.
Michel Eugène Chevreul (31 August 1786 – 9 April 1889) was a French chemist whose work with fatty acids led to early applications in the fields of art and science.
In chemistry, a mixture is a material made up of two or more different substances which are mixed.
In chemistry, the molar mass M is a physical property defined as the mass of a given substance (chemical element or chemical compound) divided by the amount of substance.
Molecular geometry is the three-dimensional arrangement of the atoms that constitute a molecule.
Relative Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule.
Molecular modelling encompasses all methods, theoretical and computational, used to model or mimic the behaviour of molecules.
A molecular solid is a solid consisting of discrete molecules.
A monomer (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that "can undergo polymerization thereby contributing constitutional units to the essential structure of a macromolecule".
A natural product is a chemical compound or substance produced by a living organism—that is, found in nature.
Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water.
Nonlinear optics (NLO) is the branch of optics that describes the behavior of light in nonlinear media, that is, media in which the dielectric polarization P responds nonlinearly to the electric field E of the light.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation.
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.
Nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction.
Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers, based on aliphatic or semi-aromatic polyamides.
An octane rating, or octane number, is a standard measure of the performance of an engine or aviation fuel.
Oligonucleotide synthesis is the chemical synthesis of relatively short fragments of nucleic acids with defined chemical structure (sequence).
Optical rotation or optical activity (sometimes referred to as rotary polarization) is the rotation of the plane of polarization of linearly polarized light as it travels through certain materials.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organic matter, organic material, or natural organic matter (NOM) refers to the large pool of carbon-based compounds found within natural and engineered, terrestrial and aquatic environments.
Organic reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds.
Organic Reactions is a secondary reference which synthesizes the organic chemistry literature around particular chemical transformations.
Organic semiconductors are solids whose building blocks are pi-bonded molecules or polymers made up by carbon and hydrogen atoms and – at times – heteroatoms such as nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen.
Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds.
Organometallic chemistry is the study of organometallic compounds, chemical compounds containing at least one chemical bond between a carbon atom of an organic molecule and a metal, including alkaline, alkaline earth, and transition metals, and sometimes broadened to include metalloids like boron, silicon, and tin, as well.
Organophosphorus compounds are organic compounds containing phosphorus.
Organosilicon compounds are organometallic compounds containing carbon–silicon bonds.
Organosulfur compounds are organic compounds that contain sulfur.
Oseltamivir, sold under the brand name Tamiflu, is an antiviral medication used to treat and prevent influenza A and influenza B (flu).
In IUPAC nomenclature, a parent structure, parent compound, parent name or simply parent is the denotation for a compound consisting of an unbranched chain of skeletal atoms (not necessarily carbon), or consisting of an unsubstituted monocyclic or polycyclic ring system.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
In organic chemistry, peptide synthesis is the production of peptides, compounds where multiple amino acids are linked via amide bonds, also known as peptide bonds.
Petrochemicals (also known as petroleum distillates) are chemical products derived from petroleum.
The petrochemical industry is concerned with the production and trade of petrochemicals.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
Petroleum ether is the petroleum fraction consisting of aliphatic hydrocarbons and boiling in the range 35‒60 °C; commonly used as a laboratory solvent. Despite the name, petroleum ether is not classified as an ether; the term is used only figuratively, signifying extreme lightness and volatility.
A physical property is any property that is measurable, whose value describes a state of a physical system.
Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials (such as crystals, certain ceramics, and biological matter such as bone, DNA and various proteins) in response to applied mechanical stress.
Piperidine is an organic compound with the molecular formula (CH2)5NH.
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.
Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), also known as acrylic or acrylic glass as well as by the trade names Crylux, Plexiglas, Acrylite, Lucite, and Perspex among several others (see below), is a transparent thermoplastic often used in sheet form as a lightweight or shatter-resistant alternative to glass.
In the field of organic chemistry, a polycyclic compound is an organic chemical featuring several closed rings of atoms, primarily carbon.
Polyester is a category of polymers that contain the ester functional group in their main chain.
Polyethylene or polythene (abbreviated PE; IUPAC name polyethene or poly(ethylene)) is the most common plastic.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Polymer chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline that deals with the structures, chemical synthesis and properties of polymers, primarily synthetic polymers such as plastics and elastomers.
Polymer science or macromolecular science is a subfield of materials science concerned with polymers, primarily synthetic polymers such as plastics and elastomers.
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.
Polypropylene (PP), also known as polypropene, is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications.
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
Polystyrene (PS) is a synthetic aromatic hydrocarbon polymer made from the monomer styrene.
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that has numerous applications.
