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Organism

Index Organism

In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life. [1]

178 relations: Acetyl-CoA, Adenine, Algae, Amino acid, Amoeba, Anaerobic organism, Ancient Greek, Animal, Antibody, Archaea, Associated Press, Astrobiology (journal), Autotroph, Bacteria, Bacterial genome, Biochemistry, Biogenic substance, Biology, Biology Direct, Biomolecule, By-product, Canavanine, Carbohydrate, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Cell (biology), Cell division, Cell membrane, Cell nucleus, Cell theory, Cellular differentiation, Cengage, Chemical compound, Chemical element, Chemical property, Chloroflexi (phylum), Clade, Cloning, Clostridium, Coenzyme A, Collagen, Common descent, Connective tissue, Corrin, Critique of Judgment, Cytoplasm, Cytosine, Dendrotoxin, Developmental biology, DNA, ..., Domain (biology), Earliest known life forms, Entity, Enzyme, Epithelium, Era, Ethics of cloning, Eukaryote, Evolution, Extinction, Ferredoxin, Firmicutes, Fission (biology), Flavin mononucleotide, Fossil, Fungus, Gene, Gene expression, Genetic code, Genetics, Geology, Graphite, Greek language, Guanine, Heart, Heterotroph, Homeostasis, Horizontal gene transfer, Hormone, Human, Human digestive system, Hydrothermal vent, Hypothetical types of biochemistry, Immanuel Kant, Immune system, J. Craig Venter Institute, Kingdom (biology), Kitaa, Last universal common ancestor, Level of analysis, Life, Lipid, Lipid bilayer, Macromolecule, Matthias Jakob Schleiden, Meiosis, Membrane potential, Messenger RNA, Metabolic pathway, Metabolism, Metasedimentary rock, Methanogen, Methylation, Microbial mat, Microorganism, Mitochondrion, Mitosis, Molecule, Molybdopterin, Monophyly, Most recent common ancestor, Multicellular organism, Muscle tissue, Mycoplasma genitalium, Natural competence, Nature (journal), Nature Geoscience, Nervous tissue, Nuclear envelope, Nucleic acid, Nucleoside, Nucleotide, Online Etymology Dictionary, Organ (anatomy), Organ system, Organelle, Outline of life forms, Oxford English Dictionary, Paleoarchean, PH, Phospholipid, Phylogenetics, Planetary science, Plant, Plastid, PLOS Biology, Prokaryote, Protein, Protein folding, Protist, Reproduction, Reproductive system, Ribosome, RNA, S-Adenosyl methionine, Salt, Sandstone, Scientific American, Selenium, Sexual reproduction, Signal transduction, Skin, Species, Stimulus (physiology), Superorganism, Symbiogenesis, Synthetic Genomics (company), Taxonomy (biology), The New York Times, Theodor Schwann, Thomas Cavalier-Smith, Three-domain system, Thymine, Time, Timeline of the evolutionary history of life, Tissue (biology), Transcription factor, Transition metal, Translation (biology), Tree of life, Tree of life (biology), Tubulin, Unicellular organism, Virus, Western Australia, William F. Martin, Wood–Ljungdahl pathway, Yale University Press. Expand index (128 more) »

Acetyl-CoA

Acetyl-CoA (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

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Adenine

Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).

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Algae

Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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Amoeba

An amoeba (rarely spelled amœba, US English spelled ameba; plural am(o)ebas or am(o)ebae), often called amoeboid, is a type of cell or organism which has the ability to alter its shape, primarily by extending and retracting pseudopods.

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Anaerobic organism

An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Animal

Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.

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Antibody

An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.

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Archaea

Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.

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Associated Press

The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.

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Astrobiology (journal)

Astrobiology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on the origin, evolution, distribution and future of life across the universe.

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Autotroph

An autotroph ("self-feeding", from the Greek autos "self" and trophe "nourishing") or producer, is an organism that produces complex organic compounds (such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) from simple substances present in its surroundings, generally using energy from light (photosynthesis) or inorganic chemical reactions (chemosynthesis).

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Bacteria

Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Bacterial genome

Bacterial genomes are generally smaller and less variant in size among species when compared with genomes of animals and single cell eukaryotes.

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Biochemistry

Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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Biogenic substance

A biogenic substance is a substance produced by life processes.

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Biology

Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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Biology Direct

Biology Direct is an online open access scientific journal that publishes original, peer-reviewed research papers, reviews, hypotheses, comments and discovery notes in biology.

