329 relations: Aarhus Convention, Adapted Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty, Afghanistan, Agostino Casaroli, Albanian language, Albanian lek, Alcee Hastings, Alexander Stubb, Amsterdam, Andorra la Vella, Angelino Alfano, Ankara, Antonio Martino, Armenian dram, Armenian language, Arms control, Artis Pabriks, Ashgabat, Asia, Astana, Athens, Audronius Ažubalis, Austria, Azerbaijani language, Azerbaijani manat, Baku, Barbara Lee, Belarusian language, Belarusian ruble, Belgrade, Ben Bot, Beniamino Andreatta, Benita Ferrero-Waldner, Berlin, Bern, Bishkek, Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark, Bosnian language, Bratislava, Bronisław Geremek, Brookings Institution, Brussels, Bucharest, Budapest, Bulgarian language, Bulgarian lev, Canadian dollar, Catalan language, Center for the National Interest, Chapter VIII of the United Nations Charter, ..., Chechnya, Chișinău, City of San Marino, Cold War, Colin Powell, Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, Commonwealth of Independent States, Communism, Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia, Conflict resolution, Consultative status, Copenhagen, Corruption, Council of Europe, Counter-terrorism, Crisis management, Croatian kuna, Croatian language, Czech koruna, Czech language, Czech Republic, Danish krone, Danish language, Dayton Agreement, Democratic Party (United States), Democratization, Deutsche Welle, Didier Burkhalter, Dimitrij Rupel, Dipoli, Dora Bakoyannis, Dublin, Dunja Mijatović, Dushanbe, Dutch language, Eamon Gilmore, Eastern Bloc, Eastern Europe, Economics, Eddie Bernice Johnson, Election monitoring, Electoral fraud, English language, Enzo Moavero Milanesi, Espoo, Estonian language, Euro, Euronews, Europe, European Union, Eva Biaudet, Finlandia Hall, Finnish language, Flavio Cotti, Forced marriage, Frank-Walter Steinmeier, Freedom of movement, Freedom of speech, Freedom of the press, French language, Gender equality, Geneva, George Papandreou, George W. Bush, Georgian language, Georgian lari, German language, Germany, Global Exchange of Military Information, Golos (election monitor), Governance, Greek language, Greg Abbott, Grey market, Hans-Dietrich Genscher, Harlem Désir, Hürriyet, Head of government, Helsinki, Helsinki Accords, High Commissioner on National Minorities, Hillary Clinton, Holy See, Human rights, Human trafficking, Hungarian forint, Hungarian language, Icelandic króna, Icelandic language, Igor Ivanov, Ilkka Kanerva, Information and communications technology, Ingibjörg Sólrún Gísladóttir, Intergovernmental organization, International Federation for Human Rights, International non-governmental organization, International organisations in Europe, International organization, Irish language, Istanbul, Italian language, Ivica Dačić, Jaap de Hoop Scheffer, Jaime Gama, Ján Kubiš, Jiří Dienstbier, Jozef Moravčík, Julie Finley, Kanat Saudabayev, Karel De Gucht, Karin Kneissl, Kazakh language, Kazakhstani tenge, Kiev, Knut Vollebæk, Kofi Annan, Kommersant, Kyrgyz language, Kyrgyzstani som, Lamberto Zannier, Latin, Latvian language, Law of Texas, László Kovács (politician), Legislature, Leonid Kozhara, Lisbon, Lithuanian language, Ljubljana, London, Luhansk, Luxembourg City, Luxembourgish, Macedonian denar, Macedonian language, Madrid, Main Intelligence Directorate, Maltese language, Marc Perrin de Brichambaut, Margaretha af Ugglas, Maria Grazia Giammarinaro, Mariupol, Max van der Stoel, Mediterranean States, Miguel Ángel Moratinos, Minority group, Minsk, Minsk Protocol, Mircea Geoană, Miroslav Lajčák, Moldovan leu, Mongolian language, Mongolian tögrög, Montenegrin language, Moscow, Munich Security Conference, Nagorno-Karabakh, NATO, Nicosia, Niels Helveg Petersen, Non-governmental organization, Northern America, Northern Hemisphere, Norwegian krone, Norwegian language, Oceania, Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights, Orange Revolution, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe statistics, OSCE Minsk Group, OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media, Oslo, Ottawa, Paasikivi–Kekkonen doctrine, Paris, Paris Charter, Parliamentary Assembly of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Podgorica, Poland, Polish language, Polish złoty, Portuguese language, Pound sterling, Prague, President of Finland, President of the United States, Press TV, R. Spencer Oliver, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, Reuters, Reykjavík, Riga, Romani people, Romanian language, Romanian leu, Romansh language, Rome, Rule of law, Russia, Russian language, Russian ruble, Sarajevo, Sebastian Kurz, Secretary of state, Secretary-General of the United Nations, Serbia and Montenegro, Serbian dinar, Serbian language, Sexual slavery, Silence procedure, Sinti, Skopje, Slovak language, Slovene language, Sofia, Solomon Passy, Soviet Union, Spanish language, Stockholm, Swedish krona, Swedish language, Swiss franc, Tajik language, Tajikistani somoni, Tallinn, Tashkent, Tbilisi, The Hague, Thomas Greminger, Three generations of human rights, Tirana, Toleration, Treaty, Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe, Treaty on Open Skies, Turkish constitutional referendum, 2017, Turkish language, Turkish lira, Turkish military operation in Afrin, Turkmen language, Turkmenistan manat, Twitter, U.S. state, Ukraine, Ukrainian hryvnia, Ukrainian language, Ulaanbaatar, Unfree labour, United Nations, United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, United Nations General Assembly, United Nations General Assembly observers, United Nations Security Council, United States, United States Department of State, United States dollar, United States House of Representatives, United States presidential election, 2008, United States Secretary of State, Urho Kekkonen, Uzbek language, Uzbekistani soʻm, Vaduz, Valletta, Vatican City, Vienna, Vienna Document, Viktor Yushchenko, Vilnius, Vladimir Putin, War in Donbass, Warsaw, Washington, D.C., Western Europe, Western European Union, Western world, Wolfgang Schüssel, Yerevan, Zagreb. Expand index (279 more) » « Shrink index
The UNECE Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters, usually known as the Aarhus Convention, was signed on 25 June 1998 in the Danish city of Aarhus.