Polyvinyl chloride, also known as polyvinyl or '''vinyl''', commonly abbreviated PVC, is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer, after polyethylene and polypropylene.
Potassium cyanate is an inorganic compound with the formula KOCN (sometimes denoted KCNO).
A purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that consists of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.
Pyridine is a basic heterocyclic organic compound with the chemical formula C5H5N.
Quinine is a medication used to treat malaria and babesiosis.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
In chemistry, a reactive intermediate or an intermediate is a short-lived, high-energy, highly reactive molecule.
In chemistry, reactivity is the impetus for which a chemical substance undergoes a chemical reaction, either by itself or with other materials, with an overall release of energy.
In chemistry, resonance or mesomerism is a way of describing delocalized electrons within certain molecules or polyatomic ions where the bonding cannot be expressed by one single Lewis structure.
Retrosynthetic analysis is a technique for solving problems in the planning of organic syntheses.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
In chemistry, saturation (from the Latin word saturare, meaning 'to fill') has diverse meanings, all based on the idea of reaching a maximum capacity.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
The Science History Institute is an institution that preserves and promotes understanding of the history of science.
The simplified molecular-input line-entry system (SMILES) is a specification in form of a line notation for describing the structure of chemical species using short ASCII strings.
The skeletal formula, also called line-angle formula or shorthand formula, of an organic compound is a type of molecular structural formula that serves as a shorthand representation of a molecule's bonding and some details of its molecular geometry.
Within the fields of molecular biology and pharmacology, a small molecule is a low molecular weight (< 900 daltons) organic compound that may regulate a biological process, with a size on the order of 1 nm.
Soap is the term for a salt of a fatty acid or for a variety of cleansing and lubricating products produced from such a substance.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
A spiro compound, or spirane, from the Latin spīra, meaning a twist or coil, For a further but less stable source of the same text that provides access to the relevant material, see, same access date.
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
Steric effects are nonbonding interactions that influence the shape (conformation) and reactivity of ions and molecules.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone.
The structural formula of a chemical compound is a graphic representation of the molecular structure, showing how the atoms are arranged.
Substitution reaction (also known as single displacement reaction or single substitution reaction) is a chemical reaction during which one functional group in a chemical compound is replaced by another functional group.
A synthetic rubber is any artificial elastomer.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.
Tacticity (from Greek τακτικός taktikos "of or relating to arrangement or order") is the relative stereochemistry of adjacent chiral centers within a macromolecule.
Terpenes are a large and diverse class of organic compounds, produced by a variety of plants, particularly conifers, and by some insects.
The terpenoids, sometimes called isoprenoids, are a large and diverse class of naturally occurring organic chemicals derived from terpenes.
Terpineol is a monoterpene alcohol that has been isolated from a variety of sources such as cajuput oil, pine oil, and petitgrain oil.
Tetrahydrofuran (THF) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2)4O.
In chemistry, tetravalence is the state of an atom with four valence electrons available for covalent chemical bonding in its outermost electron shell, giving the atom a chemical valence of four.
Total synthesis is the complete chemical synthesis of a complex molecule, often a natural product, from simple, commercially available precursors.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
A triple bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two atoms involving six bonding electrons instead of the usual two in a covalent single bond.
Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2D NMR) is a set of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) methods which give data plotted in a space defined by two frequency axes rather than one.
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS), ultimate strength, or Ftu within equations, is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate, as opposed to compressive strength, which withstands loads tending to reduce size.
Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy or ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry (UV–Vis or UV/Vis) refers to absorption spectroscopy or reflectance spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible spectral region.
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
In chemistry, the valence or valency of an element is a measure of its combining power with other atoms when it forms chemical compounds or molecules.
Vitalism is the belief that "living organisms are fundamentally different from non-living entities because they contain some non-physical element or are governed by different principles than are inanimate things".
Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body: it is a cofactor in DNA synthesis, and in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism.
The Wöhler synthesis is the conversion of ammonium cyanate into urea.
White spirit (UK)Primarily in the United Kingdom.
Sir William Henry Perkin, FRS (12 March 1838 – 14 July 1907) was a British chemist and entrepreneur best known for his serendipitous discovery of the first synthetic organic dye, mauveine, made from aniline.
1,4-Dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB, p-DCB, or para-dichlorobenzene, sometimes abbreviated as PDB or para) is an organic compound with the formula C6H4Cl2.
5α-Dihydroprogesterone (5α-DHP), also known as allopregnanedione, as well as 5α-pregnane-3,20-dione, is an endogenous progestogen and neurosteroid that is synthesized from progesterone.
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