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Biomolecule

A biomolecule or biological molecule is a loosely used term for molecules and ions that are present in organisms, essential to some typically biological process such as cell division, morphogenesis, or development.

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By-product

A by-product is a secondary product derived from a manufacturing process or chemical reaction.

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Canavanine

L-(+)-(S)-Canavanine is a non-proteinogenic amino acid found in certain leguminous plants.

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Carbohydrate

A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).

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Carbon

Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cell division

Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.

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Cell membrane

The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).

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Cell nucleus

In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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Cell theory

In biology, cell theory is the historic scientific theory, now universally accepted, that living organisms are made up of cells, that they are the basic structural/organizational unit of all organisms, and that all cells come from pre-existing cells.

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Cellular differentiation

In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.

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Cengage

Cengage is an educational content, technology, and services company for the higher education, K-12, professional, and library markets worldwide.

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Chemical compound

A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.

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Chemical element

A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).

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Chemical property

A chemical property is any of a material's properties that becomes evident during, or after, a chemical reaction; that is, any quality that can be established only by changing a substance's chemical identity.

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Chloroflexi (phylum)

The Chloroflexi or Chlorobacteria are a phylum of bacteria containing isolates with a diversity of phenotypes including members that are aerobic thermophiles, which use oxygen and grow well in high temperatures, anoxygenic phototrophs, which use light for photosynthesis (green non-sulfur bacteria), and anaerobic halorespirers, which uses halogenated organics (such as the toxic chlorinated ethenes and polychlorinated biphenyls) as electron acceptors.

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Clade

A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".

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Cloning

Cloning is the process of producing genetically identical individuals of an organism either naturally or artificially.

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Clostridium

Clostridium is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria, which includes several significant human pathogens, including the causative agent of botulism and an important cause of diarrhea, Clostridium difficile.

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Coenzyme A

Coenzyme A (CoA,SCoA,CoASH) is a coenzyme, notable for its role in the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids, and the oxidation of pyruvate in the citric acid cycle.

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Collagen

Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.

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Common descent

Common descent describes how, in evolutionary biology, a group of organisms share a most recent common ancestor.

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Connective tissue

Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue.

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Corrin

Corrin is a heterocyclic compound.

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Critique of Judgment

The Critique of Judgment (Kritik der Urteilskraft, KdU), also translated as the Critique of the Power of Judgment, is a 1790 philosophical work by Immanuel Kant.

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Cytoplasm

In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.

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Cytosine

Cytosine (C) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).

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Dendrotoxin

Dendrotoxins are a class of presynaptic neurotoxins produced by mamba snakes (Dendroaspis) that block particular subtypes of voltage-gated potassium channels in neurons, thereby enhancing the release of acetylcholine at neuromuscular junctions.

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Developmental biology

Developmental biology is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop.

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DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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Domain (biology)

In biological taxonomy, a domain (Latin: regio), also superkingdom or empire, is the highest taxonomic rank of organisms in the three-domain system of taxonomy designed by Carl Woese, an American microbiologist and biophysicist.

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Earliest known life forms

The earliest known life forms on Earth are putative fossilized microorganisms found in hydrothermal vent precipitates.

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Entity

An entity is something that exists as itself, as a subject or as an object, actually or potentially, concretely or abstractly, physically or not.

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Enzyme

Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Epithelium

Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.

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Era

An era is a span of time defined for the purposes of chronology or historiography, as in the regnal eras in the history of a given monarchy, a calendar era used for a given calendar, or the geological eras defined for the history of Earth.

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Ethics of cloning

In bioethics, the ethics of cloning refers to a variety of ethical positions regarding the practice and possibilities of cloning, especially human cloning.

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Eukaryote

Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).

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Evolution

Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Extinction

In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.

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Ferredoxin

Ferredoxins (from Latin ferrum: iron + redox, often abbreviated "fd") are iron-sulfur proteins that mediate electron transfer in a range of metabolic reactions.

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Firmicutes

The Firmicutes (Latin: firmus, strong, and cutis, skin, referring to the cell wall) are a phylum of bacteria, most of which have Gram-positive cell wall structure.

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Fission (biology)

Fission, in biology, is the division of a single entity into two or more parts and the regeneration of those parts into separate entities resembling the original.

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Flavin mononucleotide

Flavin mononucleotide (FMN), or riboflavin-5′-phosphate, is a biomolecule produced from riboflavin (vitamin B2) by the enzyme riboflavin kinase and functions as prosthetic group of various oxidoreductases including NADH dehydrogenase as well as cofactor in biological blue-light photo receptors.

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Fossil

A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.