The Adapted Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty is a post–Cold War adaptation of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE), signed on November 19, 1999, during the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe's (OSCE) 1999 Istanbul summit.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Agostino Casaroli (24 November 1914 – 9 June 1998) was an Italian Catholic priest and diplomat for the Holy See, who became Cardinal Secretary of State.
Albanian (shqip, or gjuha shqipe) is a language of the Indo-European family, in which it occupies an independent branch.
The lek (plural lekë) (sign: L; code: ALL) is the official currency of Albania.
Alcee Lamar Hastings (born September 5, 1936) is the U.S. Representative for.
Cai-Göran Alexander Stubb (born 1 April 1968) is a Finnish politician who served as the Prime Minister of Finland from 2014 to 2015.
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
Andorra la Vella (Andorra la Vieja, Andorre-la-Vieille) is the capital of the Principality of Andorra.
Angelino Alfano (born 31 October 1970) is an Italian politician served as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 12 December 2016 to 1 June 2018.
Ankara (English; Turkish Ottoman Turkish Engürü), formerly known as Ancyra (Ἄγκυρα, Ankyra, "anchor") and Angora, is the capital of the Republic of Turkey.
Antonio Martino (born December 22, 1942) is an Italian politician, who was the minister of foreign affairs in 1994 and minister of defense from 2001 to 2006.
The dram (դրամ; sign: ֏; code: AMD) is the monetary unit of Armenia and the neighboring unrecognized Republic of Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh).
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
Arms control is a term for international restrictions upon the development, production, stockpiling, proliferation and usage of small arms, conventional weapons, and weapons of mass destruction.
Artis Pabriks (born 22 March 1966) is a Latvian politician and a Member of the European Parliament.
Ashgabat (Aşgabat,; ɐʂxɐˈbat) — named Poltoratsk (p) between 1919 and 1927, is the capital and the largest city of Turkmenistan in Central Asia, situated between the Karakum Desert and the Kopet Dag mountain range.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Astana (Астана, Astana) is the capital city of Kazakhstan.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
Audronius Ažubalis (born 17 January 1958 Vilnius, Lithuania) is a Lithuanian journalist and politician, serving as the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Lithuania from 2010 - 2012.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Azerbaijani or Azeri, also referred to as Azeri Turkic or Azeri Turkish, is a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Azerbaijanis, who are concentrated mainly in Transcaucasia and Iranian Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan).
The manat (code: AZN) is the currency of Azerbaijan. It is subdivided into 100 qəpik. The word manat is borrowed from the Russian word Монета "moneta" (coin) which is pronounced as "manta" and is a loanword from Latin. Manat was also the designation of the Soviet ruble in both the Azerbaijani and Turkmen languages. The Azerbaijani manat symbol, ₼, was assigned to Unicode U+20BC in 2013. A lowercase m can be used as a substitute for the manat symbol.
Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.
Barbara Jean Lee (born July 16, 1946) is the U.S. Representative for, serving since 1998; until 2013 the region was designated.
Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.
The Belarusian ruble or rouble (рубель rubieĺ, plural: рублі rubli, genitive plural: рублёў rublioŭ) is the official currency of Belarus.
Belgrade (Beograd / Београд, meaning "White city",; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.
Bernard Rudolf "Ben" Bot (born 21 November 1937) is a Dutch diplomat of the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA).
Beniamino "Nino" Andreatta (11 August 1928 – 26 March 2007) was an Italian economist and politician.
Benita Ferrero-Waldner (born 5 September 1948) is an Austrian diplomat and politician, and a member of the conservative Austrian People's Party (ÖVP).
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Bern or Berne (Bern, Bärn, Berne, Berna, Berna) is the de facto capital of Switzerland, referred to by the Swiss as their (e.g. in German) Bundesstadt, or "federal city".
Bishkek (Бишке́к, BISHKEK, بىشکەک;; bʲɪʂˈkʲɛk), formerly Pishpek and Frunze, is the capital and largest city of Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic).
The Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark (Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian: konvertibilna marka, Cyrillic: конвертибилна марка) is the currency of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Bosnian language (bosanski / босански) is the standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian mainly used by Bosniaks.
Bratislava (Preßburg or Pressburg, Pozsony) is the capital of Slovakia.
Professor Bronisław Geremek (born Benjamin Lewertow; 6 March 1932 – 13 July 2008) was a Polish social historian and politician.
The Brookings Institution is a century-old American research group on Think Tank Row in Washington, D.C. It conducts research and education in the social sciences, primarily in economics, metropolitan policy, governance, foreign policy, and global economy and development.
Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
Bucharest (București) is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre.
Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.
The lev (лев, plural: лева, левове / leva, levove) is the currency of Bulgaria.
The Canadian dollar (symbol: $; code: CAD; dollar canadien) is the currency of Canada.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
The Center for the National Interest is a Washington, D.C.-based public policy think tank.
Chapter VIII of the United Nations Charter deals with regional arrangements.
The Chechen Republic (tɕɪˈtɕɛnskəjə rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə; Нохчийн Республика, Noxçiyn Respublika), commonly referred to as Chechnya (p; Нохчийчоь, Noxçiyçö), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia.
Chișinău, also known as Kishinev (r), is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Moldova.
The City of San Marino (Italian: Città di San Marino), also known simply as San Marino or locally as Città, is the capital city of the Republic of San Marino, Southern Europe.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Colin Luther Powell (born April 5, 1937) is an American statesman and a retired four-star general in the United States Army.
The Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), also known as the U.S. Helsinki Commission, is an independent U.S. government agency created by Congress in 1975 to monitor and encourage compliance with the Helsinki Final Act and other Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) commitments.
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; r), also nicknamed the Russian Commonwealth (in order to distinguish it from the Commonwealth of Nations), is a political and economic intergovernmental organization of nine member states and one associate member, all of which are former Soviet Republics located in Eurasia (primarily in Central to North Asia), formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA) is an inter-governmental forum for enhancing cooperation towards promoting peace, security and stability in Asia.
Conflict resolution is conceptualized as the methods and processes involved in facilitating the peaceful ending of conflict and retribution.
The consultative status is a phrase whose use can be traced to the founding of the United Nations and is used within the UN community to refer to "Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Consultative Status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council" (see list).
Copenhagen (København; Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.
Corruption is a form of dishonesty undertaken by a person entrusted with a position of authority, often to acquire personal benefit.
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
Counter-terrorism (also spelled counterterrorism) incorporates the practice, military tactics, techniques, and strategy that government, military, law enforcement, business, and intelligence agencies use to combat or prevent terrorism.
Crisis management is the process by which an organization deals with a disruptive and unexpected event that threatens to harm the organization or its stakeholders.
The kuna is the currency of Croatia, in use since 1994 (ISO 4217 code: HRK).
Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries.
The koruna (sign: Kč; code: CZK) is the currency of the Czech Republic since 1993, and in English it is sometimes referred to as Czech crown.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
The krone (plural: kroner; sign: kr.; code: DKK) is the official currency of Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands, introduced on 1 January 1875.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, also known as the Dayton Agreement, Dayton Accords, Paris Protocol or Dayton–Paris Agreement, (Dejtonski mirovni sporazum, Dejtonski mirovni sporazum, Daytonski sporazum) is the peace agreement reached at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, United States, in November 1995, and formally signed in Paris, France, on 14 December 1995.
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).
Democratization (or democratisation) is the transition to a more democratic political regime.
Deutsche Welle ("German wave" in German) or DW is Germany's public international broadcaster.
Didier Burkhalter (born 17 April 1960 in Neuchâtel) is a former Swiss politician.
Dimitrij Rupel (born 7 April 1946) is a Slovenian politician.
Dipoli is the main building of Aalto University, located in the university's Otaniemi campus in Espoo, Finland.
Theodora "Dora" Bakoyannis (Θεοδώρα "Ντόρα" Μπακογιάννη;; née Mitsotakis; Μητσοτάκη; born May 6, 1954), is a Greek politician.
Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.
Dunja Mijatović (born 8 September 1964 Bosnia and Herzegovina) is an expert on media law and media regulation, who from 2010 to 2016 served as the OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media (RFoM).