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Fungus

A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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Gene

In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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Gene expression

Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.

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Genetic code

The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.

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Genetics

Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.

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Geology

Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.

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Graphite

Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Guanine

Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).

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Heart

The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.

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Heterotroph

A heterotroph (Ancient Greek ἕτερος héteros.

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Homeostasis

Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.

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Horizontal gene transfer

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.

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Hormone

A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.

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Human

Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.

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Human digestive system

The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder).

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Hydrothermal vent

A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water issues.

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Hypothetical types of biochemistry

Hypothetical types of biochemistry are forms of biochemistry speculated to be scientifically viable but not proven to exist at this time.

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Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.

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Immune system

The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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J. Craig Venter Institute

The J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI) is a non-profit genomics research institute founded by J. Craig Venter, Ph.D. in October 2006.

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Kingdom (biology)

In biology, kingdom (Latin: regnum, plural regna) is the second highest taxonomic rank, just below domain.

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Kitaa

Kitaa, originally Vestgrønland ("West Greenland"), is a former administrative division (landsdel) of Greenland.

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Last universal common ancestor

The last universal common ancestor (LUCA), also called the last universal ancestor (LUA), cenancestor, or (incorrectlyThere is a common misconception that definitions of LUCA and progenote are the same; however, progenote is defined as an organism “still in the process of evolving the relationship between genotype and phenotype”, and it is only hypothesed that LUCA is a progenote.) progenote, is the most recent population of organisms from which all organisms now living on Earth have a common descent.

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Level of analysis

The term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target.

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Life

Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.

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Lipid

In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.

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Lipid bilayer

The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules.

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Macromolecule

A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).

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Matthias Jakob Schleiden

Matthias Jakob Schleiden (5 April 1804 23 June 1881) was a German botanist and co-founder of cell theory, along with Theodor Schwann and Rudolf Virchow.

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Meiosis

Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.

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Membrane potential

The term "membrane potential" may refer to one of three kinds of membrane potential.

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Messenger RNA

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.

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Metabolic pathway

In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.

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Metabolism

Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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Metasedimentary rock

In geology, metasedimentary rock is a type of metamorphic rock.

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Methanogen

Methanogens are microorganisms that produce methane as a metabolic byproduct in anoxic conditions.

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Methylation

In the chemical sciences, methylation denotes the addition of a methyl group on a substrate, or the substitution of an atom (or group) by a methyl group.

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Microbial mat

A microbial mat is a multi-layered sheet of microorganisms, mainly bacteria and archaea.

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Microorganism

A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.

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Mitochondrion

The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.

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Mitosis

In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.

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Molecule

A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Molybdopterin

Molybdopterins are a class of cofactors found in most molybdenum (Mo) and all tungsten (W) enzymes.

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Monophyly

In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.

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Most recent common ancestor

In biology and genealogy, the most recent common ancestor (MRCA, also last common ancestor (LCA), or concestor) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all the organisms are directly descended.

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Multicellular organism

Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.

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Muscle tissue

Muscle tissue is a soft tissue that composes muscles in animal bodies, and gives rise to muscles' ability to contract.

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Mycoplasma genitalium

Mycoplasma genitalium, commonly known as Mgen, is a sexually transmitted, small and pathogenic bacterium that lives on the ciliated epithelial cells of the urinary and genital tracts in humans.

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Natural competence

In microbiology, genetics, cell biology, and molecular biology, competence is the ability of a cell to alter its genetics by taking up extracellular ("naked") DNA from its environment in the process called transformation.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Nature Geoscience

Nature Geoscience is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Nature Publishing Group.

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Nervous tissue

Nervous tissue or nerve tissue is the main tissue component of the two parts of the nervous system; the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system (CNS), and the branching peripheral nerves of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which regulates and controls bodily functions and activity.

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Nuclear envelope

The nuclear envelope, also known as the nuclear membrane, is made up of two lipid bilayer membranes which surrounds the nucleus, and in eukaryotic cells it encases the genetic material.

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Nucleic acid

Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.

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Nucleoside

Nucleosides are glycosylamines that can be thought of as nucleotides without a phosphate group.

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Nucleotide

Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.

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Online Etymology Dictionary

The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary written and compiled by Douglas Harper that describes the origins of English-language words.

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Organ (anatomy)

Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.

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Organ system

In biology, an organ system is a group of organs that work together to perform one or more functions.

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Organelle

In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.

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Outline of life forms

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to life forms: Life form (also, lifeform) – entity that is living, such as plants (flora) and animals (fauna).

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Oxford English Dictionary

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.