Dushanbe (Душанбе) is the capital and largest city of Tajikistan.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
Eamon Seán Gilmore (born 24 April 1955) is an Irish Labour Party politician who has served as European Union Special Envoy for the Colombian Peace Process since October 2015.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
Eddie Bernice Johnson (born December 3, 1935) is a politician from the state of Texas, currently representing Texas's in the United States House of Representatives.
Election monitoring is the observation of an election by one or more independent parties, typically from another country or a non-governmental organization (NGO), primarily to assess the conduct of an election process on the basis of national legislation and international election standards.
Electoral fraud, election manipulation, or vote rigging is illegal interference with the process of an election, whether by increasing the vote share of the favored candidate, depressing the vote share of the rival candidates, or both.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Enzo Moavero Milanesi (born 17 August 1954 in Rome) is an Italian independent politician and law professor serving as Minister of Foreign Affairs in the cabinet of Giuseppe Conte since 1 June 2018.
Espoo (Esbo) is the second largest city and municipality in Finland.
Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
Euronews is a multilingual news media service, headquartered in Lyon, France.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Eva Rita Katarina Biaudet (born 27 February 1961) is a Finnish politician and Member of Parliament of Finland in the parliamentary group of the Swedish People's Party.
The Finlandia Hall is a congress and event venue in the centre of Helsinki on the Töölönlahti Bay.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
Flavio Cotti (born 18 October 1939, in Prato-Sornico) is a Swiss politician.
Forced marriage is a marriage in which one or more of the parties is married without his or her consent or against his or her will.
Frank-Walter Steinmeier (born 5 January 1956) is a German politician serving as President of Germany since 19 March 2017.
Freedom of movement, mobility rights, or the right to travel is a human rights concept encompassing the right of individuals to travel from place to place within the territory of a country,Jérémiee Gilbert, Nomadic Peoples and Human Rights (2014), p. 73: "Freedom of movement within a country encompasses both the right to travel freely within the territory of the State and the right to relocate oneself and to choose one's place of residence".
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.
Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the principle that communication and expression through various media, including printed and electronic media, especially published materials, should be considered a right to be exercised freely.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Gender equality, also known as sexual equality, is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing different behaviors, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
George Andreas Papandreou (Γεώργιος Ανδρέας Παπανδρέου,, shortened to Giorgos (Γιώργος); born 16 June 1952) is a Greek American politician who served as Prime Minister of Greece from 2009 to 2011.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
Georgian (ქართული ენა, translit.) is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians.
The lari (ლარი; ISO 4217: GEL) is the currency of Georgia.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Global Exchange of Military Information is an arms control annual exchange of information sponsored by the Organization for Security and Co-Operation in Europe.
The Movement for Defence of Voters' Rights "Golos", formerly GOLOS Association (Cyrillic: ГОЛОС, meaning "vote" or "voice") is a Russian organisation established in 2000 to protect the electoral rights of citizens and to foster civil society.
Governance is all of the processes of governing, whether undertaken by a government, a market or a network, over a social system (family, tribe, formal or informal organization, a territory or across territories) and whether through the laws, norms, power or language of an organized society.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Gregory Wayne Abbott (born November 13, 1957) is an American lawyer and politician who serves as the 48th Governor of Texas since January 2015.
A grey or gray market (sometimes confused with the similar term parallel market) refers to the trade of a commodity through distribution channels that are legal but unintended by the original manufacturer or trade mark proprietor.
Hans-Dietrich Genscher (21 March 1927 – 31 March 2016) was a German statesman and a member of the liberal Free Democratic Party (FDP), who served as the Minister of the Interior of West Germany from 1969 to 1974, and as the Foreign Minister and Vice Chancellor of West Germany and then the reunified Germany from 1974 to 1992 (except for a two-week break in 1982), making him the longest-serving occupant of either post.
Harlem Jean-Philippe Désir (born 25 November 1959) is a French politician who served in the government of France as Secretary of State for European Affairs from 2014 to 2017.
Hürriyet (Liberty) is one of the major Turkish newspapers, founded in 1948.
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
Helsinki (or;; Helsingfors) is the capital city and most populous municipality of Finland.
The Helsinki Accords, Helsinki Final Act, or Helsinki Declaration was the final act of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe held in Finlandia Hall of Helsinki, Finland, during July and August 1, 1975.
Created on July 8, 1992 by the Helsinki Summit Meeting of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), now known as the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the High Commissioner on National Minorities (HCNM) is charged with identifying and seeking early resolution of ethnic tension that might endanger peace, stability or friendly relations between and within the participating states of the OSCE.
Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26, 1947) is an American politician and diplomat who served as the First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001, U.S. Senator from New York from 2001 to 2009, 67th United States Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013, and the Democratic Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 2016 election.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Human trafficking is the trade of humans for the purpose of forced labour, sexual slavery, or commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker or others.
The forint (sign: Ft; code: HUF) is the currency of Hungary.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
The króna (plural krónur) (sign: kr; code: ISK) is the currency of Iceland.
Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.
Igor Sergeyevich Ivanov (born 23 September 1945) is a Russian politician who was Foreign Minister of Russia from 1998 to 2004.
Ilkka Armas Mikael Kanerva (born 28 January 1948) is a Finnish politician and a member of the Parliament of Finland.
Information and communication technology (ICT) is another/extensional term for information technology (IT) which stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), computers as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audio-visual systems, which enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information.
Ingibjörg Sólrún Gísladóttir (born 31 December 1954) is an Icelandic politician from the Social Democratic Alliance, formerly Minister for Foreign Affairs 2007–2009 and leader of the Alliance 2005–2009.
An intergovernmental organization or international governmental organisation (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as member states), or of other intergovernmental organizations.
The International Federation for Human Rights (Fédération internationale des ligues des droits de l'homme; FIDH) is a non-governmental federation for human rights organizations.
An international non-governmental organization (INGO) has the same mission as a non-governmental organization (NGO), but it is international in scope and has outposts around the world to deal with specific issues in many countries.
The following table lists the independent European states, and their memberships in selected organisations and treaties.
An international organization is an organization with an international membership, scope, or presence.
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Ivica Dačić (Ивица Дачић,; born 1 January 1966) is a Serbian politician who has been the Minister of Foreign Affairs since April 2014.
Jakob Gijsbert "Jaap" de Hoop Scheffer (born 3 April 1948) is a retired Dutch politician and diplomat of the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA).
Jaime José de Matos da Gama, GCC, GCIH, GCL (born 8 June 1947) is a Portuguese former politician.
Ján Kubiš (born 12 November 1952) is the Special Representative and Head of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Iraq (UNAMI).
Jiří Dienstbier (20 April 1937, in Kladno – 8 January 2011, in Prague) was a Czech politician and journalist.
Jozef Moravčík (born 19 March 1945) is a Slovak diplomat and political figure.
Julie Finley was the United States Ambassador to the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).
Kanat Bekmyrzayevich Saudabayev (Kazakh language: Қанат Бекмырзаұлы Саудабаев, Qanat Bekmırzaulı Sawdabayev) is a Kazakhstani politician who was born next to Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan in 1946.
Karel Lodewijk Georgette Emmerence De Gucht (born 27 January 1954) is a Belgian politician who was the European Commissioner for Trade from February 2010 until 31 October 2014.
Karin Kneissl (born 18 January 1965) is an Austrian diplomat and journalist serving as Minister of Foreign Affairs since 18 December 2017.
Kazakh (natively italic, qazaq tili) belongs to the Kipchak branch of the Turkic languages.
The tenge (Ten’ge; тенге) is the currency of Kazakhstan.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
Knut Vollebæk (born 11 February 1946 in Oslo) is a former Norwegian diplomat to the United States, (2001-2007, and centrist politician (Norwegian Christian Democratic Party). He is currently a member of the International Commission on Missing Persons Board of Commissioners and heads a government commission investigating the situation of Norwegian Travellers.
Kofi Atta Annan (born 8 April 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1997 to December 2006.
Kommersant (Коммерса́нтъ,, The Businessman, often shortened to Ъ) is a nationally distributed daily newspaper published in Russia mostly devoted to politics and business.
Kyrgyz (natively кыргызча, قىرعىزچه, kyrgyzcha or кыргыз тили, قىرعىز تيلى, kyrgyz tili) is a Turkic language spoken by about four million people in Kyrgyzstan as well as China, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Uzbekistan, Pakistan and Russia.
The som (Kyrgyz: сом) is the currency of the Kyrgyz Republic.
Lamberto Zannier (born 15 June 1954) is an Italian diplomat who is currently OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities and earlier served as the Secretary General of the OSCE (Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe).
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latvian (latviešu valoda) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
The law of Texas is derived from the Constitution of Texas and consists of several levels, including constitutional, statutory, and regulatory law, as well as case law and local laws and regulations.
László Kovács (born 3 July 1939) is a Hungarian politician and diplomat, former European Commissioner for Taxation and Customs Union.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
Leonid Oleksandrovich Kozhara (Леонід Олександрович Кожара) (born 14 January 1963) is a former Minister of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine.
Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
Ljubljana (locally also; also known by other, historical names) is the capital and largest city of Slovenia.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Luhansk (Luhans'k) or Lugansk (Луганск), formerly known as Voroshilovgrad (1935–1958 and 1970–1990) is a city near the eastern border of Ukraine and western Russia.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg, Luxembourg, Luxemburg), also known as Luxembourg City (Stad Lëtzebuerg or d'Stad, Ville de Luxembourg, Stadt Luxemburg, Luxemburg-Stadt), is the capital city of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (also named "Luxembourg"), and the country's most populous commune.
Luxembourgish, Luxemburgish or Letzeburgesch (Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuergesch) is a West Germanic language that is spoken mainly in Luxembourg.
The denar (денар; paucal: denari / денари) is the currency of the Republic of Macedonia.