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Paleoarchean

The Paleoarchean, also spelled Palaeoarchaean (formerly known as early Archean), is a geologic era within the Archaean Eon.

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PH

In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.

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Phospholipid

Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes.

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Phylogenetics

In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.

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Planetary science

Planetary science or, more rarely, planetology, is the scientific study of planets (including Earth), moons, and planetary systems (in particular those of the Solar System) and the processes that form them.

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Plant

Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

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Plastid

The plastid (Greek: πλαστός; plastós: formed, molded – plural plastids) is a double-membrane organelle found in the cells of plants, algae, and some other eukaryotic organisms.

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PLOS Biology

PLOS Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of Biology.

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Prokaryote

A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.

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Protein

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protein folding

Protein folding is the physical process by which a protein chain acquires its native 3-dimensional structure, a conformation that is usually biologically functional, in an expeditious and reproducible manner.

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Protist

A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.

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Reproduction

Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".

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Reproductive system

The reproductive system or genital system is a system of sex organs within an organism which work together for the purpose of sexual reproduction.

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Ribosome

The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).

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RNA

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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S-Adenosyl methionine

S-Adenosyl methionineSAM-e, SAMe, SAM, S-Adenosyl-L-methionine, AdoMet, ademetionine is a common cosubstrate involved in methyl group transfers, transsulfuration, and aminopropylation.

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Salt

Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.

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Sandstone

Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments.

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Scientific American

Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.

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Selenium

Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.

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Sexual reproduction

Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.

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Signal transduction

Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.

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Skin

Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.

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Species

In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.

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Stimulus (physiology)

In physiology, a stimulus (plural stimuli) is a detectable change in the internal or external environment.

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Superorganism

A superorganism or supraorganism (the latter is less frequently used but more etymologically correct) is a group of synergetically interacting organisms of the same species.

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Symbiogenesis

Symbiogenesis, or endosymbiotic theory, is an evolutionary theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic organisms, first articulated in 1905 and 1910 by the Russian botanist Konstantin Mereschkowski, and advanced and substantiated with microbiological evidence by Lynn Margulis in 1967.

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Synthetic Genomics (company)

Synthetic Genomics Inc. (SGI), is a private company located in La Jolla, California that is focused on the field of synthetic biology.

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Taxonomy (biology)

Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Theodor Schwann

Theodor Schwann (7 December 1810 – 11 January 1882) was a German physiologist.

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Thomas Cavalier-Smith

Thomas (Tom) Cavalier-Smith, FRS, FRSC, NERC Professorial Fellow (born 21 October 1942), is a Professor of Evolutionary Biology in the Department of Zoology, at the University of Oxford.

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Three-domain system

The three-domain system is a biological classification introduced by Carl Woese et al. in 1977 that divides cellular life forms into archaea, bacteria, and eukaryote domains.

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Thymine

---> Thymine (T, Thy) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T.

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Time

Time is the indefinite continued progress of existence and events that occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past through the present to the future.

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Timeline of the evolutionary history of life

This timeline of the evolutionary history of life represents the current scientific theory outlining the major events during the development of life on planet Earth.

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Tissue (biology)

In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.

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Transcription factor

In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.

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Transition metal

In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.

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Translation (biology)

In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.

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Tree of life

The tree of life is a widespread myth (mytheme) or archetype in the world's mythologies, related to the concept of sacred tree more generally,Giovino, Mariana (2007).

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Tree of life (biology)

The tree of life or universal tree of life is a metaphor, model and research tool used to explore the evolution of life and describe the relationships between organisms, both living and extinct, as described in a famous passage in Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species (1859).

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Tubulin

Tubulin in molecular biology can refer either to the tubulin protein superfamily of globular proteins, or one of the member proteins of that superfamily.

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Unicellular organism

A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism that consists of only one cell, unlike a multicellular organism that consists of more than one cell.

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Virus

A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.

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Western Australia

Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia.

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William F. Martin

William Martin (born February 16, 1957, Bethesda, Maryland) is an American botanist and microbiologist, currently Head of the Institut für Molekulare Evolution, Heinrich Heine Universität, Düsseldorf.

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Wood–Ljungdahl pathway

The Wood–Ljungdahl pathway is a set of biochemical reactions used by some bacteria and archaea called acetogens.

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Yale University Press

Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.

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Biological form, Biological organism, Fauna and flora, Flora and fauna, Form of life, Gaeabionta, Individual animals, Living creature, Living creatures, Living organism, Living organisms, Organismal, Organismic, Organisms.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organism

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