Macedonian (македонски, tr. makedonski) is a South Slavic language spoken as a first language by around two million people, principally in the Republic of Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia.
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.
Main Intelligence Directorate (p), abbreviated GRU (p), is the foreign military intelligence agency of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (formerly the Soviet Army General Staff of the Soviet Union).
Maltese (Malti) is the national language of Malta and a co-official language of the country alongside English, while also serving as an official language of the European Union, the only Semitic language so distinguished.
Marc Perrin de Brichambaut (born 29 October 1948) is a French career judge and diplomat.
Märta Margaretha af Ugglas (née Stenbeck; born 5 January 1939) is a Swedish former Moderate Party politician.
Maria Grazia Giammarinaro (born 23 June 1953) is an Italian judge and policy-maker.
Mariupol (Маріу́поль, also Mariiupil; Мариу́поль; Marioupoli) is a city of regional significance in south eastern Ukraine, situated on the north coast of the Sea of Azov at the mouth of the Kalmius river, in the Pryazovia region.
Maximilianus "Max" van der Stoel (3 August 1924 – 23 April 2011) was a Dutch politician and former Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands.
The Mediterranean States are the two countries of Cyprus and Malta.
Miguel Ángel Moratinos Cuyaubé (born 8 June 1951 in Madrid) is a Spanish diplomat and politician, a member of the Socialist Workers' Party and member of Congress, where he represents Córdoba.
A minority group refers to a category of people differentiated from the social majority, those who hold on to major positions of social power in a society.
Minsk (Мінск,; Минск) is the capital and largest city of Belarus, situated on the Svislach and the Nyamiha Rivers.
Representatives of Ukraine, the Russian Federation, the Donetsk People's Republic (DPR), and the Luhansk People's Republic (LPR) signed the Minsk Protocol, an agreement to halt the war in the Donbass region of Ukraine, on 5 September 2014.
Dan Mircea Geoană (born 14 July 1958 in Bucharest) is a Romanian politician, who served as president of the upper chamber of the Romanian Parliament, the Senate from 20 December 2008 until he was revoked on 23 November 2011.
Miroslav Lajčák (born 20 March 1963) is a Slovak politician, diplomat and the Minister of Foreign Affairs.
The leu (ISO 4217 code MDL) is the currency of Moldova.
The Mongolian language (in Mongolian script: Moŋɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: монгол хэл, mongol khel.) is the official language of Mongolia and both the most widely-spoken and best-known member of the Mongolic language family.
The tögrög or tugrik (ᠲᠥᠭᠥᠷᠢᠭ, төгрөг, tögrög; sign: ₮; code: MNT) is the official currency of Mongolia.
Montenegrin (црногорски / crnogorski) is the variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used as the official language of Montenegro.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
The Munich Security Conference (MSC; Münchner Sicherheitskonferenz) is an annual conference on international security policy that has taken place in Munich, Bavaria since 1963.
Nagorno-Karabakh, meaning "Mountainous Karabakh," also known as Artsakh, is a landlocked region in the South Caucasus, within the mountainous range of Karabakh, lying between Lower Karabakh and Zangezur, and covering the southeastern range of the Lesser Caucasus mountains.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Nicosia (Λευκωσία; Lefkoşa) is the largest city on the island of Cyprus.
Niels Lolk Helveg Petersen (informally Niels Helveg; 17 January 1939 – 3 June 2017) was a Danish politician.
Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.
Northern America is the northernmost region of North America.
The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is north of the Equator.
The krone (sign: kr; code: NOK), plural kroner, is the currency of Norway and its dependent territories.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
Oceania is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia.
The Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) is the principal institution of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) dealing with the "human dimension" of security.
The Orange Revolution (Помаранчева революція, Pomarancheva revolyutsiya) was a series of protests and political events that took place in Ukraine from late November 2004 to January 2005, in the immediate aftermath of the run-off vote of the 2004 Ukrainian presidential election, which was claimed to be marred by massive corruption, voter intimidation and direct electoral fraud.
1 These countries are currently not participating in the EU's single market (EEA), but the EU has common external Customs Union agreements with Turkey (EU-Turkey Customs Union in force since 1995), Andorra (since 1991) and San Marino (since 2002).
The OSCE Minsk Group was created in 1992 by the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE, now Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)) to encourage a peaceful, negotiated resolution to the conflict between Azerbaijan and Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh.
The OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media functions as a watchdog on media developments in all 57 participating member states of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).
Oslo (rarely) is the capital and most populous city of Norway.
Ottawa is the capital city of Canada.
The Paasikivi-Kekkonen doctrine refers to a foreign policy doctrine established by Finnish President Juho Kusti Paasikivi and continued by his successor Urho Kekkonen, aimed at Finland's survival as an independent sovereign, democratic, and capitalist country in the immediate proximity of the Soviet Union.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
The Charter of Paris for a New Europe (also known as the Paris Charter) was adopted by a summit meeting of most European governments in addition to those of Canada, the United States and the Soviet Union, in Paris from 19–21 November 1990.
The Parliamentary Assembly of the OSCE (OSCE PA) is an institution of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.
Podgorica (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Подгорица,, lit. " below Gorica ") is the capital and largest city of Montenegro.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
The złoty (pronounced; sign: zł; code: PLN), which is the masculine form of the Polish adjective 'golden', is the currency of Poland.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
The President of the Republic of Finland (Suomen tasavallan presidentti, Republiken Finlands president) is the head of state of Finland.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
Press TV (stylised as PRESSTV) is a 24-hour English- and French-language news and documentary network affiliated with Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB).
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (born 26 February 1954) is a Turkish politician serving as President of Turkey since 2014.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Reykjavík is the capital and largest city of Iceland.
Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
The Romanian leu (plural lei; ISO 4217 code RON; numeric code 946) is the currency of Romania.
Romansh (also spelled Romansch, Rumantsch, or Romanche; Romansh:, rumàntsch, or) is a Romance language spoken predominantly in the southeastern Swiss canton of Grisons (Graubünden), where it has official status alongside German and Italian.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
The rule of law is the "authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes".
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Russian ruble or rouble (рубль rublʹ, plural: рубли́ rubli; sign: ₽, руб; code: RUB) is the currency of the Russian Federation, the two partially recognized republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia and the two unrecognized republics of Donetsk and Luhansk.
Sarajevo (see names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a population of 275,524 in its current administrative limits.
Sebastian Kurz (born 27 August 1986) is an Austrian politician serving as the 25th and current Chancellor of Austria since 18 December 2017, as well as Chairman of the Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) since 15 May 2017.
The title secretary of state or state secretary is commonly used for senior or mid-level posts in governments around the world.
The Secretary-General of the United Nations (UNSG or just SG) is the head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the six principal organs of the United Nations.
Serbia and Montenegro (Srbija i Crna Gora, Србија и Црна Гора; SCG, СЦГ), officially the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro (Državna Zajednica Srbija i Crna Gora, Државна Заједница Србија и Црна Гора), was a country in Southeast Europe, created from the two remaining federal republics of Yugoslavia after its breakup in 1992.
The dinar (динар,; paucal: dinara / динара) is the currency of Serbia.
Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.
Sexual slavery and sexual exploitation is attaching the right of ownership over one or more persons with the intent of coercing or otherwise forcing them to engage in one or more sexual activities.
A silence procedure or tacit acceptance procedure (French: procédure d'approbation tacite; Latin: qui tacet consentire videtur, "he who is silent is taken to agree", "silence implies/means consent") is a way of formally adopting texts, often, but not exclusively in international political context.
The Sinti (also Sinta or Sinte; masc. sing. Sinto; fem. sing. Sintesa) are a Romani people of Central Europe.
Skopje (Скопје) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Macedonia.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.
Sofia (Со́фия, tr.) is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria.
Solomon Isaac Passy (Соломон Исак Паси) (born December 22, 1956) is a Bulgarian scientist, politician, and innovator, founder and President of the Atlantic Club of Bulgaria (since 1990), Foreign Minister in the Government of Simeon Sakskoburggotski (2001-2005), Chairman-in-Office of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) in 2004.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
The krona (plural: kronor; sign: kr; code: SEK) has been the currency of Sweden since 1873.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
The franc (sign: Fr. or SFr.; Franken, French and Romansh: franc, franco; code: CHF) is the currency and legal tender of Switzerland and Liechtenstein; it is also legal tender in the Italian exclave Campione d'Italia.
Tajik or Tajiki (Tajik: забо́ни тоҷикӣ́, zaboni tojikī), also called Tajiki Persian (Tajik: форси́и тоҷикӣ́, forsii tojikī), is the variety of Persian spoken in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
The somoni (cомонӣ, ISO 4217 code: TJS) is the currency of Tajikistan.
Tallinn (or,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia.
Tashkent (Toshkent, Тошкент, تاشكېنت,; Ташкент) is the capital and largest city of Uzbekistan, as well as the most populated city in Central Asia with a population in 2012 of 2,309,300.
Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.
The Hague (Den Haag,, short for 's-Gravenhage) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.
Thomas Greminger (born 22 April 1961) is a Swiss diplomat.
The division of human rights into three generations was initially proposed in 1979 by the Czech jurist Karel Vasak at the International Institute of Human Rights in Strasbourg.
Tirana (—; Tiranë; Tirona) is the capital and most populous city of Albania.
Toleration is the acceptance of an action, object, or person which one dislikes or disagrees with, where one is in a position to disallow it but chooses not to.
A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.
The original Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) was negotiated and concluded during the last years of the Cold War and established comprehensive limits on key categories of conventional military equipment in Europe (from the Atlantic to the Urals) and mandated the destruction of excess weaponry.
The Treaty on Open Skies entered into force on January 1, 2002, and currently has 34 party states.
A constitutional referendum was held throughout Turkey on 16 April 2017 on whether to approve 18 proposed amendments to the Turkish constitution that were brought forward by the governing Justice and Development Party (AKP) and the Nationalist Movement Party (MHP).
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
The Turkish lira (Türk lirası; sign: ₺; code: TRY; usually abbreviated as TL) is the currency of Turkey and the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.
In January 2018, the Turkish military launched a military operation, code-named Operation Olive Branch (Zeytin Dalı Harekâtı) by Turkey, in the SDF-controlled Afrin District and the Tell Rifaat Subdistrict.
Turkmen (Türkmençe, türkmen dili; Түркменче, түркмен дили; تۆرکمن دﻴﻠی,تۆرکمنچه) is an official language of Turkmenistan.
The manat is the currency of Turkmenistan.
Twitter is an online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets".
A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The hryvnia, sometimes hryvnya (гривня,, abbr.: грн (hrn in the Latin alphabet)); sign: ₴, code: UAH), has been the national currency of Ukraine since 2 September 1996. The hryvnia is subdivided into 100 kopiyky. It is named after a measure of weight used in medieval Kievan Rus'.
Ulaanbaatar, formerly anglicised as Ulan Bator (Улаанбаатар,, Ulaγanbaγatur, literally "Red Hero"), is the capital and largest city of Mongolia. The city is not part of any aimag (province), and its population was over 1.3 million, almost half of the country's total population. Located in north central Mongolia, the municipality lies at an elevation of about in a valley on the Tuul River. It is the country's cultural, industrial and financial heart, the centre of Mongolia's road network and connected by rail to both the Trans-Siberian Railway in Russia and the Chinese railway system. The city was founded in 1639 as a nomadic Buddhist monastic centre. In 1778, it settled permanently at its present location, the junction of the Tuul and Selbe rivers. Before that, it changed location twenty-eight times, with each location being chosen ceremonially. In the twentieth century, Ulaanbaatar grew into a major manufacturing center. Ulaanbaatar is a member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21. The city's official website lists Moscow, Hohhot, Seoul, Sapporo and Denver as sister cities.
Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will with the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), compulsion, or other forms of extreme hardship to themselves or members of their families.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC) is a 2000 United Nations-sponsored multilateral treaty against transnational organized crime.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
In addition to its UNnum member states, the United Nations General Assembly may grant observer status to an international organization, entity or non-member state, which entitles the entity to participate in the work of the United Nations General Assembly, though with limitations.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.
The United States presidential election of 2008 was the 56th quadrennial presidential election.
The Secretary of State is a senior official of the federal government of the United States of America, and as head of the U.S. Department of State, is principally concerned with foreign policy and is considered to be the U.S. government's equivalent of a Minister for Foreign Affairs.
Urho Kaleva Kekkonen (3 September 1900 – 31 August 1986) was a Finnish politician who served as the eighth and longest-serving President of Finland (1956–82).
Uzbek is a Turkic language that is the sole official language of Uzbekistan.
The soʻm (soʻm in Latin script, сўм in Cyrillic script) is the currency of Uzbekistan in Central Asia.
Vaduz is the capital of Liechtenstein and also the seat of the national parliament.
Valletta is the capital city of Malta, colloquially known as "Il-Belt" (lit. "The City") in Maltese.
Vatican City (Città del Vaticano; Civitas Vaticana), officially the Vatican City State or the State of Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano; Status Civitatis Vaticanae), is an independent state located within the city of Rome.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
The Vienna Document is an agreement between the participating states of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe which was intended to implement confidence and security building measures.
Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko (Віктор Андрійович Ющенко,; born February 23, 1954) is a Ukrainian politician who was the third President of Ukraine from January 23, 2005 to February 25, 2010.
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.
The War in Donbass is an armed conflict in the Donbass region of Ukraine.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
The Western European Union (WEU) was the international organisation and military alliance that succeeded the Western Union (WU) after the 1954 amendment of the 1948 Treaty of Brussels.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
Wolfgang Schüssel (born 7 June 1945) is an Austrian People's Party politician.
Yerevan (Երևան, sometimes spelled Erevan) is the capital and largest city of Armenia as well as one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of Croatia.
Conference for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Conference for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe, Conference on Security and Cooeperation in Europe, Conference on Security and Coöperation in Europe, Flag of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Forum for Security Co-operation, Helsinki Protocol, O.S.C.E., OBSE, OCSE, OSCE, OSCE Troika, Observers for the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Observers for the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Organization For Security And Co-operation In Europe, Organization for Cooperation and Security in Europe, Organization for Security & Co-operation in Europe, Organization for Security And Cooperation in Europe, Organization for Security and Co-Operation in Europe, Organization for Security and Cooeperation in Europe, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Organization for Security and Coöperation in Europe, Organization of Security and Co-operation in Europe, Organization of Security and Cooperation In Europe, Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe, United States Ambassador to the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.